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HPPD Inhibitor
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
(HPPD) inhibitors (HPPD inhbitors) are a class of herbicides that prevent plants by blocking 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, an enzyme in plants that breaks down the amino acid, tyrosine into components that are used by plants to create other molecules that plants need. This process of breakdown, or catabolism, and making new molecules from the results, or biosynthesis, is something all living things do. HPPD inhibitors were first brought to market in 1980, although their mechanism of action was not understood until the late 1990s. They were originally used primarily in Japan in rice production, but since the late 1990s have been used in Europe and North America for corn, soybeans, and cereals, and since the 2000s have become more important as weeds have become resistant to glyphosate and other herbicides
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Triketones
A triketone or trione is a molecule containing three ketone groups.Croconic acid containing three C=O groups is a triketoneSimple cyclic triketones include cyclopropanetrione, barbituric acid and the triazine cyanuric acid. Croconic acid also has hydroxy groups. In ninhydrin one of the ketone groups is normally hydrated. Linear triketones include triuret. Compounds with three adjacent carbonyl groups include mesoxalic acid, and dioxosuccinic acid, however these can be considered as dicarboxylic acids or ketonic acids. Triketones known by 1901 include diphenyltriketone, diphenyltetraketone, and triketopentane.[1] See also[edit]DiketoneReferences[edit]^ Sachs, Franz; Barschall, Hermann (May 1901). "Ueber das Triketopentan. I". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 34 (2): 3047–3054
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Allelopathic
Allelopathy
Allelopathy
is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and can have beneficial (positive allelopathy) or detrimental (negative allelopathy) effects on the target organisms and the community. Allelochemicals are a subset of secondary metabolites,[1] which are not required for metabolism (i.e. growth, development and reproduction) of the allelopathic organism. Allelochemicals with negative allelopathic effects are an important part of plant defense against herbivory.[1][2] The production of allelochemicals are affected by biotic factors such as nutrients available, and abiotic factors such as temperature and pH. Allelopathy
Allelopathy
is characteristic of certain plants, algae, bacteria, coral, and fungi
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Log P
In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a measure of the difference in solubility of the compound in these two phases. The partition-coefficient generally refers to the concentration ratio of un-ionized species of compound whereas the distribution-coefficient refers to the concentration ratio of all species of the compound (ionized plus un-ionized).[1] In the chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, both phases usually are solvents.[2] Most commonly, one of the solvents is water while the second is hydrophobic such as 1-octanol.[3] Hence the partition coefficient measures how hydrophilic ("water-loving") or hydrophobic ("water-fearing") a chemical substance is
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Acetone Cyanohydrin
α-Hydroxyisobutyronitrile[1] 2-Hydroxy-2-methyl-propionitrile[1] 2-Methylactonitrile[1]IdentifiersCAS Number75-86-5 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive image3DMet B00479Beilstein Reference605391ChEBICHEBI:15348 YChemSpider6166 YDrugBankDB02203 YECHA InfoCard 100.000.828EC Number 200-909-4KEGGC02659 YMeSH acetone+cyanohydrin PubChem CID6406 RTECS number OD9275000UN number 1541InChIInChI=1S/C4H7NO/c1-4(2,6)3-5/h6H,1-2H3 Y Key: MWFMGBPGAXYFAR-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y


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Sulfonylurea
Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture. They are antidiabetic drugs widely used in the management of diabetes mellitus type 2
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Sedges
About 109 (not all listed here)The Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes. The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera,[2][3] the largest being the Carex
Carex
genus of "true sedges"[4][5] with over 2,000 species.[6] These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia
Asia
and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils
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Safeners
Herbicide safeners are chemical compounds used in combination with herbicides to make them "safer" - that is, to reduce the effect of the herbicide on crop plants, and to improve selectivity between crop plants vs. weed species being targeted by the herbicide.[1][2] Herbicide safeners can be used to pretreat crop seeds prior to planting, or they can be sprayed on plants as a mixture with the herbicide. References[edit]^ Abu-Qare, AW; Duncan, HJ (2002). "Herbicide safeners: Uses, limitations, metabolism, and mechanisms of action". Chemosphere. 48 (9): 965–74. Bibcode:2002Chmsp..48..965A. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00185-6. PMID 12222792.  ^ Davies, Joanna (2001). "Herbicide safeners - commercial products and tools for agrochemical research". Pesticide Outlook. 12: 10–15. doi:10.1039/B100799H. This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Glufosinate
Glufosinate
Glufosinate
(also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces
Streptomyces
soil bacteria. Plants also metabolise bialaphos, another naturally occurring herbicide, directly into glufosinate.[1] The compound irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of glutamine and for ammonia detoxification, giving it antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal properties
