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The Odyssey
The Odyssey
(/ˈɒdəsi/;[1] Greek: Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced [o.dýs.sej.ja] in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other Homeric epic. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
is fundamental to the modern Western canon; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad
Iliad
is the oldest. Scholars believe the Odyssey
Odyssey
was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.[2] The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus
Odysseus
(known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus
Odysseus
ten years to reach Ithaca
Ithaca
after the ten-year Trojan War.[3] In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope
Penelope
and son Telemachus
Telemachus
must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστῆρες) or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more likely intended to be heard than read.[2] The details of the ancient oral performance and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter.[4][5] Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, and the influence on events of choices made by women and slaves, besides the actions of fighting men. In the English language
English language
as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was not written by Homer. It was usually attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source,[which?] the Telegony was said to have been stolen from Musaeus of Athens by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene (see Cyclic poets).

Contents

1 Synopsis

1.1 Exposition 1.2 Escape to the Phaeacians 1.3 Odysseus' account of his adventures 1.4 Return to Ithaca 1.5 Slaying of the Suitors

2 Character of Odysseus 3 Structure 4 Geography of the Odyssey 5 Influences on the Odyssey 6 Themes

6.1 Homecoming 6.2 Wandering 6.3 Guest-friendship 6.4 Testing 6.5 Omens

7 Scenes

7.1 Finding scenes 7.2 Guest-friendship 7.3 Testing 7.4 Omens

8 Textual history 9 Cultural impact

9.1 Film and television adaptations

10 English translations 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Synopsis Exposition A mosaic depicting Odysseus, from the villa of La Olmeda, Pedrosa de la Vega, Spain, late 4th-5th centuries AD The Odyssey
The Odyssey
begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War
Trojan War
(the subject of the Iliad), and Odysseus
Odysseus
has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon. Odysseus' son Telemachus is about 20 years old and is sharing his absent father's house on the island of Ithaca
Ithaca
with his mother Penelope
Penelope
and a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, "the Suitors", whose aim is to persuade Penelope to marry one of them, all the while reveling in Odysseus' palace and eating up his wealth. Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to finally allow Odysseus
Odysseus
to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia. Then, disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus
Telemachus
to urge him to search for news of his father. He offers her hospitality; they observe the suitors dining rowdily while the bard Phemius performs a narrative poem for them. Penelope
Penelope
objects to Phemius' theme, the "Return from Troy",[6] because it reminds her of her missing husband, but Telemachus
Telemachus
rebuts her objections, asserting his role as head of the household. That night Athena, disguised as Telemachus, finds a ship and crew for the true prince. The next morning, Telemachus
Telemachus
calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca
Ithaca
to discuss what should be done with the suitors. Telemachus
Telemachus
is scoffed by the insolent suitors, particularly by their leaders Antinous, Eurymachus, and Leiocritus. Accompanied by Athena (now disguised as Mentor), he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, who resided in Pylos
Pylos
after the war. From there, Telemachus
Telemachus
rides overland, accompanied by Nestor's son Peisistratus, to Sparta, where he finds Menelaus
Menelaus
and Helen, who are now reconciled. While Helen laments the fit of lust brought on by Aphrodite
Aphrodite
that sent her to Troy
Troy
with Paris, Menelaus
Menelaus
recounts how she betrayed the Greeks by attempting to imitate the voices of the soldiers' wives while they were inside the Trojan Horse. Telemachus also hears from Helen, who is the first to recognize him, that she pities him because Odysseus
Odysseus
was not there for him in his childhood because he went to Troy
Troy
to fight for her and also about his exploit of stealing the Palladium, or the Luck of Troy, where she was the only one to recognize him. Menelaus, meanwhile, also praises Odysseus
Odysseus
as an irreproachable comrade and friend, lamenting the fact that they were not only unable to return together from Troy
Troy
but that Odysseus
Odysseus
is yet to return. Both Helen and Menelaus
Menelaus
also say that they returned to Sparta
Sparta
after a long voyage by way of Egypt. There, on the island of Pharos, Menelaus encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that Odysseus
Odysseus
was a captive of the nymph Calypso. Incidentally, Telemachus
Telemachus
learns the fate of Menelaus' brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae
Mycenae
and leader of the Greeks at Troy: he was murdered on his return home by his wife Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
and her lover Aegisthus. The story briefly shifts to the suitors, who have only just now realized that Telemachus
Telemachus
is gone. Angry, they formulate a plan to ambush his ship and kill him as he sails back home. Penelope
Penelope
overhears their plot and worries for her son's safety.

Escape to the Phaeacians Charles Gleyre, Odysseus
Odysseus
and Nausicaä The second part recounts the story of Odysseus. In the course of his seven years in captivity of Calypso on the island of Ogygia, she has fallen deeply in love with him, even though he has consistently spurned her offer of immortality as her husband and still mourns for home. She is ordered to release him by the messenger god Hermes, who has been sent by Zeus
Zeus
in response to Athena's plea. Odysseus
Odysseus
builds a raft and is given clothing, food, and drink by Calypso. When Poseidon learns that Odysseus
Odysseus
has escaped, he wrecks the raft but, helped by a veil given by the sea nymph Ino, Odysseus
Odysseus
swims ashore on Scherie, the island of the Phaeacians. Naked and exhausted, he hides in a pile of leaves and falls asleep. The next morning, awakened by the laughter of girls, he sees the young Nausicaä, who has gone to the seashore with her maids to wash clothes after Athena
Athena
told her in a dream to do so. He appeals to her for help. She encourages him to seek the hospitality of her parents, Arete and Alcinous
Alcinous
(or Alkinous). Odysseus
Odysseus
is welcomed and is not at first asked for his name, but Alcinous
Alcinous
promises to provide him a ship to return him to his home country. He remains for several days, and is goaded into taking part in a discus throw by the taunts of Euryalus, impressing the Phaeacians
Phaeacians
with his incredible athletic ability. Afterwards, he hears the blind singer Demodocus perform two narrative poems. The first is an otherwise obscure incident of the Trojan War, the "Quarrel of Odysseus
Odysseus
and Achilles"; the second is the amusing tale of a love affair between two Olympian gods, Ares
Ares
and Aphrodite. Finally, Odysseus
Odysseus
asks Demodocus to return to the Trojan War
Trojan War
theme and tell of the Trojan Horse, a stratagem in which Odysseus
Odysseus
had played a leading role. Unable to hide his emotion as he relives this episode, Odysseus
Odysseus
at last reveals his identity. He then begins to tell the story of his return from Troy.

