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Grotesque
Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque (or grottoesque) has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween
Halloween
masks. In art, performance, and literature, however, grotesque may also refer to something that simultaneously invokes in an audience a feeling of uncomfortable bizarreness as well as sympathetic pity
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Loggias
A loggia ( /ˈlɒdʒiə/ or /ˈloʊdʒə/; Italian: [ˈlɔddʒa]) is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level. The outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches. Loggias can be located either on the front or side of a building and are not meant for entrance but as an out-of-door sitting room.[1][2][3] From the early Middle Ages, nearly every Italian comune had an open arched loggia in its main square which served as a "symbol of communal justice and government and as a stage for civic ceremony".[4]Contents1 Definition of the Roman loggia1.1 Examples2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksDefinition of the Roman loggia[edit] The main difference between a loggia and a portico is the role within the functional layout of the building
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Villa Madama
Villa Madama
Villa Madama
is a prominent rural house or villa built during the Renaissance. The villa situated half way up the slope of Monte Mario
Monte Mario
to the west of Rome, Italy, a few miles north of the Vatican, and just south of the Foro Olimpico Stadium. Even though incomplete, this villa with its loggia and segmented columned garden court and its casino with an open center and terraced gardens, was highly influential for subsequent architects of the High Renaissance.Contents1 Construction 2 Legacy and gardens 3 Ownership after completion 4 Further reading 5 External linksConstruction[edit] Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, cousin of the reigning pontiff Leo X, commissioned the initial design of the villa from Raphael
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Siena
Siena
Siena
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈsjɛːna] ( listen); in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Latin: Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy
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Raphael Sanzio
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Mother Nature
Mother
Mother
Nature
Nature
(sometimes known as Mother
Mother
Earth
Earth
or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.Contents1 Western tradition history1.1 Greek myth 1.2 Ancient Rome2 Indigenous peoples of the Americas 3 Southeast Asia 4 Popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksWestern tradition history[edit] Mother
Mother
Nature
Nature
image, 17th century alchemical text, Atalanta FugiensThe word "nature" comes from the Latin
Latin
word, "natura", meaning birth or character (see nature (innate)). In English its first recorded use (in the sense of the entirety of the phenomena of the world) was in 1266 A.D.
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Raphael's Rooms
The four Raphael
Raphael
Rooms (Italian: Stanze di Raffaello) form a suite of reception rooms in the palace, the public part of the papal apartments in the Palace of the Vatican. They are famous for their frescoes, painted by Raphael
Raphael
and his workshop. Together with Michelangelo's ceiling frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, they are the grand fresco sequences that mark the High Renaissance
High Renaissance
in Rome. The Stanze, as they are commonly called, were originally intended as a suite of apartments for Pope
Pope
Julius II. He commissioned Raphael, then a relatively young artist from Urbino, and his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was possibly Julius' intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor (and rival) Pope
Pope
Alexander VI, as the Stanze are directly above Alexander's Borgia Apartment
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Vatican Palace
The Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
(Latin: Palatium Apostolicum; Italian: Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Pope
Pope
of Rome, which is located in Vatican City. It is also known as the Papal Palace, Palace of the Vatican and Vatican Palace. The Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V in honor of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V.[2]The Portone di Bronzo at the Vatican Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
entrance.The building contains the Papal Apartments, various offices of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Holy See, private and public chapels, Vatican Museums, and the Vatican Library, including the Sistine Chapel, Raphael
Raphael
Rooms, and Borgia Apartment. The modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, but other parts, such as the Sala Regia and Cappella Paolina, are closed to tourists
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Classical Orders
An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform".[1] Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman
Ancient Roman
civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, and most readily recognizable by the type of column employed. The three orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in Greece. To these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. The architectural order of a classical building is akin to the mode or key of classical music, the grammar or rhetoric of a written composition
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Giovanni Da Udine
Giovanni Nanni, also Giovanni de' Ricamatori, better known as Giovanni da Udine
Udine
(1487–1564), was an Italian painter and architect born in Udine. A painter also named Giovanni da Udine
Udine
was exiled from his native city in 1372.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Stucco Discovery 3 Gallery of Bird Drawings 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] As a student and assistant of Raphael, he was responsible for most of the "decorative" (i.e. non-narrative) elements of the major Raphaellesque projects in Rome, and he was a specialist in fresco and stucco grotesque decorations. These included the stucco work in the Loggia di Raffaello (Vatican, 1517–1519) and the heavy fruit-laden wreaths in the loggia di psiche in the Villa Farnesina. He also assisted in the construction of a few monumental fountains, which are now destroyed
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Maiolica
Maiolica, also called Majolica[1] is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance period. It is decorated in colours on a white background, sometimes depicting historical and mythical scenes, these works known as istoriato wares ("painted with stories"). By the late 15th century, several places, mainly small cities in northern and central Italy, were producing sophisticated pieces for a luxury market in Italy and beyond.Contents1 Name 2 Tin-glazed earthenware 3 History of production 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksName[edit]Istoriato charger, Faenza, ca 1555 (Dallas Museum of Art)The name is thought to come from the medieval Italian word for Majorca, an island on the route for ships bringing Hispano-Moresque wares from Valencia to Italy
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Piccolomini Library
Siena
Siena
Cathedral
Cathedral
(Italian: Duomo di Siena) is a medieval church in Siena, Italy, dedicated from its earliest days as a Roman Catholic Marian church, and now dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. Previously the episcopal seat of the Diocese
Diocese
of Siena, from the 15th century the Archdiocese of Siena, it is now that of the Archdiocese of Siena-Colle di Val d'Elsa-Montalcino. The cathedral itself was originally designed and completed between 1215 and 1263 on the site of an earlier structure. It has the form of a Latin cross with a slightly projecting transept, a dome and a bell tower. The dome rises from a hexagonal base with supporting columns. The lantern atop the dome was added by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The nave is separated from the two aisles by semicircular arches
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Urbino
Urbino
Urbino
(Italian: [urˈbiːno];  listen (help·info)) is a walled city in the Marche
Marche
region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance
Renaissance
culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino
Urbino
from 1444 to 1482. The town, nestled on a high sloping hillside, retains much of its picturesque medieval aspect. It hosts the University of Urbino, founded in 1506, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Urbino
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Francisco De Holanda
Francisco de Holanda
Francisco de Holanda
(originally Francisco d'Olanda; 6 September 1517 – 19 June 1585) was a court painter, architect, and sculptor for the Portuguese King João III, and later for Sebastian of Portugal. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance. Francisco was also an essayist, architect and historian. He represented the intelligible reality of the Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
through a "hypothetical" syntax of geometrical figures.[1] He insisted on the contrast between the ideal plane, the incorporeal form and the "imperfect copy in the terrestrial zone"
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Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Michelangelo
di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo
Michelangelo
(/ˌmaɪkəlˈændʒəloʊ/; Italian: [mikeˈlandʒelo di lodoˈviːko ˌbwɔnarˈrɔːti siˈmoːni]; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an I
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Architrave
An architrave (/ˈɑːrkɪtreɪv/; from Italian: architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. It is an architectural element in Classical architecture. The term can also be applied to all sides, including the vertical members, of a frame with mouldings around a door or window
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