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Fascio (pronounced [ˈfaʃʃo]; plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf",[1] and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the 20th century Fasci movement, which became known as fascism.

Contents

1 Origin 2 History

2.1 World War I

2.1.1 Mussolini's split

2.2 After World War I 2.3 After World War II 2.4 Other Italian Fasci

3 References

Origin[edit] During the 19th century the bundle of rods, in Latin
Latin
called fasces and in Italian fascio, came to symbolise strength through unity, the point being that whilst each independent rod was fragile, as a bundle they were strong. By extension, the word fascio came in modern Italian political usage to mean group, union, band or league. It was first used in this sense in the 1870s by groups of revolutionary democrats in Sicily, to describe themselves. The most famous of these groups was the Fasci Siciliani
Fasci Siciliani
during 1891–94.[2] Thereafter, the word retained revolutionary connotations. It was these connotations which made it attractive, for example, to young nationalists who demanded Italian intervention in World War I. The fasci they formed were scattered over Italy, and it was to one of these spontaneously created groups, devoid of party affiliations, that Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
belonged.[3] History[edit] World War I[edit] On 18 August 1914 Italian syndicalist Alceste de Ambris, speaking from the rostrum of the Milanese Syndical Union (USM), began a ferocious attack against neutrality in World War I
World War I
and urged intervention against German reaction and the necessity of aiding France
France
and the United Kingdom. He equated the war with the French Revolution. This caused a deep split within the Unione Sindacale Italiana
Unione Sindacale Italiana
(USI). The majority opted for neutrality. The Parma Labor Chamber, the USM, and other radical syndicalists left the USI and on 1 October 1914 founded the Fasci d'Azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista. On October 5 Angelo Oliviero Olivetti published their manifesto in the first issue of a new series of Pagine libere. Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
shortly thereafter joined this group and took leadership.[4] Mussolini's split[edit] On 11 December 1914 Mussolini started a political group, Fasci d'azione rivoluzionaria, which was a fusion of two other movements: the above group, Fasci d'azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista and a previous group he started called the Fasci autonomi d'azione rivoluzionaria.[5] This new group was also referred to as the Milan
Milan
fascio, of which Mussolini was the leader. 24 January 1915 was the turning point in the history of the fasci as their leaders met in Milan
Milan
and formed a national organization.[3] After World War I[edit] In 1919, after the war had ended, Mussolini reconstituted the Milan fascio, using the new name Fasci italiani di combattimento
Fasci italiani di combattimento
("Italian league of combatants"). Other fasci of the same name were created, with the common goal of opposing all those– including the king and state– whose specific leanings were deemed to be depriving Italy of the fruits of victory in the war. According to H. W. Schneider, the new Milan
Milan
fascio was formed of roughly the same people who had been members of the older fascio in 1915, but with a new name and a new objective.[6] On 7 November 1921 the Partito Nazionale Fascista
Partito Nazionale Fascista
(PNF), National Fascist Party, came into existence. After World War II[edit] In Italy, after World War II, the term fascio is used as pejorative for neo-fascista. Other Italian Fasci[edit]

Fasci of the Veneto
Veneto
led by Dino Grandi
Dino Grandi
and Pietro Marsich

References[edit]

^ Google. "Google Translate". Retrieved August 19, 2010.  ^ A History of Fascism
Fascism
1914-1945, Stanley G. Payne, University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. p. 81 ^ a b By permission of author, Fascism, Noël O'Sullivan, J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1983. pg 207. ^ The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution, Zeev Sternhell
Zeev Sternhell
with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri, trans. by David Maisel, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 1994. pp 140, 214. ^ The Birth of Fascist Ideology, Zeev Sternhell, pg 303. ^ H. W. Schneider, Making the Fascist State, NY, 1928, pg 56, cited in Fascism, Noël O'Sullivan, J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1983. pg 207.

v t e

Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin
Latin
America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France
France
au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan National Bolshevism Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

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