Odysseus' account of his adventures Odysseus
Odysseus
Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813–15 Odysseus
Odysseus
goes back in time and recounts his story to the Phaeacians. After a failed piratical raid on Ismaros in the land of the Cicones, Odysseus
Odysseus
and his twelve ships were driven off course by storms. Odysseus
Odysseus
visited the lethargic Lotus-Eaters
Lotus-Eaters
who gave his men their fruit that would have caused them to forget their homecoming had Odysseus
Odysseus
not dragged them back to the ship by force. Afterwards, Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men landed on a lush, uninhabited island near the land of the Cyclopes. The men then landed on shore and entered the cave of Polyphemus, where they found all the cheeses and meat they desired. Upon returning home, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
sealed the entrance with a massive boulder and proceeded to eat Odysseus' men. Odysseus devised an escape plan in which he, identifying himself as "Nobody", plied Polyphemus
Polyphemus
with wine and blinded him with a wooden stake. When Polyphemus
Polyphemus
cried out, his neighbors left after Polyphemus
Polyphemus
claimed that "Nobody" had attacked him. Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men finally left the cave by hiding on the underbellies of the sheep as they were let out of the cave. While they were escaping, however, Odysseus
Odysseus
foolishly taunted Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and revealed his true identity. Recalling that had been prophesied by appeals to his father Poseidon. Poseidon
Poseidon
then cursed Odysseus
Odysseus
to wander the sea for ten years, during which he would lose all his crew and return home through the aid of others. After the escape, Odysseus
Odysseus
and his crew stayed with Aeolus, a king endowed by the gods with the winds. He gave Odysseus
Odysseus
a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home. Just as Ithaca
Ithaca
came into sight, the greedy sailors naively opened the bag while Odysseus
Odysseus
slept, thinking it contained gold. All of the winds flew out and the resulting storm drove the ships back the way they had come. Aeolus, recognizing that Odysseus has drawn the ire of the gods, refused to further assist him. The men then re-embarked and encountered the cannibalistic Laestrygonians. All of Odysseus' ships except his own entered the harbor of the Laestrygonians' Island and were immediately destroyed. He sailed on and reached the island of Aeaea where he visited the witch-goddess Circe, daughter of the sun-god Helios. She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them drugged cheese and wine. Hermes
Hermes
warned Odysseus
Odysseus
about Circe
Circe
and gave Odysseus
Odysseus
an herb called moly which gave him resistance to Circe's magic. Odysseus
Odysseus
forced the now-powerless Circe
Circe
to change his men back to their human form, and was subsequently seduced by her. They remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally, guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus
Odysseus
and his crew crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus
Odysseus
sacrificed to the dead. He first encountered the spirit of Elpenor, a crewman who had gotten drunk and fallen from a roof to his death on Aeaea. Elpenor's ghost told Odysseus
Odysseus
to bury his body, which Odysseus
Odysseus
promised to do. Odysseus
Odysseus
then summoned the spirit of the prophet Tiresias
Tiresias
for advice on how to appease Poseidon
Poseidon
upon his return home, and was told that he may return home if he is able to stay himself and his crew from eating the sacred livestock of Helios on the island of Thrinacia and that failure to do so would result in the loss of his ship and his entire crew. Next Odysseus
Odysseus
met the spirit of his own mother, Anticlea, who had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he got his first news of his own household, threatened by the greed of the Suitors. Finally, he met the spirits of famous men and women. Notably, he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he now learned, and Achilles, who lamented the woes of the land of the dead but was comforted in hearing of the success of his son Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
(for Odysseus' encounter with the dead, see also Nekuia).

Odysseus
Odysseus
and the Sirens, eponymous vase of the Siren Painter, c. 480-470 BC (British Museum) Returning to Aeaea, they buried Elpenor and were advised by Circe
Circe
on the remaining stages of the journey. They skirted the land of the Sirens, who sang an enchanting song that normally caused passing sailors to steer toward the rocks, only to hit them and sink. All of the sailors had their ears plugged up with beeswax, except for Odysseus, who was tied to the mast as he wanted to hear the song. He told his sailors not to untie him as it would only make him want to drown himself. They then passed between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, narrowly avoiding death, even though Scylla
Scylla
snatched up six men. Next, they landed on the island of Thrinacia, with the crew overriding Odysseus's wishes to remain away from the island. Zeus
Zeus
caused a storm which prevented them leaving, causing them to deplete the food given to them by Circe. While Odysseus
Odysseus
was away praying, his men ignored the warnings of Tiresias
Tiresias
and Circe
Circe
and hunted the sacred cattle of Helios. The Sun God insisted that Zeus
Zeus
punish the men for this sacrilege. They suffered a shipwreck as they were driven towards Charybdis. All but Odysseus
Odysseus
were drowned. Odysseus
Odysseus
clung to a fig tree above Charybdis. Washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, he was compelled to remain there as Calypso's lover, bored, homesick and trapped on her small island, until she was ordered by Zeus, via Hermes, to release Odysseus. Odysseus
Odysseus
did not realise how long it would take to get home to his family.

Return to Ithaca Athena
Athena
Revealing Ithaca
Ithaca
to Ulysses by Giuseppe Bottani
Giuseppe Bottani
(18th century) Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the Phaeacians
Phaeacians
agree to provide Odysseus
Odysseus
with more treasure than he would have received from the spoils of Troy. They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbour on Ithaca. Poseidon, offended that the Phaeacians
Phaeacians
have returned Odysseus
Odysseus
home, destroys the Phaeacian ship on its return voyage, and the city sacrifices to Poseidon
Poseidon
and agrees to stop giving escorts to strangers to appease him. Odysseus
Odysseus
awakens and believes that he has been dropped on a distant land before Athena appears to him and reveals that he is indeed on Ithaca. She then hides his treasure in a nearby cave and disguises him as an elderly beggar so he can see how things stand in his household. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus, who treats him hospitably and speaks favorably of Odysseus. After dinner, the disguised Odysseus
Odysseus
tells the farm laborers a fictitious tale of himself: he was born in Crete, had led a party of Cretans to fight alongside other Greeks in the Trojan War, and had then spent seven years at the court of the king of Egypt, finally shipwrecking in Thesprotia
Thesprotia
and crossing from there to Ithaca. He further promises the men of the return of Odysseus, but his promises are wearily discounted by the men. Meanwhile, Telemachus
Telemachus
sails home from Sparta, evading an ambush set by the Suitors. He disembarks on the coast of Ithaca
Ithaca
and makes for Eumaeus's hut. Father and son meet; Odysseus
Odysseus
identifies himself to Telemachus
Telemachus
(but still not to Eumaeus), and they decide that the Suitors must be killed. Telemachus
Telemachus
goes home first. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus
Odysseus
returns to his own house, still pretending to be a beggar. When Odysseus' dog (who was a puppy before he left) saw him, he becomes so excited that he dies.[7] He is ridiculed by the Suitors in his own home, especially by one extremely impertinent man named Antinous. Odysseus
Odysseus
meets Penelope
Penelope
and tests her intentions by saying he once met Odysseus
Odysseus
in Crete. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently been in Thesprotia
Thesprotia
and had learned something there of Odysseus's recent wanderings. Odysseus's identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia, when she recognizes an old scar as she is washing his feet. Eurycleia
Eurycleia
tries to tell Penelope
Penelope
about the beggar's true identity, but Athena
Athena
makes sure that Penelope
Penelope
cannot hear her. Odysseus
Odysseus
then swears Eurycleia
Eurycleia
to secrecy.

