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Irene Of Athens
Irene of Athens (Greek: Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; c. 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Greek: Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802
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Strategos
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (Greek: στρατηγός, pl. στρατηγοί; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general. In the Hellenistic world and the Byzantine Empire the term was also used to describe a military governor
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Theme (Byzantine Administrative Unit)
The themes or themata (Greek: θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire. They were established in the mid-7th century in the aftermath of the Slavic invasion of the Balkans and Muslim conquests of parts of Byzantine territory, and replaced the earlier provincial system established by Diocletian and Constantine the Great. In their origin, the first themes were created from the areas of encampment of the field armies of the East Roman army, and their names corresponded to the military units that had existed in those areas. The theme system reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries, as older themes were split up and the conquest of territory resulted in the creation of new ones
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Empress Consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor). A queen consort usually shares her husband's social rank and status. She holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the king's political and military powers
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Rotrude
Rotrude (or sometimes referred to as Hruodrud/Hruodhaid) (775/778 – 6 June 810) was a Frankish princess, the second daughter of Charlemagne from his marriage to Hildegard.

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Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most frequently for religious or political reasons. Over time, the word, usually in the adjectival form, has also come to refer to aggressive statements or actions against any well-established status quo. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes
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Greeks
Pontic Steppe

Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians (from Latin: patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic—but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders (494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the Western Empire fell, it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire
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Solidus (coin)
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; pl. solidi), nomisma (Greek: νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling (Latin: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant"
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)
Byzantine Constantinople-en.png
Map of Constantinople

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Carolingian Dynasty
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian" (Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German word *karling, kerling, meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHG kerlinc) derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus. The dynasty consolidated its power in the mid 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary, and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the Merovingian throne. In 751 the Merovingian dynasty, which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks
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Telerig
Telerig (Bulgarian: Телериг) was the ruler of Bulgaria between 768–777. Although Telerig is first mentioned in the Byzantine sources in 774, he is considered the immediate successor of Pagan, who was murdered in 768. In May 774, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Kopronymos embarked on a major expedition against Bulgaria, leading his field army on land, and dispatching a fleet of two thousand ships carrying horsemen towards the Danube delta. The fleet disembarked in the vicinity of Varna, but the emperor did not press his potential advantage and inexplicably retreated. Shortly afterwards the two sides signed a truce promising the cessation of hostilities. However, in October 774 Telerig sent an army of twelve thousand men to raid Berzitia, Macedonia and to transfer its population to Bulgaria. Collecting a large army of eighty thousand troops, Constantine V surprised the Bulgarians and won a resounding victory
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Caesar (title)
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".

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Papacy
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. The office of the pope is the papacy
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