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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Bard
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.[1] Originally a specific, lower class of poet, contrasting with the higher rank known as fili in Ireland and Highland Scotland, with the decline of living bardic tradition in the modern period the term "bard" acquired generic meanings of an author or minstrel, especially a famous one
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Byzantine
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Iconography
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών ("image") and γράφειν ("to write"). A secondary meaning (based on a non-standard translation of the Greek and Russian equivalent terms) is the production of religious images, called "icons", in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition; see Icon. In art history, "an iconography" may also mean a particular depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing and gestures. The term is also used in many academic fields other than art history, for example semiotics and media studies, and in general usage, for the content of images, the typical depiction in images of a subject, and related senses
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Thebaid (Greek Poem)
The Thebaid
Thebaid
or Thebais (Greek: Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.Contents1 Pharaonic history 2 Roman province(s) 3 Episcopal sees 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources and external linksPharaonic history[edit]Pyramidion of Nebamun. Possibly top of a stela. Limestone. 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. Bought in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Thebais) but probably it came from Deir el-Medina. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, LondonThe Thebaid
Thebaid
acquired its name from its proximity to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes (Luxor)
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Literary Language
A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing of the language. This may also include liturgical writing. A literary variety of a language often gives rise to a standard variety of the language. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia. In Latin, Classical Latin
Latin
was the literary register used in writing from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, while Vulgar Latin
Latin
was the common, spoken variety used across the Roman Empire
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Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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William-Adolphe Bouguereau
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
(French pronunciation: ​[wijam.adɔlf buɡ(ə)ʁo]; 30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Demodocus (Odyssey Character)
In the Odyssey
Odyssey
by Homer, Demodocus (/dɪˈmɒdəkəs/; Greek: Δημόδoκος, Demodokos) is a poet who often visits the court of Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians
Phaeacians
on the island of Scherie. During Odysseus' stay on Scherie, Demodocus performs three narrative songs. Demodocus first appears at a feast in the hall of Alcinous, after he approved that Odysseus
Odysseus
should be provided with a ship for a safe passage home. During the feast Demodocus sings about the disagreement between Odysseus
Odysseus
and Achilles
Achilles
at Troy. Everyone enjoys the singing except for Odysseus
Odysseus
who bursts into tears because of the pain and suffering of which the song reminds him
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Virgil
Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC[1]), usually called Virgil
Virgil
or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒɪl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin
Latin
literature: the Eclogues
Eclogues
(or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him.[2][3] Virgil
Virgil
is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid
Aeneid
has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome
Rome
since the time of its composition
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Scholia
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from Ancient Greek: σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses. One who writes scholia is a scholiast. The earliest attested use of the word dates to the 1st century BC.[1]Contents1 History 2 Important sets of scholia 3 List of ancient commentaries 4 Other uses 5 References5.1 Bibliography6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient scholia are important sources of information about many aspects of the ancient world, especially ancient literary history. The earliest scholia, usually anonymous, date to the 5th or 4th century BC (such as the "a" scholia on the Iliad)
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Western Culture
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, or Christian
Christian
civilization,[2] is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term also applies beyond Europe
Europe
to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe
Europe
by immigration, colonization, or influence
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Hellenistic Period
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Chios
Chios
Chios
(/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/; Greek: Χίος, translit. Híos; Ancient Greek: Χίος, translit. Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the Chios
Chios
Strait. Chios
Chios
is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios
Chios
regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region
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John Tzetzes
John Tzetzes
John Tzetzes
(Greek: Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs) (c
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