Slaying of the Suitors Ulysse et Télémaque Massacrent les Prétendants de Pénélope by Thomas Degeorge
Thomas Degeorge
(1812) The next day, at Athena's prompting, Penelope
Penelope
maneuvers the Suitors into competing for her hand with an archery competition using Odysseus' bow. The man who can string the bow and shoot it through a dozen axe heads would win. Odysseus
Odysseus
takes part in the competition himself: he alone is strong enough to string the bow and shoot it through the dozen axe heads, making him the winner. He then throws off his rags and kills Antinous with his next arrow. Then, with the help of Athena, Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and Philoetius the cowherd he kills the other Suitors, first using the rest of the arrows and then by swords and spears once both sides armed themselves. Once the battle is won, Odysseus
Odysseus
and Telemachus
Telemachus
also hang twelve of their household maids whom Eurycleia
Eurycleia
identifies as guilty of betraying Penelope
Penelope
or having sex with the Suitors. They mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius, who had mocked and abused Odysseus
Odysseus
and brought weapons and armor to the suitors. Now, at last, Odysseus
Odysseus
identifies himself to Penelope. She is hesitant but recognizes him when he mentions that he made their bed from an olive tree still rooted to the ground. Many modern and ancient scholars take this to be the original ending of the Odyssey, and the rest to be an interpolation. The next day he and Telemachus
Telemachus
visit the country farm of his old father Laertes, who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes had previously given him. The citizens of Ithaca
Ithaca
have followed Odysseus
Odysseus
on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons. Their leader points out that Odysseus
Odysseus
has now caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca: his sailors, not one of whom survived; and the Suitors, whom he has now executed (albeit rightly). Athena
Athena
intervenes in a dea ex machina and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta. After this, Ithaca
Ithaca
is at peace once more, concluding the Odyssey.

Character of Odysseus Main article: Odysseus A Roman mosaic depicting a maritime scene with Odysseus
Odysseus
(Latin: Ulysses) and the Sirens, from Carthage, 2nd century AD, now in the Bardo Museum, Tunisia Odysseus' name means "trouble" in Greek, referring to both the giving and receiving of trouble—as is often the case in his wanderings. An early example of this is the boar hunt that gave Odysseus
Odysseus
the scar by which Eurycleia
Eurycleia
recognizes him; Odysseus
Odysseus
is injured by the boar and responds by killing it. Odysseus' heroic trait is his mētis, or "cunning intelligence". He is often described as the "Peer of Zeus
Zeus
in Counsel". This intelligence is most often manifested by his use of disguise and deceptive speech. His disguises take forms both physical (altering his appearance) and verbal, such as telling the Cyclops Polyphemus
Polyphemus
that his name is Οὖτις, "Nobody", then escaping after blinding Polyphemus. When asked by other Cyclopes why he is screaming, Polyphemus
Polyphemus
replies that "Nobody" is hurting him, so the others assume that "If alone as you are [Polyphemus] none uses violence on you, why, there is no avoiding the sickness sent by great Zeus; so you had better pray to your father, the lord Poseidon".[8] The most evident flaw that Odysseus
Odysseus
sports is that of his arrogance and his pride, or hubris. As he sails away from the island of the Cyclopes, he shouts his name and boasts that nobody can defeat the "Great Odysseus". The Cyclops
Cyclops
then throws the top half of a mountain at him and prays to his father, Poseidon, saying that Odysseus
Odysseus
has blinded him. This enrages Poseidon, causing the god to thwart Odysseus' homecoming for a very long time.

Structure The Odyssey
The Odyssey
is written in dactylic hexameter. It opens in medias res, in the middle of the overall story, with prior events described through flashbacks or storytelling. This device is also used by later authors of literary epics, such as Virgil
Virgil
in the Aeneid, Luís de Camões in Os Lusíadas[9] and Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
in The Rape of the Lock. The first four books of the poem trace Telemachus' efforts to assert control of the household, and then, at Athena's advice, his efforts to search for news of his long-lost father. Then the scene shifts: Odysseus
Odysseus
has been a captive of the beautiful nymph Calypso, with whom he has spent seven of his ten lost years. Released by the intercession of his patroness Athena, through the aid of Hermes, he departs, but his raft is destroyed by his divine enemy Poseidon, who is angry because Odysseus
Odysseus
blinded his son, Polyphemus. When Odysseus
Odysseus
washes up on Scherie, home to the Phaeacians, he is assisted by the young Nausicaä
Nausicaä
and is treated hospitably. In return, he satisfies the Phaeacians' curiosity, telling them, and the reader, of all his adventures since departing from Troy. The shipbuilding Phaeacians
Phaeacians
then loan him a ship to return to Ithaca, where he is aided by the swineherd Eumaeus, meets Telemachus, regains his household by killing the Suitors, and is reunited with his faithful wife, Penelope. All ancient and nearly all modern editions and translations of the Odyssey
Odyssey
are divided into 24 books. This division is convenient, but it may not be original. Many scholars[who?] believe it was developed by Alexandrian editors of the 3rd century BC. In the Classical period, moreover, several of the books (individually and in groups) were given their own titles: the first four books, focusing on Telemachus, are commonly known as the Telemachy. Odysseus' narrative, Book 9, featuring his encounter with the cyclops Polyphemus, is traditionally called the Cyclopeia. Book 11, the section describing his meeting with the spirits of the dead is known as the Nekuia. Books 9 through 12, wherein Odysseus
Odysseus
recalls his adventures for his Phaeacian hosts, are collectively referred to as the Apologoi: Odysseus' "stories". Book 22, wherein Odysseus
Odysseus
kills all the Suitors, has been given the title Mnesterophonia: "slaughter of the Suitors". This concludes the Greek Epic Cycle, though fragments remain of the "alternative ending" of sorts known as the Telegony. Telegony aside, the last 548 lines of the Odyssey, corresponding to Book 24, are believed by many scholars to have been added by a slightly later poet.[10] Several passages in earlier books seem to be setting up the events of Book 24, so if it were indeed a later addition, the offending editor would seem to have changed earlier text as well. For more about varying views on the origin, authorship and unity of the poem see Homeric scholarship.

