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Fasci
Fascio (pronounced [ˈfaʃʃo]; plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf",[1] and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the 20th century Fasci movement, which became known as fascism.Contents1 Origin 2 History2.1 World War I2.1.1 Mussolini's split2.2 After World War I 2.3 After World War II 2.4 Other Italian Fasci3 ReferencesOrigin[edit] During the 19th century the bundle of rods, in Latin
Latin
called fasces and in Italian fascio, came to symbolise strength through unity, the point being that whilst each independent rod was fragile, as a bundle they were strong. By extension, the word fascio came in modern Italian political usage to mean group, union, band or league
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Undercut (hairstyle)
The undercut is a hairstyle that was fashionable during the Edwardian era, 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, and 2010s predominantly among men. Typically, the hair on the top of the head is long and parted on either the side or center, while the back and sides are buzzed very short.[1] It is closely related to the curtained hair of the mid and late 1990s, although wearers of undercuts during the 2010s tend to slick back the bangs away from the face.Contents1 Origins 2 Revival 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesOrigins[edit] Historically, the undercut has been associated with poverty and inability to afford a barber competent enough to blend in the sides, as on a regular haircut. From the turn of the 20th century until the 1920s, the undercut was popular among young working class men, especially members of street gangs. In interwar Glasgow, Neds, the precursors to the Teddy Boys, favoured a haircut that was long on top and cropped at the back and sides
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Cult Of Personality
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise. A cult of personality is similar to divinization, except that it is established by modern social engineering techniques, usually by the state or the party in one-party states. It is often seen in totalitarian or authoritarian countries. The term first came to modern prominence in 1956, in Nikita Khrushchev's secret speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, given on the final day of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
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Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
(Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT), leading a government in Wuhan
Wuhan
in opposition to the right wing government, but later became increasingly anti-communist after his efforts to collaborate with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ended in political failure. His political orientation veered sharply to the right wing later in his career after he joined the Japanese. Wang was a close associate of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
for the last twenty years of Sun's life. After Sun's death Wang engaged in a political struggle with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
for control over the Kuomintang, but lost
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Social Order
The term social order can be used in two senses. In the first sense, it refers to a particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, values and practices, which conserve, maintain and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving. Examples are the ancient, the feudal, and the capitalist social order. In the second sense, social order is contrasted to social chaos or disorder and refers to a stable state of society in which the existing social order is accepted and maintained by its members
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Imperialism
Imperialism
Imperialism
is an action that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of inhabited territory. It may also include the exploitation of these territories, an action that is linked to colonialism. Colonialism
Colonialism
is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. It is different from New Imperialism, as the term imperialism is usually applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to the expansion of Western Powers (and Japan) during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, both are examples of imperialism.Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Colonialism
Colonialism
vs
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German Federal Election, November 1932
Franz von Papen Non-partisanElected Chancellor None (Schleicher appointed shortly afterward)GermanyThis article is part of a series on the politics and government of GermanyConstitution (Basic Law)Human rights Federal Constitutional CourtExecutivePresidentFrank-Walter SteinmeierChancellor (List)Angela MerkelVice-ChancellorOlaf ScholzCabinetMerkel IVLegislatureFederal Convention (Bundesversammlung)Federal Council (Bundesrat) Federal Diet (Bundestag)Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Ausschuss)JudiciaryFederal courtsConstitutional Administrative Justice Fiscal Labour SocialAdministrative divisionsStates (Länder)Administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke)Districts (Kreise) Collective municipalities (Ämter) Municipalities (Gemeinden)ElectionsElectoral system Political parties ReferendumsForeign relatio
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Militarism
Militarism
Militarism
is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia
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Direct Action
Direct action
Direct action
occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue. This can include nonviolent and less often violent activities which target persons, groups, or property deemed offensive to the direct action participants. Examples of nonviolent direct action (also known as nonviolence, nonviolent resistance, or civil resistance) can include sit-ins, strikes, workplace occupations, blockades, protests, or hacktivism, while violent direct action may include political violence or assaults. Tactics such as sabotage and property destruction are sometimes considered violent. By contrast, electoral politics, diplomacy, negotiation, and arbitration are not usually described as direct action, as they are politically mediated
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Beer Hall Putsch
Nazi Party Sturmabteilung Weimar Republic Bavaria
Bavaria
Free State ReichswehrCommanders and leaders Adolf Hitler (WIA) Erich Ludendorff Ernst Röhm Rudolf Hess Scheubner-Richter † Hermann Göring (WIA) Gustav von Kahr Eugen von Knilling Hans von Seisser Otto von LossowMilitary support2,000+ 130Casualties and losses16 killed About a dozen injured Many captured and imprisoned 4 killed Several woundedThe Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich
Munich
Putsch,[1] and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, Bürgerbräu-Putsch or mostly Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle, was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
and other Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Criticism Of Democracy
Democracy
Democracy
may be criticized as economically inefficient, politically unrealistic, dysfunctional, morally corrupt or sociopolitically suboptimal. Important figures associated with anti-democratic thought include Martin Heidegger, Hubert Lagardelle, Charles Maurras, Friedrich Nietzsche, Plato, Aristotle, Carl Schmitt, Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Oswald Spengler, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, and Elazar Menachem Shach. A variety of ideologies and political systems have opposed democracy, including absolute monarchy, aristocracy, Nazism, fascism, theocracy, neo-feudalism and anarcho-capitalism. Democracy
Democracy
is also subject to criticism from pro-democratic thought that tends to acknowledge its flaws but stresses a lack of appealing alternatives. An example is Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
who remarked, "No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise
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My Autobiography (Mussolini)
My Autobiography
Autobiography
is a book by Benito Mussolini. It is a dictated, narrative autobiography recounting the author's youth, his years as an agitator and journalist, his experiences in World War I, the formation and revolutionary struggles of the Fascist Party, the March on Rome, and his early years in power. It was first published in 1928; Richard Washburn Child, together with Luigi Barzini, Jr., served as the book's ghostwriter.Contents1 Background 2 Publishing history 3 Contents 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Mussolini dictated parts of the text to his brother Arnaldo Mussolini who handed the manuscripts, together with other material supplied by Mussolini's lover Margherita Sarfatti, to Richard Washburn Child
Richard Washburn Child
(the former American ambassador to Italy). Child served together with Luigi Barzini, Jr. as a ghostwriter for the autobiography, which was mainly aimed at readers in the U.S
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Nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Autarky
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic systems. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses all trade with the outside world then it is called a closed economy.[1] Autarky is not necessarily an economic phenomenon; for example, a military autarky would be a state that could defend itself without help from another country, or could manufacture all of its weapons without any imports from the outside world. Autarky as an ideal or method has been embraced by a wide range of political ideologies and movements, especially left-wing creeds like mutualism, Council Communism, Syndicalism, Democratic Confederalism, and Populism
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Mixed Economy
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.[1] There is not only one definition of a mixed economy,[2] but two major definitions are recognized. The first of these definitions is a mixture of markets with state interventionism, referring to capitalist market economies with strong regulatory oversight, interventionist policies and governmental provision of public services. The second definition is apolitical in nature and strictly refers to an economy containing a mixture of private enterprise with public enterprise.[3] In most cases and particularly with reference to Western economies, a mixed economy refers to a capitalist economy characterized by the predominance of private ownership of the means of production with profit-seeking enterprise and the accumulation of capital as its fundamental driving force
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