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Hetman
Hetman
is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders. It was the title of the second-highest military commander in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
from the 16th to 18th centuries. For much of the history of Romania
Romania
and the Principality of Moldavia, the Hetman
Hetman
(Romanian: hatman) was the second in rank in the army after the ruling prince (who held the position of Voivode). In Ukraine, a Hetman
Hetman
was also the highest military officer in Ukraine's Hetmanates, the Zaporizhian Host (1649–1764) and the Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
(1918). The title (гетьман) was used by Ukraine's Cossacks
Cossacks
from the 16th century, and by the Czechs
Czechs
(hejtman) in Bohemia
Bohemia
from the Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
(15th century) on. Hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region (kraj).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Hetman
Hetman
of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania 3 Hetmans of Zaporozhian Host 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] One theory derives the word from the Early Modern High German Heubtmann (modern German Hauptmann),[1] with Heubt meaning "head" and Mann—"man". Hauptmann was a common military title during medieval times, literally meaning "captain" but functionally corresponding rather to today's "general". Moreover, it has been suggested that the Czech language
Czech language
may have served as an intermediary.[2] Hetman
Hetman
of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania[edit] Main article: Hetmans of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania The first Polish title of Grand Crown Hetman
Hetman
dates from 1505. The title of Hetman
Hetman
was given to the leader of the Polish Army
Polish Army
and until 1581 the Hetman
Hetman
position existed only during specific campaigns and wars. After that, it became a permanent title, as were all the titles in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At any given time the Commonwealth had four Hetmans – a Great and Field (deputy) Hetman
Hetman
for each of both Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. From 1585 the title couldn't be taken away without a proven charge of treachery, thus most Hetmans served for life, as illustrated by the case of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz literally commanding the army from his deathbed (1621). Hetmans were not paid for their job by the Royal Treasury. Hetmans were the main commanders of the military forces, second only to the monarch in the army's chain of command. The fact that they could not be removed by the monarch made them very independent, and thus often able to pursue independent policies. This system worked well when a Hetman
Hetman
had great ability and the monarch was weak, but sometimes produced disastrous results in the opposite case. The contrast with states bordering the Commonwealth, where sovereigns could dismiss their army-commanders at any time, was immense. In 1648 the Zaporizhian Host (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
subject) elected a Hetman
Hetman
of their own (Bohdan Khmelnytsky) igniting the Ukrainian struggle for independence. The military reform of 1776 limited the powers of the Hetmans. The Hetman
Hetman
office was abolished after the third partition of Poland
Poland
in 1795.

Hetman
Hetman
Jan Amor Tarnowski. Painting by Bacciarelli

Hetman
Hetman
Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł

Hetman
Hetman
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
wearing a traditional costume of Polish magnates

Janusz Radziwiłł, one of the most powerful people in the Commonwealth at the time

Hetmans of Zaporozhian Host[edit]

Ukrainian Hetman
Hetman
Bohdan Zinoviy Khmelnytsky

Main article: Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks See also: Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Appointed Hetman At the end of the sixteenth century, the commanders of the Zaporizhian Cossacks
Cossacks
were called Koshovyi Otaman
Koshovyi Otaman
or Hetmans (for example: Christof Kosynsky — first Zaporizhian hetman). In 1572, the hetman was a commander of the Registered Cossack Army (Ukrainian: Реєстрове козацьке військо) of the Rzeczpospolita too. From 1648, the start of Bohdan Khmelnytsky's uprising, a hetman was the head of the whole Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
— Hetmanshchyna. Although they were elected, Ukrainian Hetmans had very broad powers and acted as heads of the Cossack state, their supreme military commanders, and top legislators (by issuing administrative decrees). After the split of Ukraine
Ukraine
along the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
by the 1667 Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, Ukrainian Cossacks
Cossacks
(and Cossack Hetmans) became known as Left-bank Cossacks
Cossacks
(of the Cossack Hetmanate) and Right-bank Cossacks. In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman
Hetman
was abolished by Catherine II of Russia
Russia
in 1764. The last Hetman
Hetman
of the Zaporozhian Army (the formal title of the Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine) was Kyrylo Rozumovsky, who reigned from 1751 until 1764. The title was revived in Ukraine
Ukraine
during the revolution of 1917 to 1920. In early 1918, a conservative German-supported coup overthrew the radical socialist Ukrainian Central Rada and its Ukrainian People's Republic, establishing a "Hetmanate" or monarchy headed by Pavlo Skoropadskyi, who claimed the title " Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine". This regime lasted until late 1918, when it was overthrown by a new "Directory" of the re-established Ukrainian People's Republic. See also[edit]

Ataman Bulawa Hatman Hetman's sign

References[edit]

^ Oxford English Dictionary ^ Słownik Języka Polskiego PWN

External links[edit]

Look up hetman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Media related to Hetmans at Wikimedia Commons  "Hetman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. 

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