Geography of the Odyssey Main articles: Homer's Ithaca
Ithaca
and Geography of the Odyssey The events in the main sequence of the Odyssey
Odyssey
(excluding Odysseus' embedded narrative of his wanderings) take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands.[11] There are difficulties in the apparently simple identification of Ithaca, the homeland of Odysseus, which may or may not be the same island that is now called Ithakē (Ιθάκη). The wanderings of Odysseus
Odysseus
as told to the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians' own island of Scheria, pose more fundamental problems, if geography is to be applied: scholars, both ancient and modern, are divided as to whether or not any of the places visited by Odysseus
Odysseus
(after Ismaros and before his return to Ithaca) are real.[12]

Influences on the Odyssey Terracotta plaque of the Mesopotamian ogre Humbaba, believed to be a possible inspiration for the figure of Polyphemus Scholars have seen strong influences from Near Eastern mythology and literature in the Odyssey. Martin West has noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
and the Odyssey.[13] Both Odysseus
Odysseus
and Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
are known for traveling to the ends of the earth, and on their journeys go to the land of the dead. On his voyage to the underworld, Odysseus
Odysseus
follows instructions given to him by Circe. Her island, Aeaea, is located at the edges of the world and seems to have close associations with the sun. Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
gets directions on how to reach the land of the dead from a divine helper: in this case, the goddess Siduri, who, like Circe, dwells by the sea at the ends of the earth. Her home is also associated with the sun: Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
reaches Siduri's house by passing through a tunnel underneath Mt. Mashu, the high mountain from which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the similarity of Odysseus' and Gilgamesh's journeys to the edges of the earth are the result of the influence of the Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
epic upon the Odyssey. In 1914, paleontologist Othenio Abel
Othenio Abel
surmised the origins of the cyclops to be the result of ancient Greeks finding an elephant skull. The enormous nasal passage in the middle of the forehead could have looked like the eye socket of a giant, to those who had never seen a living elephant.[14] Classical scholars, on the other hand, have long realized that the story of the cyclops was originally a Greek folk tale, which existed independently of the Odyssey
Odyssey
and which only became embedded in it at a later date. Similar stories are found in cultures across Europe and the Middle East.[15] According to this explanation, the cyclops was originally simply a giant or ogre, much like Humbaba
Humbaba
in the Epic of Gilgamesh.[15] The detail about it having one eye was simply invented in order to explain how the creature was so easily blinded.[16]

Themes Homecoming Odissea (1794) An important factor to consider about Odysseus' homecoming is the hint at potential endings to the epic by using other characters as parallels for his journey.[17] For instance, one example is that of Agamemnon's homecoming versus Odysseus' homecoming. Upon Agamemnon's return, his wife Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
and her lover, Aegisthus kill Agamemnon. Agamemnon's son, Orestes, out of vengeance for his father's death, kills Aegisthus. This parallel compares the death of the suitors to the death of Aegisthus
Aegisthus
and sets Orestes
Orestes
up as an example for Telemachus.[17] Also, because Odysseus
Odysseus
knows about Clytemnestra's betrayal, Odysseus
Odysseus
returns home in disguise in order to test the loyalty of his own wife, Penelope.[17] Later, Agamemnon
Agamemnon
praises Penelope
Penelope
for not killing Odysseus. It is because of Penelope
Penelope
that Odysseus
Odysseus
has fame and a successful homecoming. This successful homecoming is unlike Achilles, who has fame but is dead, and Agamemnon, who had an unsuccessful homecoming resulting in his death.[17]

Wandering Only two of Odysseus's adventures are described by the poet. The rest of Odysseus' adventures are recounted by Odysseus
Odysseus
himself. The two scenes that the poet describes are Odysseus
Odysseus
on Calypso's island and Odysseus' encounter with the Phaeacians. These scenes are told by the poet to represent an important transition in Odysseus' journey: being concealed to returning home.[18] Calypso's name means "concealer" or "one who conceals," and that is exactly what she does with Odysseus.[19] Calypso keeps Odysseus
Odysseus
concealed from the world and unable to return home. After leaving Calypso's island, the poet describes Odysseus' encounters with the Phaeacians—those who "convoy without hurt to all men"[20]—which represents his transition from not returning home to returning home.[18] Also, during Odysseus' journey, he encounters many beings that are close to the gods. These encounters are useful in understanding that Odysseus
Odysseus
is in a world beyond man and that influences the fact he cannot return home.[18] These beings that are close to the gods include the Phaeacians
Phaeacians
who lived near Cyclopes,[21] whose king, Alcinous, is the great-grandson of the king of the giants, Eurymedon, and the grandson of Poseidon.[18] Some of the other characters that Odysseus
Odysseus
encounters are Polyphemus
Polyphemus
who is the cyclops son of Poseidon, God of Oceans, Circe
Circe
who is the sorceress daughter of the Sun that turns men into animals, Calypso who is a goddess, and the Laestrygonians
Laestrygonians
who are cannibalistic giants.[18]

Guest-friendship Throughout the course of the epic, Odysseus
Odysseus
encounters several examples of xenia ("guest-friendship"), which provide models of how hosts should and should not act.[22] The Phaeacians demonstrate exemplary guest-friendship by feeding Odysseus, giving him a place to sleep, and granting him a safe voyage home, which are all things a good host should do. Polyphemus
Polyphemus
demonstrates poor guest-friendship. His only "gift" to Odysseus
Odysseus
is that he will eat him last.[22] Calypso also exemplifies poor guest-friendship because she does not allow Odysseus
Odysseus
to leave her island.[22] Another important factor to guest-friendship is that kingship implies generosity. It is assumed that a king has the means to be a generous host and is more generous with his own property.[22] This is best seen when Odysseus, disguised as a beggar, begs Antinous, one of the suitors, for food and Antinous denies his request. Odysseus essentially says that while Antinous may look like a king, he is far from a king since he is not generous.[23]

