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Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski
Prince Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski
Lubomirski
(1648–1706) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), magnate, politician and outstanding military commander. He was a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
SRI. Son of Grand Marshal
Grand Marshal
and Hetman
Hetman
Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Lubomirski
and Konstancja Ligęza. He married Konstancja Bokum c. 1694. He was owner of Wiśnicz, Jarosław
Jarosław
and Rzeszów
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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Sejm
Government (239)     Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(238)      Independents (1)[a] Confidence and supply (8)     Free and Solidary
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Castellan
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.[1] The word stems from the Latin Castellanus,[2] derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes also known as a constable, governor of the castle district or captain, the Constable of the Tower
Constable of the Tower
of London is, in fact, a form of castellan. A castellan was almost always male, but could occasionally be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg
Bourbourg
upon the death of her brother, Roger.[3]Contents1 Initial power 2 Duties2.1 Castellans and Jews3 Regional differences3.1 France 3.2 Germany 3.3 Hungary 3.4 Jerusalem 3.5 Malta 3.6 Poland 3.7 Portugal4 Castellany 5 See also 6 ReferencesInitial power[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many tribes migrated into western Europe, causing strife and war
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Kraków
Kraków
Kraków
(Polish: [ˈkrakuf] ( listen)), also Cracow or Krakow (UK: /ˈkrækaʊ/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/),[2][3] is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula
Vistula
River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland
Poland
(Polish: Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century.[4] Kraków
Kraków
has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs. It was the capital of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
from 1038 to 1569; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596[5], the Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków
from 1815 to 1846; the Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow
from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1998
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Jan III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
(Polish: Jan III Sobieski; Lithuanian: Jonas III Sobieskis; Latin: Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sobieski's military skill, demonstrated in wars against the Ottoman Empire, contributed to his prowess as King of Poland
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Tatars
The Tatars
Tatars
(Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a Turkic people[4] living mainly in Russia
Russia
and other Post-Soviet countries. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic[4] languages. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Chocim
Khotyn
Khotyn
(Ukrainian: Хотин, Ukrainian pronunciation: [xɔˈtɪn]; Romanian: Hotin; see other names) is a city in Chernivtsi Oblast
Chernivtsi Oblast
of western Ukraine, and is the administrative center of Khotyn
Khotyn
Raion within the oblast, and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi. According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, it has a population of 11,124. Current population: 9,422 (2015 est.)[1] Khotyn, first chronicled in 1001,[2] is located on the right (southwestern) bank of the Dniester
Dniester
River, and is part of the historical region Bessarabia
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Lubomirski Rokosz
Lubomirski's rebellion or Lubomirski's rokosz (Polish: rokosz Lubomirskiego), was a rebellion against Polish King John II Casimir, initiated by the Polish nobleman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. In 1665-66, Lubomirski's supporters paralyzed the proceedings of the Sejm. Lubomirski himself, with the support of part of the army and the levée en masse (pospolite ruszenie), defeated royal forces, at the Battle of Matwy (1666). The rebellion ended with the Agreement of Łęgonice, which forced the King to give up his planned reforms and the introduction of vivente-rege royal elections. Lubomirski himself, now a broken man, died soon after.Contents1 Background 2 The rebellion 3 Sources 4 See alsoBackground[edit] The mid-17th century was one of the most tragic and difficult periods in the history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The country was devastated by several wars, such as the Khmelnytsky Uprising and the Swedish invasion of Poland
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Marshal Of The Sejm
Marshal of the Sejm
Sejm
also known as Sejm
Sejm
Marshal, Chairman
Chairman
of the Sejm or Speaker of the Sejm
Sejm
(Polish: Marszałek Sejmu, pronounced [marˈʂawɛk ˈsɛjmu]) is the speaker (chair) of the Sejm, the lower house of the Polish parliament. The office traces its origins to the 15th century. In modern Poland, the full title is Marshal of the Sejm
Sejm
of the Republic of Poland
Poland
(Marszałek Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej). Related historical offices[edit] The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
also had an office of Sejmik Marshal. In the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, from 1861, the chairman of the Provincial Sejm
Sejm
of Galicia with its seat at Lwów
Lwów
bore the title Marszałek krajowy (Province Marshal)
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Voivode
Voivode[1] (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/) (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans. The title voevodas (Greek: βοεβόδας) was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos
De Administrando Imperio to identify Hungarian military leaders.[2] In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Battle Of Vienna
Decisive Christian Coalition victory[1] Siege of Vienna
Siege of Vienna
lifted Ottomans suffer heavy losses and are severely weakened Coalition of Christians establishes Holy League under Pope Innocent XI to further push back the OttomansTerritorial changes Ottomans fail to take Vienna, Coalition (later the Holy League) forces invade territories in Hungary
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Royal Elections In Poland
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.[1] Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century.[1] Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government
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Warsaw Confederation (1704)
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.[1] Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defense, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the general government being required to provide support for all its members. Confederalism represents a main form of inter-governmentalism, this being defined as ‘any form of interaction between states which takes place on the basis of sovereign independence or government. The nature of the relationship among the member states constituting a confederation varies considerably. Likewise, the relationship between the member states and the general government, and the distribution of powers among them is highly variable. Some looser confederations are similar to international organisations
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