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Italian Constitutional Referendum, 1946
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian)[1][2][3] was held in Italy
Italy
on 2 June 1946,[4] a key event of Italian contemporary history. Until 1946, Italy
Italy
was a kingdom ruled by the House of Savoy, kings of Italy
Italy
since the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
and previously rulers of Savoy. However, Benito Mussolini, enjoying the support of the reigning monarch, imposed fascism after the 28 October 1922 March on Rome, eventually engaging Italy
Italy
in World War II
World War II
alongside Nazi Germany. In 1946, Italy
Italy
became a republic after the results of a popular referendum. Monarchists had suspicions of fraud, but were never able to prove these
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Philosopher King
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life. Such are the rulers of his utopian city Kallipolis
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Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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First French Empire
French Revolutionary Wars •  Constitution adopted 18 May 1804 •  Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 2 December 1804 •  Treaty of Tilsit 7 July 1807 •  Invasion of Russia 24 June 1812 •  Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April 1814 •  Hundred Days 20 March – 7 July 1815Area •  1812 [4] 860,000 km2 (330,000 sq mi)Population •  1812 est. 44,000,000 Currency French francPreceded by Succeeded byFrench First Republic
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Liberal Wars
Liberal victory, Concession of Evoramonte:Constitutional monarchy is restored. Dom Miguel renounces all his claims to the throne and goes into exile.Belligerents Liberals Supported by: United Kingdom Brazil France
France
(from 1830) Belgian volunteers (from 1832)[1] Spain
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
(明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.[2] The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath
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Unification Of Germany
The unification of Germany
Germany
into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors
Hall of Mirrors
at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
in France. Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm I of Prussia
Prussia
as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War
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5 October 1910 Revolution
Republican victoryAbolition of the monarchy and proclamation of the republic. King Manuel II is exiled and flees to Britain.Belligerents Kingdom of Portugal Portuguese republicansCommanders and leaders King Manuel II Teixeira de Sousa Paiva Couceiro Teófilo Braga Afonso Costa Manuel de Arriaga José RelvasStrengthAbout 7,000 men About 2,000 revolutionaries 3 cruisersCasualties and lossesAt least 37 dead and dozens wounded, with at least 14 of them dying in the following days.The establishment of the Portuguese Republic was the result of a coup d'état organised by the Portuguese Republican Party which, on 5 October 1910, deposed the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal
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Proclamation Of The Republic (Brazil)
The Proclamation of the Republic (Portuguese: Proclamação da República do Brasil) was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic
First Brazilian Republic
on November 15, 1889
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Xinhai Revolution
Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of ChinaBelligerents Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlordsCommanders and leaders Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov
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Siamese Revolution Of 1932
The Siamese revolution of 1932
Siamese revolution of 1932
or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 (Thai: การปฏิวัติสยาม พ.ศ. 2475 or การเปลี่ยนแปลงการปกครองสยาม พ.ศ. 2475) was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, a coup d'état, was a nearly bloodless transition on 24 June 1932, which changed the system of government in Siam
Siam
from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The "revolution" was brought about by a comparatively small group of military and civilians, who formed Siam's first political party, the Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
(Peoples' Party). It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty
Chakri Dynasty
and almost 800 years of absolute rule of kings over Thai history
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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Spanish Transition To Democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
(Spanish: Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain
Spain
as the Transition (Spanish: La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Spanish: Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. However, historians disagree on the exact date the transition completed:[1] some say it ended after the 1977 general election; while others place it later, when the 1978 Constitution was approved. Others suggest it ended with the failure of the 1981 coup d'êtat attempt
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Modern Cambodia
After the fall of the Pol Pot
Pol Pot
regime of Democratic Kampuchea, Cambodia was under Vietnamese occupation and a pro- Hanoi
Hanoi
government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea
was established
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Aristocracy
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.[1] The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".[2] The term is synonymous with hereditary government, and hereditary succession is its primary philosophy, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit. At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual
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