Testing Penelope
Penelope
questions Odysseus
Odysseus
to prove his identity. Another theme throughout the Odyssey
Odyssey
is testing.[24] This occurs in two distinct ways. Odysseus
Odysseus
tests the loyalty of others and others test Odysseus' identity. An example of Odysseus
Odysseus
testing the loyalties of others is when he returns home.[24] Instead of immediately revealing his identity, he arrives disguised as a beggar and then proceeds to determine who in his house has remained loyal to him and who has helped the suitors. After Odysseus
Odysseus
reveals his true identity, the characters test Odysseus' identity to see if he really is who he says he is.[24] For instance, Penelope
Penelope
tests Odysseus' identity by saying that she will move the bed into the other room for him. This is a difficult task since it is made out of a living tree that would require being cut down, a fact that only the real Odysseus
Odysseus
would know, thus proving his identity. For more information on the progression of testing type scenes, read more below.[24]

Omens Omens occur frequently throughout the Odyssey, as well as in many other epics. Within the Odyssey, omens frequently involve birds.[25] It is important to note who receives the omens and what these omens mean to the characters and to the epic as a whole. For instance, bird omens are shown to Telemachus, Penelope, Odysseus, and the suitors.[25] Telemachus
Telemachus
and Penelope
Penelope
receive their omens as well in the form of words, sneezes, and dreams.[25] However, Odysseus
Odysseus
is the only character who receives thunder or lightning as an omen.[26][27] This is important to note because the thunder came from Zeus, the king of the gods. This direct relationship between Zeus
Zeus
and Odysseus
Odysseus
represents the kingship of Odysseus.[25]

Scenes Further information: Type scene Odysseus
Odysseus
and Eurycleia
Eurycleia
by Christian Gottlob Heyne Finding scenes Finding scenes occur in the Odyssey
Odyssey
when a character discovers another character within the epic. Finding scenes proceed as followed:[18]

The character encounters or finds another character. The encountered character is identified and described. The character approaches and then converses with the found character. These finding scenes can be identified several times throughout the epic including when Telemachus
Telemachus
and Pisistratus find Menelaus
Menelaus
when Calypso finds Odysseus
Odysseus
on the beach, and when the suitor Amphimedon finds Agamemnon
Agamemnon
in Hades.[18][28]

Guest-friendship Guest-friendship is also a theme in the Odyssey, but it too follows a very specific pattern. This pattern is:

The arrival and the reception of the guest. Bathing or providing fresh clothes to the guest. Providing food and drink to the guest. Questions may be asked of the guest and entertainment should be provided by the host. The guest should be given a place to sleep and both the guest and host retire for the night. The guest and host exchange gifts, the guest is granted a safe journey home and departs. Another important factor of guest-friendship is not keeping the guest longer than they wish and also promising their safety while they are a guest within the host's home.[22][28]

Testing While testing is a theme with the epic, it also has a very specific type scene that accompanies it as well. Throughout the epic, the testing of others follows a typical pattern. This pattern is:

Odysseus
Odysseus
is hesitant to question the loyalties of others. Odysseus
Odysseus
tests the loyalties of others by questioning them. The characters reply to Odysseus' questions. Odysseus
Odysseus
proceeds to reveal his identity. The characters test Odysseus' identity. There is a rise of emotions associated with Odysseus' recognition, usually lament or joy. Finally, the reconciled characters work together.[24][28] Omens Omens are another example of a type scene in the Odyssey. Two important parts of an omen type scene are the recognition of the omen and then the interpretation.[25] In the Odyssey
Odyssey
specifically, there are several omens involving birds. All of the bird omens—with the exception of the first one in the epic—show large birds attacking smaller birds.[25][28] Accompanying each omen is a wish which can be either explicitly stated or only implied.[25] For example, Telemachus
Telemachus
wishes for vengeance[29] and for Odysseus
Odysseus
to be home,[30] Penelope
Penelope
wishes for Odysseus' return,[31] and the suitors wish for the death of Telemachus.[32] The omens seen in the Odyssey are also a recurring theme throughout the epic.[25][28]

Textual history In the late 19th century many papyrus containing parts or even entire chapters have been found in Egypt, with content different from later medieval versions.[33] In 2018, the Greek Cultural Ministry revealed the discovery of a clay tablet near the Temple of Zeus, containing 13 verses from the Odyssey’s 14th Rhapsody to Eumaeus. While it was initially reported to date from the 3rd century AD, the date still needs to be confirmed.[34][35]

Cultural impact The Cyclops
Cyclops
Polyphemus
Polyphemus
by Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
(between 1595 and 1605), showing a scene shared between the Odyssey
Odyssey
and Euripides's Cyclops (1922) The Odyssey
The Odyssey
is regarded as one of the most important foundational works of western literature.[36] It is widely regarded by western literary critics as a timeless classic.[37] Straightforward retellings of the Odyssey
Odyssey
have flourished ever since the Middle Ages. Merugud Uilix maicc Leirtis ("On the Wandering of Ulysses, son of Laertes") is an eccentric Old Irish version of the material; the work exists in a 12th-century AD manuscript, which linguists believe is based on an 8th-century original.[38][39] Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, first performed in 1640, is an opera by Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
based on the second half of Homer's Odyssey.[40] The first canto of Ezra Pound's The Cantos
The Cantos
(1917) is both a translation and a retelling of Odysseus' journey to the underworld.[41] The poem "Ulysses" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson is narrated by an aged Ulysses who is determined to continue to live life to the fullest. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
(1997), a made-for-TV movie directed by Andrei Konchalovsky, is a slightly abbreviated version of the epic. Other authors have composed more creative reworkings of the poem, often updated to address contemporary themes and concerns. Cyclops
Cyclops
by Euripides, the only fully extant satyr play,[42] retells the episode involving Polyphemus
Polyphemus
with a humorous twist.[43] A True Story, written by Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata in the 2nd century AD, is a satire on the Odyssey
Odyssey
and on ancient travel tales, describing a journey sailing westward, beyond the Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules
and to the Moon, the first known text that could be called science fiction.[44]