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Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase
1HYO, 1QCN, 1QCO, 1QQJ, 2HZYIdentifiersAliases FAH, Fumarylacetoacetase, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolaseExternal IDs MGI: 95482 HomoloGene: 110 GeneCards: FAH Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
15 (human)[1]<
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Orphan Drug
An orphan drug is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition, the condition itself being referred to as an orphan disease. The assignment of orphan status to a disease and to any drugs developed to treat it is a matter of public policy in many countries and has resulted in medical breakthroughs that may not have otherwise been achieved due to the economics of drug research and development.[1] In the US and the EU, it is easier to gain marketing approval for an orphan drug, and there may be other financial incentives, such as an extended period of exclusivity, a time during which that company is the only one allowed to market the orphan drug—all intended to encourage the development of those drugs which might otherwise lack a sufficient profit motive and market to attract companies' research budgets and personnel.[2][3]Contents1 Definition 2 Global statistics 3 Effect on investment, sales and profit 4 Legislation4
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Stauffer Chemical
Stauffer Chemical
Stauffer Chemical
Company is a former American chemical company which manufactured herbicides for corn and rice. It was acquired by Imperial Chemical Industries from Chesebrough-Pond's
Chesebrough-Pond's
Inc. in 1987.[1] In 1987, Stauffer's head office was in Westport, Connecticut.[1] Late that year, Imperial sold Stauffer's basic chemicals business to Rhône-Poulenc
Rhône-Poulenc
S.A.[2]Contents1 History 2 Pollution and site contamination 3 1982 and 1983 earnings dispute 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The company was founded in 1886 in San Francisco as a partnership between two young Europeans; a German, John Stauffer, Sr., and a Frenchman, Christian de Guigne. Ships exporting borax to Europe used sulfur as ballast. This ballast/sulfur became the inexpensive raw material for the newly formed company
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Plastoquinone
Plastoquinone
Plastoquinone
(PQ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The most common form of plastoquinone, known as PQ-A or PQ-9, is a 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone molecule with a side chain of nine isoprenyl units. There are other forms of plastoquinone, such as ones with shorter side chains like PQ-3 (which has 3 isoprenyl side units instead of 9) as well as analogs such as PQ-B, PQ-C, and PQ-D, which differ in their side chains.[1] The benzoquinone and isoprenyl units are both nonpolar, anchoring the molecule within the inner section of a lipid bilayer, where the hydrophobic tails are usually found.[1] It is very structurally similar to ubiquinone, or Coenzyme Q10, differing by the length of the isoprenyl side chain, replacement of the methoxy groups with methyl groups, and removal of the methyl group in the 2 position on the quinone
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Callistemon Citrinus
Melaleuca
Melaleuca
citrina, commonly known as common red, crimson or lemon bottlebrush,[2] is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
and is endemic to New South Wales
New South Wales
and Victoria in Australia. (Some Australian state herbaria continue to use the name Callistemon citrinus.[3] Callistemon lanceolatus is an older name.)[4] It is a hardy and adaptable species, common in its natural habitat. It is widely cultivated, not only in Australia, often as a species of Callistemon. It was one of the first Australian plants to be grown outside the country, having been taken to England in 1770 by Joseph Banks
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Echinochloa Crus-galli
Echinochloa
Echinochloa
crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia
Asia
that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass. It is commonly known as cockspur (or cockspur grass), barnyard millet, Japanese millet, water grass, common barnyard grass, or simply "barnyard grass" (which may refer to any species of Echinochloa
Echinochloa
or the genus as a whole however). This plant can grow to 60" (1.5 m) in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Most stems are upright, but some will spread out over the ground. Stems are flattened at the base. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, often purplish, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets. Considered one of the world's worst weeds, it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock
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Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography
(TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures.[1] Thin-layer chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography
is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide (alumina), or cellulose. This layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase. After the sample has been applied on the plate, a solvent or solvent mixture (known as the mobile phase) is drawn up the plate via capillary action. Because different analytes ascend the TLC plate at different rates, separation is achieved.[2] The mobile phase has different properties from the stationary phase. For example, with silica gel, a very polar substance, non-polar mobile phases such as heptane are used
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