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John Rawls
As faculty memberHarvard Cornell MITAs fellowChrist Church, OxfordMain interestsPolitical philosophy Justice Politics Social contract
Social contract
theoryNotable ideas Justice
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Baltimore, Maryland
Baltimore
Baltimore
(/ˈbɔːltɪmɔːr/, locally [ˈbɔɫmɔɻ]) is the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States. Baltimore
Baltimore
was established by the Constitution of Maryland[9] and is an independent city that is not part of any county. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore
Baltimore
is the largest independent city in the United States
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Princeton University
Princeton University
Princeton University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Princeton, New Jersey
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Paul Krugman
Keynesian economics New Keynesian
New Keynesian
macroeconomicsAlma mater Massachusetts Institute of Technology Yale UniversityDoctoral advisor Rüdiger DornbuschInfluences Avinash Dixit Rudi Dornbusch John Maynard Keynes Paul Samuelson Joseph StiglitzContributions International trade
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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Cornell University
Cornell University
University
(/kɔːrˈnɛl/ kor-NEL) is a private and statutory Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell
and Andrew Dickson White,[7] the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."[1] The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy
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Massachusetts Institute Of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics and management as well
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(/ruːˈsoʊ/;[1] French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century, mainly active in France. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education
Education
is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship
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Carlos Santiago Nino
Carlos Santiago Nino (1943–1993) was an Argentine moral, legal and political philosopher. Biography[edit] Nino studied law at the University of Buenos Aires and at Oxford, where he received his Ph.D. in 1977 with a thesis directed by John Finnis and Tony Honoré. Nino began his academic activity in the early 1970s, concentrating on some traditional issues in jurisprudence, such as the concept of a legal system, the interpretation of the law, the debate between legal positivism and natural law, and the concept of validity.[1] After realizing the need to clarify the normative problems involved in some of those issues, he was led to embrace a model based on the explicit adoption of principles of justice and social morality, rejecting the predominant German-inspired "dogmatic" approach.[2] This signaled the beginning of his philosophical investigations, which were always oriented to practical issues, and marked by a distinctively analytical approach
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20th-century Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
20th-century philosophy
saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools— including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism. In terms of the eras of philosophy, it is usually labelled as contemporary philosophy (succeeding modern philosophy, which runs roughly from the time of Descartes until the twentieth-century). As with other academic disciplines, philosophy increasingly became professionalized in the twentieth century, and a split emerged between philosophers who considered themselves part of either the "analytic" or "continental" traditions
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Telishment
Telishment is a term coined by John Rawls to illustrate a problem of the utilitarian view of punishment. Telishment is an act by the authorities of punishing a suspect in order to deter future wrongdoers, even though they know that the suspect is innocent. If supporters of these theories believe in the effectiveness of telishment as a deterrent, opponents claim that they must bite the bullet and also hold that telishment is ethically justified. See also[edit]The Ones Who Walk Away from OmelasSources[edit]Audi, Robert, ed. (1995). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press
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Kwame Anthony Appiah
Kwame Akroma-Ampim Kusi Anthony Appiah (/ˈæpɪɑː/ AP-ee-ah; born May 8, 1954) is a British-born Ghanaian-American[1] philosopher, cultural theorist, and novelist whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history. Appiah was the Laurance S
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Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
(/ˈjɜːrɡən, ˈjʊərɡən ˈhɑːbərmɑːs/;[2] German: [ˈjʏrɡn̩ ˈhaːbɐmaːs];[3] born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his theories on communicative rationality and the public sphere. In 2014, Prospect readers chose Habermas as one of their favourites among the "world's leading thinkers".[4] Associated with the Frankfurt School, Habermas's work focuses on the foundations of social theory and epistemology, the analysis of advanced capitalism and democracy, the rule of law in a critical social-evolutionary context, and contemporary politics, particularly German politics. Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests
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Richard Rorty
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher. Educated at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
and Yale University, he had strong interests and training in both the history of philosophy and contemporary analytic philosophy, the latter of which came to comprise the main focus of his work at Princeton University in the 1960s.[1] He subsequently came to reject the tradition of philosophy according to which knowledge involves correct representation (a "mirror of nature") of a world whose existence remains wholly independent of that representation. Rorty had a long and diverse academic career, including positions as Stuart Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, Kenan Professor of Humanities at the University of Virginia, and Professor of Comparative Literature at Stanford University
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History Of Liberalism
Liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with such thinkers as John Locke
John Locke
and Montesquieu. It is a political movement which spans the better part of the last four centuries, though the use of the word "liberalism" to refer to a specific political doctrine did not occur until the 19th century. The Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 in England
England
laid the foundations for the development of the modern liberal state by constitutionally limiting the power of the monarch, affirming parliamentary supremacy, passing the Bill of Rights and establishing the principle of "consent of the governed"
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