Front cover of James Joyce's Ulysses James Joyce's modernist novel Ulysses (1922) is a retelling of the Odyssey
Odyssey
set in modern-day Dublin. Each chapter in the book has an assigned theme, technique, and correspondences between its characters and those of Homer's Odyssey.[45] Homer's Daughter
Homer's Daughter
by Robert Graves is a novel imagining how the version we have might have been invented out of older tales. The Japanese-French anime Ulysses 31 (1981) updates the ancient setting into a 31st-century space opera. Omeros
Omeros
(1991), an epic poem by Derek Walcott, is in part a retelling of the Odyssey, set on the Caribbean
Caribbean
island of St. Lucia. The film Ulysses' Gaze
Ulysses' Gaze
(1995) directed by Theo Angelopoulos has many of the elements of the Odyssey
Odyssey
set against the backdrop of the most recent and previous Balkan Wars.[45] Daniel Wallace's Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions (1998) adapts the epic to the American South, while also incorporating tall tales into its first-person narrative much as Odysseus
Odysseus
does in the Apologoi (Books 9-12). The Coen Brothers' 2000 film O Brother, Where Art Thou? is loosely based on Homer's poem. Margaret Atwood's 2005 novella The Penelopiad is an ironic rewriting of the Odyssey
Odyssey
from Penelope's perspective. Zachary Mason's The Lost Books of the Odyssey
The Lost Books of the Odyssey
(2007) is a series of short stories that rework Homer's original plot in a contemporary style reminiscent of Italo Calvino. The Heroes of Olympus (2010–2014) by Rick Riordan
Rick Riordan
is based entirely on Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and includes many aspects and characters from the Odyssey.[46] Meanwhile, Nick Cave & the Bad Seeds use the Odyssey
Odyssey
to form the "narrative" of the song "More News from Nowhere," released in 2008 as a single and on the album Dig, Lazarus, Dig!!!. In the song, Cave uses a variety of contemporary names to represent the gods and nymphs who populate the Odyssey, and sketches key episodes from the epic across an eight minute track. Authors have sought to imagine new endings for the Odyssey. In canto XXVI of the Inferno, Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
meets Odysseus
Odysseus
in the eighth circle of hell, where Odysseus
Odysseus
himself appends a new ending to the Odyssey
Odyssey
in which he never returns to Ithaca
Ithaca
and instead continues his restless adventuring.[47][48]. Alfred, Lord Tennyson in turn expands on this variation in his poem, "Ulysses," published in 1842. Nikos Kazantzakis
Nikos Kazantzakis
aspires to continue the poem and explore more modern concerns in his epic poem The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, which was first published in 1938 in modern Greek.[49] In 2018, BBC
BBC
Culture polled experts around the world to nominate the stories they felt had shaped mindsets or influenced history. Odyssey topped the list.[50][51]

Film and television adaptations Ulysses is a 1954 film adaptation which stars Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
as Ulysses, with Silvana Mangano
Silvana Mangano
as Penelope
Penelope
and Circe, and Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
playing Antinous. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
is a 1997 television miniseries starring Armand Assante
Armand Assante
as Odysseus
Odysseus
and Greta Scacchi
Greta Scacchi
as Penelope. English translations Further information: English translations of Homer This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Odyssey.

George Chapman, 1616 (couplets) Thomas Hobbes, 1675 Alexander Pope, 1725–1726 (iambic pentameter couplets); Project Gutenberg edition; Gutenberg.org William Cowper, 1791 (blank verse) An audio CD recording abridged by Perry Keenlyside and read by Anton Lesser is available (.mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 9626345314), 1995. Samuel Henry Butcher and Andrew Lang, 1879 (prose); Project Gutenberg edition William Cullen Bryant, 1871 (blank verse) Mordaunt Roger Barnard, 1876 (blank verse) William Morris, 1887 Samuel Butler, 1898 (prose); Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
edition or Perseus Project Od.1.1 Padraic Colum, 1918 (prose), Bartleby.com A. T. Murray (revised by George E. Dimock), 1919; Loeb Classical Library (ISBN 0-674-99561-9). Available online here. George Herbert Palmer, 1921, prose. An audio CD recording read by Norman Deitz is available (ISBN 1-4025-2325-4), 1989. T. E. Shaw (T. E. Lawrence), 1932 ISBN 1 85326 025 8 W. H. D. Rouse, 1937, prose E. V. Rieu, 1945, prose (later revised in 1991 by D.C.H. Rieu
D.C.H. Rieu
for increased literal accuracy) Ennis Rees, 1960, Random House. Robert Fitzgerald, 1963, unrhymed poetry with varied-length lines (ISBN 0-679-72813-9) An audio CD recording read by John Lee is available (ISBN 1-4159-3605-6) 2006 Richmond Lattimore, 1965, poetry (ISBN 0-06-093195-7) Albert Cook, 1967 (Norton Critical Edition), poetry, very accurate line by line version[citation needed] Walter Shewring, 1980 (ISBN 0-19-283375-8), Oxford University Press (Oxford World's Classics), prose Allen Mandelbaum, 1990 Verse Translation[52] Robert Fagles, poetry, 1996 (ISBN 0-14-026886-3); an unabridged audio recording by Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
is also available (ISBN 0-14-086430-X). Stanley Lombardo, Hackett Publishing Company, 2000 (ISBN 0-87220-484-7). An audio CD recording read by the translator is also available (ISBN 1-930972-06-7). Martin Hammond, 2000, prose Rodney Merrill, University of Michigan Press, 2002 (ISBN 978-0-472-11231-9); Merrill's translation not only renders the work in English verse like the dactylic hexameter of the original, but also conveys the oral-formulaic nature of the epic song, to which that musical meter gives full value. Edward McCrorie, 2004, ISBN 0-8018-8267-2 Barry B. Powell, 2014, ISBN 978-0199360314 Emily Wilson, 2017, ISBN 978-0393089059, iambic pentameter, the first complete translation into English by a woman[53] See also

Hellenismos portal Odyssean gods Parallels between Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey References

^ "Odyssey". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

^ a b D.C.H. Rieu's introduction to The Odyssey
The Odyssey
(Penguin, 2003), p. xi.

^ The dog Argos dies autik' idont' Odusea eeikosto eniauto ("seeing Odysseus
Odysseus
again in the twentieth year"), Odyssey
Odyssey
17.327; cf. also 2.174-6, 23.102, 23.170.

^ Homer
Homer
(1996). The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles. Introduction by Bernard Knox. United States of America: Penguin Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-14-026886-7.

^ Fox, Robin Lane (2006). The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer
Homer
to Hadrian. United States of America: Basic Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-465-02496-4.

^ This theme once existed in the form of another epic, Nostoi, of which only fragments remain.

