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Fibrillation
Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers. An important occurrence is with regard to the heart.Contents1 Cardiology 2 Musculoskeletal 3 Name 4 ReferencesCardiology[edit] There are two major classes of cardiac fibrillation: atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation
is an irregular and uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of atria. It can be a chronic condition, usually treated with anticoagulation and sometimes with conversion to normal sinus rhythm
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Myocardial Bridge
A myocardial bridge occurs when one of the coronary arteries tunnels through the myocardium rather than resting on top of it. Typically, the arteries rest on top of the heart muscle and feed blood down into smaller vessels that populate throughout the myocardium. But if the muscle grows around one of the larger arteries, then a myocardial bridge is formed. As the heart squeezes to pump blood, the muscle exerts pressure across the bridge and constricts the artery. This defect is present from birth. It can lead to uncomfortable, powerful heartbeats and angina. The incidence of the condition in the general population is estimated at 5% based on autopsy findings,[1] but significance when found in association with other cardiac conditions is unknown.[2] The condition is diagnosed on a scale based on what percentage of obstruction occurs. If there is less than 50% blockage, then the condition is probably benign. Blockage over 70% usually causes some pain
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 390–459
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Muscle Contraction
Muscle
Muscle
contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.[1][2] In physiology, muscle contraction does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.[1] The termination of muscle contraction is followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their low tension-generating state.[1] Muscle
Muscle
contractions can be described based on two variables: length and tension.[1] A muscle contraction is described as isometric if the muscle tension changes but the muscle length remains the same.[1][3][4][5] In contrast, a muscle contraction is isotonic if muscle length changes but the muscle tension remains the same.[1][3][4][5] If the muscle length shortens, the contraction is concentric;[1][6] if the muscle length lengthens, the contraction is eccentric
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Dorland's Medical Reference Works
Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers and word books, and spell-check software) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content. The flagship products are Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 32nd edition) and Dorland's Pocket Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 29th edition). The principal dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary, including 770 pages. The pocket edition, called the American Pocket Medical Dictionary, was first published in 1898, consisting of just over 500 pages. With the death of the editor William Alexander Newman Dorland, AM, MD in 1956, the dictionaries were retitled to incorporate his name, which was how they had generally come to be known
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Myofibril
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.[1] Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes, known as muscle fibers in striated muscle, and these cells in turn contain many chains of myofibrils. They are created during embryonic development in a process known as myogenesis. Myofibrils are composed of long proteins including actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that hold them together. These proteins are organized into thick and thin filaments called myofilaments, which repeat along the length of the myofibril in sections called sarcomeres
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Fibril
Fibrils (from the Latin
Latin
fibra[1]) are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms. Not to be confused with fibers or filaments, fibrils tend to have diameters ranging from 10-100 nanometers (whereas fibers are micro to milli-scale structures and filaments have diameters approximately 10-50 nanometers in size)
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Ischemia
Ischemia
Ischemia
or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).[3] Ischemia
Ischemia
is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism). Ischemia
Ischemia
comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes
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Pericardium
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. The pericardial sac has two layers, a serous layer and a fibrous layer. It encloses the pericardial cavity which contains pericardial fluid. The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection, and provides the lubrication for the heart. It receives its name from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
peri (περί; "around") and cardion (κάρδιον; "heart").Contents1 Structure1.1 Fibrous pericardium 1.2 Serous pericardium 1.3 Anatomical relationships2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] The pericardium is a tough double layered fibroserous sac which covers the heart.[1] The space between the two layers of serous pericardium (see below), the pericardial cavity, is filled with serous fluid which protects the heart from any kind of external jerk or shock
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Ventricle (heart)
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs. The atrium (an adjacent/upper heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) primes the pump
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Pulmonary Veins
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The largest pulmonary veins are the four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung that drain into the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation.Contents1 Structure1.1 Variation2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Two main pulmonary veins emerge from each lung hilum, receiving blood from three or four bronchial veins apiece and draining into the left atrium. An inferior and superior main vein drains each lung, so there are four main veins in total.[1] At the root of the lung, the right superior pulmonary vein lies in front of and a little below the pulmonary artery; the inferior is situated at the lowest part of the lung hilum
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Sinoatrial Node
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.[1] These cells have the ability to spontaneously produce an electrical impulse (action potential; see below for more details), that travels through the heart via the electrical conduction system (see figure 1) causing it to contract. In a healthy heart, the SA node continuously produces action potential, setting the rhythm of the heart and so is known as the heart's natural pacemaker
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