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Fibrillation
FIBRILLATION is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers . An important occurrence is with regard to the heart . CONTENTS * 1 Cardiology * 2 Musculoskeletal * 3 Name * 4 References CARDIOLOGYThere are two major classes of cardiac fibrillation: atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation . * Atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation
is an irregular and uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of atria . It can be a chronic condition, usually treated with anticoagulation and sometimes with conversion to normal sinus rhythm
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Pericardium
The PERICARDIUM (from the Greek περί, "around" and κάρδιον, "heart") is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels . The pericardial sac has two layers, a serous layer and a fibrous layer. It encloses the pericardial cavity which contains pericardial fluid . The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum , gives protection against infection, and provides the lubrication for the heart. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Fibrous pericardium
Fibrous pericardium
* 1.2 Serous pericardium * 1.3 Anatomical relationships * 2 Functions * 3 Clinical significance * 4 Additional images * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe pericardium is a tough double layered fibroserous sac which covers the heart
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Ischemia
ISCHEMIA or ISCHAEMIA is a restriction in blood supply to tissues , causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels , with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction , thrombosis or embolism ). Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes . Ischemia can be partial (poor perfusion , that is, malperfusion) or total
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Ventricle (heart)
A VENTRICLE is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs. The atrium (an adjacent/upper heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) primes the pump . Interventricular means between the ventricles (for example the interventricular septum ), while intraventricular means within one ventricle (for example an intraventricular block ). In a four-chambered heart, such as that in humans , there are two ventricles that operate in a double circulatory system : the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation to the lungs , and the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation through the aorta
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Fibril
FIBRILS (from the Latin
Latin
fibra ) are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms. Not to be confused with fibers or filaments , fibrils tend to have diameters ranging from 10-100 nm (whereas fibers are micro to milli-scale structures and filaments are having diameters approximately 10-50 nanometers in size). Fibrils
Fibrils
not usually found alone, but rather are part of greater hierarchical structures commonly found in biological systems
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Myofibril
A MYOFIBRIL (also known as a MUSCLE FIBRIL) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell. Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes , known as muscle fibers in striated muscle , and these cells in turn contain many chains of myofibrils. They are created during embryonic development in a process known as myogenesis . Myofibrils are composed of long proteins including actin , myosin , and titin , and other proteins that hold them together. These proteins are organized into thick and thin filaments called myofilaments , which repeat along the length of the myofibril in sections called sarcomeres . Muscles contract by sliding the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments along each other
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Dorland's Medical Reference Works
DORLAND\'S is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries , spellers and word books, and spell-check software ) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content. The flagship products are DORLAND\'S ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL DICTIONARY (currently in its 32nd edition) and DORLAND\'S POCKET MEDICAL DICTIONARY (currently in its 29th edition). The principal dictionary was first published in 1890 as the AMERICAN ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL DICTIONARY, including 770 pages. The pocket edition, called the AMERICAN POCKET MEDICAL DICTIONARY, was first published in 1898, consisting of just over 500 pages. With the death of the editor William Alexander Newman Dorland, AM, MD in 1956, the dictionaries were retitled to incorporate his name, which was how they had generally come to be known. The illustrated dictionary had grown to 2208 pages for the 31st edition. The dictionaries were historically published by Saunders
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Pulmonary Veins
The PULMONARY VEINS are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart . The largest pulmonary veins are the four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung that drain into the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Variation * 2 Function * 3 Clinical significance * 4 Additional images * 5 References * 6 See also * 7 External links STRUCTURETwo main pulmonary veins emerge from each lung hilum , receiving blood from three or four bronchial veins apiece and draining into the left atrium . An inferior and superior main vein drains each lung, so there are four main veins in total. At the root of the lung, the right superior pulmonary vein lies in front of and a little below the pulmonary artery; the inferior is situated at the lowest part of the lung hilum. Behind the pulmonary artery is the bronchus
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Myocardial Bridge
A MYOCARDIAL BRIDGE occurs when one of the coronary arteries tunnels through the myocardium rather than resting on top of it. Typically, the arteries rest on top of the heart muscle and feed blood down into smaller vessels that populate throughout the myocardium. But if the muscle grows around one of the larger arteries, then a myocardial bridge is formed. As the heart squeezes to pump blood, the muscle exerts pressure across the bridge and constricts the artery. This defect is present from birth. It can lead to uncomfortable, powerful heartbeats and angina. The incidence of the condition in the general population is estimated at 5% based on autopsy findings, but significance when found in association with other cardiac conditions is unknown. The condition is diagnosed on a scale based on what percentage of obstruction occurs. If there is less than 50% blockage, then the condition is probably benign. A result of at least 70% usually causes some pain
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 390–459
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands
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Heart
The HEART is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system . Blood
Blood
provides the body with oxygen and nutrients , as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes . * ^ Taber, Clarence Wilbur; Venes, Donald (2009). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. F. A. Davis Co. pp. 1018–23. ISBN 0-8036-1559-0 . * ^ Guyton Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. "1". Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwel Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 127–73. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0 . * ^ Starr, Cecie; Evers, Christine; Starr, Lisa (2 January 2009). Biology: Today and Tomorrow With Physiology. Cengage Learning. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-495-56157-6 . Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. * ^ A B Reed, C. Roebuck; Brainerd, Lee Wherry; Lee,, Rodney; Inc, the staff of Kaplan, (2008). CSET : California Subject Examinations for Teachers (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Kaplan Pub. p. 154
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Myocyte
A MYOCYTE (also known as a MUSCLE CELL) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue . Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from MYOBLASTS to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis . There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac , skeletal , and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as MUSCLE FIBERS. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres that form the chambers of the heart, and have a single central nucleus. Skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle
fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei. Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach
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