^ Homer. The Odyssey. p. Scroll 17 Line 8–8. Retrieved 16 January 2015.

^ From the Odyssey
Odyssey
of Homer
Homer
translated by Richmond Lattimore
Richmond Lattimore
[Book 9, page 147/8, lines 410 - 412].

^ "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.

^ Carne-Ross, D. S. (1998). "The Poem of Odysseus". The Odyssey, translated by Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. lxi. ISBN 978-0-374-52574-3.

^ Strabo 1.2.15, quoted by Moses I. Finley, The World of Odysseus, rev. ed. 1976:33.

^ Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008, ch. "Finding Neverland"; Lane summarizes the literature in notes and bibliography.

^ West, Martin. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. (Oxford 1997) 402-417.

^ Abel's surmise is noted by Adrienne Mayor, The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times (Princeton University Press) 2000.

^ a b Anderson, Graham (2000). Fairytale in the Ancient World. Routledge. pp. 127–131. ISBN 978-0-415-23702-4. Retrieved 22 June 2017.

^ Anderson, Graham (2000). Fairytale in the Ancient World. Routledge. pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-0-415-23702-4. Retrieved 22 June 2017.

^ a b c d Thornton, Agathe. "The Homecomings of the Achaeans." People and Themes in Homer's Odyssey. Dunedin: U of Otago in Association with Methuen, London, 1970. 1-15. Print.

^ a b c d e f g Thornton, Agathe. "The Wanderings of Odysseus." People and Themes in Homer's Odyssey. Dunedin: U of Otago in Association with Methuen, London, 1970. 16-37. Print.

^ Calypso and Odysseus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.greekmyths-greekmythology.com/calypso-odysseus-greek-myth/

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.566. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Translated by Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.)

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
6.4-5. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Translated by Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.)

^ a b c d e Thornton, Agathe. "Guest-Friendship". People and Themes in Homer's Odyssey. Dunedin: U of Otago in Association with Methuen, London, 1970. 38-46. Print.

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
17.415-44. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ a b c d e Thornton, Agathe. "Testing." People and Themes in Homer's Odyssey. Dunedin: U of Otago in Association with Methuen, London, 1970. 47-51. Print.

^ a b c d e f g h Thornton, Agathe. "Omens." People and Themes in Homer's Odyssey. Dunedin: U of Otago in Association with Methuen, London, 1970. 52-57. Print.

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
20.103-4. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
21.414. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ a b c d e Edwards, Mark W. " Homer
Homer
and the Oral Tradition." Oral Tradition 7.2 (1992): 284-330. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
2.143-5. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
15.155-9. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
19.136. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
20.240-243. ( The Odyssey
The Odyssey
of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. Print.)

^ "Oldest Greek Fragment of Homer
Homer
Discovered on Clay Tablet". Smithonian. 2018.

^ Tagaris, Karolina (July 10, 2018). Heavens, Andrew (ed.). "'Oldest known extract' of Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
discovered in Greece". Reuters.

^ " Homer
Homer
Odyssey: Oldest extract discovered on clay tablet". BBC. July 10, 2018.

^ Bahr, Arthur. "Foundation of Western Literature". MIT Open Courseware. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 27 June 2017.

^ Cartwright, Mark. "Odyssey". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 June 2017.

^ Merugud Uilix maicc Leirtis. Kuno Meyer (ed), First edition [v + 36 pp.; v–xii Introduction; 1–15 Critical edition of Text; 16–29 Translation; 30–36 Index Verborum.] David Nutt270 Strand, London (1886)

^ Merugud Uilix maicc Leirtis: the Irish Odyssey, ed. Kuno Meyer, London: 1886.

^ "Monteverdi's 'The Return of Ulysses'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-02-24.

^ Hesse, Eva (1969). New Approaches to Ezra Pound. University of California Press. p. 126.

^ Euripides. McHugh, Heather, trans. Cyclops; Greek Tragedy in New Translations. Oxford Univ. Press (2001) ISBN 9780198032656

^ Dougherty, Carol. “The Double Vision of Euripides' Cyclops: An Ethnographic Odyssey
Odyssey
on the Satyr
Satyr
Stage”. Comparative Drama. Vol. 33, No. 3 (Fall 1999), pp. 313-338

^ Swanson, Roy Arthur: .mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata, the Greco-Syrian satirist of the second century, appears today as an exemplar of the science-fiction artist. There is little, if any, need to argue that his mythopoeic Milesian Tales and his literary fantastic voyages and utopistic hyperbole comport with the genre of science fiction; ...

^ a b Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (2010). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 653. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.

^ "When was Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
written? – Homework Help – eNotes.com". eNotes. Retrieved 2015-10-01.

^ Inferno, Canto XXVI, lines 98-99.

^ Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (2010). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 652. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.

^ Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (2010). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 652–653. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.

^ 2018, 22 May. "The 100 stories that shaped the world". bbc.com.

^ Haynes, Natalie. "The greatest tale ever told?". bbc.com.

^ Homer's Odyssey. New York: Bantam. 1991. Trans. Mandelbaum, Allen. ISBN 978-0-553-21399-7.

^ Mason, Wyatt (2 November 2017). "The First Woman to Translate the 'Odyssey' Into English". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2017.

Library resources about Odyssey
Odyssey
Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading Austin, N. Archery at the Dark of the Moon: Poetic Problems in Homer’s Odyssey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975. Clayton, B. A Penelopean Poetics: Reweaving the Feminine in Homer's Odyssey. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004. Clayton, B. " Polyphemus
Polyphemus
and Odysseus
Odysseus
in the Nursery: Mother’s Milk in the Cyclopeia." Arethusa, vol. 44 no. 3 (2011): 255-277. Bakker, E. J. The Meaning of Meat and the Structure of the Odyssey. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Barnouw, J. Odysseus, Hero of Practical Intelligence. Deliberation and Signs in Homer's Odyssey. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2004. Dougherty, C. The Raft of Odysseus: The Ethnographic Imagination of Homer's Odyssey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Fenik, B. Studies in the Odyssey. Hermes
Hermes
Einzelschriften 30. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Steiner, 1974. Griffin, J. Homer: The Odyssey. Landmarks in World Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Louden, B. Homer’s Odyssey
Odyssey
and the Near East. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Louden, B. The Odyssey: Structure, Narration and Meaning. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. Minchin, E. "The Expression of Sarcasm in the "Odyssey"." Mnemosyne, Fourth Series, 63, no. 4 (2010): 533-56. Müller, W. G. "From Homer’s Odyssey
Odyssey
to Joyce’s Ulysses: Theory and Practice of an Ethical Narratology" Arcadia, 50.1 (2015): 9-36. Saïd, S. Homer
Homer
and the Odyssey
Odyssey
(originally published 1998). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Turkeltaub, D. “Penelope's ‘Stout Hand’ and Odyssean Humour.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 134 (2014): 103–119. West, E. “Circe, Calypso, Hiḍimbā.” The Journal of Indo-European Studies, 42.1 (2014): 144-174. External links

Look up odyssey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Odyssey

Greek Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ὀδύσσεια

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odyssey.

Wikiversity has learning resources about The Odyssey Library resources about Odyssey
Odyssey
Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Odyssey
Odyssey
on Perseus
Perseus
Project: Ancient Greek English translation by Samuel Butler, 1900 English translation by A.T. Murray, 1919 Homer's Odyssey: A Commentary by Denton Jaques Snider on Project Gutenberg BBC
BBC
audio file. In our time BBC
BBC
Radio 4 discussion programme. 45 minutes. The Meaning of Tradition in Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
in English The Odyssey
The Odyssey
Comix A detailed retelling and explanation of Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
in comic-strip format by Greek Myth Comix Núria Perpinyà
Núria Perpinyà
(2008). Las criptas de la crítica. Veinte lecturas de la Odisea. Madrid: Gredos. The Odyssey
The Odyssey
public domain audiobook at LibriVox Images of scenes from Homer's, the "Odyssey" The Odyssey
The Odyssey
- Annotated text and analyses aligned to Common Core Standards vteEpic Cycle Cypria Iliad Aethiopis Little Iliad Iliupersis Nostoi Odyssey Telegony

vteHomer's Odyssey
Odyssey
(8th century BC)CharactersHouse of Odysseus Penelope
Penelope
(wife) Telemachus
Telemachus
(son) Ctimene (sister) Anticlea (mother) Laërtes (father) Autolycus (grandfather) Eurycleia
Eurycleia
(chief servant) Mentor (advisor) Phemius (musician) Eumaeus
Eumaeus
(swineherd) Philoetius (cowherd) Melanthius (goatherd) Melantho (maid) Argos (pet-dog) Monarchs and royals Alcinous
Alcinous
of Phaeacia Arete of Phaeacia Nestor of Pylos Menelaus
Menelaus
of Sparta Helen Princess Nausicaa
Nausicaa
of Phaeacia Agamemnon
Agamemnon
of Mycenae Gods Aeolus (wind god) Athena Apollo Artemis Atlas Calypso Circe Hermes Poseidon Zeus Oceanus Old Man of the Sea Others Achilles Ajax Amphimedon Anticlus Antiphates Antiphus Aretus Cyclopes Demodocus Demoptolemus Deucalion Dolius Echephron Echetus Elpenor Eupeithes Euryalus Eurylochus Halitherses Heracles Idomeneus Irus Kikonians Laodamas Laestrygones Medon Mentes Peisistratus Perimedes Perseus Polites Polydamna Polyphemus Scylla
Scylla
and Charybdis Sirens Stratichus Tiresias Theoclymenus Thrasymedes Suitors Agelaus Amphinomus Antinous Ctesippus Eurymachus Leodes Odyssean gods Athena Poseidon Calypso Circe Ino Hermes Zeus Heracles Films L'Odissea
L'Odissea
(1911 Italian) Ulysses (1954 Italian) The Return of Ringo
The Return of Ringo
(1965) Ulysses' Gaze
Ulysses' Gaze
(1995 Greek) O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000) Keyhole (2012) TV L'Odissea
L'Odissea
(1968) Ulysses 31
Ulysses 31
(1981 Japanese anime) The Odyssey
The Odyssey
(1997) Odysseus
Odysseus
and the Isle of the Mists (2007) Star Trek: Odyssey
Odyssey
(2007) Literature A True Story
A True Story
(2nd century AD) Les Aventures de Télémaque
Les Aventures de Télémaque
(1699) The World's Desire (1890) Ulysses (1922) The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (1938) The Human Comedy (1943) Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions (1998) Trojan Odyssey (2003) The Penelopiad
The Penelopiad
(2005) The Lost Books of the Odyssey
The Lost Books of the Odyssey
(2010) Poems "Ulysses" (1842) The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (1938) The Cantos
The Cantos
(1962) Pagan Operetta (1998) Stage Current Nobody (play) Cyclops
Cyclops
(play) Ithaka (play) Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria
Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria
(opera) The Golden Apple (musical) Glam Slam Ulysses
Glam Slam Ulysses
(musical) Home Sweet Homer
Homer
(musical) Song "Tales of Brave Ulysses" (song) "The Odyssey" (song) The Odyssey
The Odyssey
(symphony) Study Homeric scholarship Homeric Question Chorizontes Geography of the Odyssey Historicity of the Homer
Homer
epics Odysseus
Odysseus
Unbound Homer's Ithaca Rediscovering Homer The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales "Odysseus' scar" Hermoniakos' Iliad Hysteron proteron Epithets in Homer Dactylic hexameter Translations "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer" On Translating Homer Video games Odyssey: The Search for Ulysses Wishbone and the Amazing Odyssey Phrases In medias res Between Scylla
Scylla
and Charybdis Related Telemachy Nekyia Trojan Horse Suitors of Penelope The Odyssey Old Man of the Sea The Apotheosis of Homer Contempt Cold Mountain (novel) Cold Mountain (film) Homer's Daughter Parallels between Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey

vteWorks related to Homer
Homer
in antiquityAttributed to Homer Batrachomyomachia Cercopes Cypria Epigrams (Kiln) Epigoni Homeric Hymns Iliad Little Iliad Margites Nostoi Odyssey Capture of Oechalia Phocais Thebaid About Homer Ancient accounts of Homer Contest of Homer
Homer
and Hesiod Life of Homer
Homer
(Pseudo-Herodotus)

vtePlaces visited by Odysseus
Odysseus
in Homer's Odyssey Ismarus The island of Lotus-eaters The island of Polyphemus Aeolia Telepylos Aeaea The Underworld The Sirens Scylla
Scylla
and Charybdis Thrinacia Ogygia Scheria Ithaca

Authority control BNF: cb120084354 (data) GND: 4193022-8 LCCN: n80008528 MusicBrainz work: 8bb6ec46-9455-46eb-a3fa-602e03b149c3 NKC: aun2006372309 SUDOC: 027271714 VIAF: 214278437 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

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