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Ethienocarb
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate), and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate
Carbamate
esters are also called urethanes.Contents1 Synthesis 2 Applications and occurrence2.1 In biochemistry2.1.1 CO2 capture by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase3 Commercial carbamate compounds3.1 Carbamate
Carbamate
insecticides 3.2 Polyurethanes 3.3 Preservatives and cosmetics 3.4 Medicine 3.5 Toxicity4 Sulfur
Sulfur
analogues 5 See also 6 ReferencesSynthesis[edit] Carbamic acids are unstable, but the salts of these elusive acids are well known
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Blood-brain Barrier
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).[1] The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes
Astrocytes
have been claimed to be necessary to create the blood–brain barrier
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Side Chain
NotesAn oligomeric branch may be termed a short-chain branch. A polymeric branch may be termed a long-chain branch.[1]In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone. The side chain is a hydrocarbon branching element of a molecule that is attached to a larger hydrocarbon backbone. It is one factor in determining a molecule's properties and reactivity.[2] A side chain is also known as a pendant chain, but a pendant group (side group) has a different definition.Contents1 Conventions 2 History 3 Usage3.1 Organic chemistry 3.2 Biochemistry4 See also 5 ReferencesConventions[edit] The placeholder R is often used as a generic placeholder for alkyl (saturated hydrocarbon) group side chains in chemical structure diagrams
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Carbamic Acid
Carbamic acid
Carbamic acid
is the compound with the formula NH2COOH. The attachment of the acid group to a nitrogen or amine (instead of carbon) distinguishes it from carboxylic acid and an amide. Many derivatives and analogues of carbamic acid are known
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Insect Growth Regulator
Regulator may refer to:Contents1 Technology 2 Science 3 Music and literature 4 People 5 Other 6 See alsoTechnology[edit] Regulator (automatic control), a device that maintains a designated characteristic, as in:Battery regulator Pressure regulator Diving regulator Voltage regulator Regulator (sewer), a control device used in a combined sewer system A device in mechanical watches attached to the balance spring for adjusting the rate of the b
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Insect Repellent
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect
Insect
repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne (and other arthropod-bourne) diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, river blindness and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include insects such as flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick[citation needed]. Some insect repellents are insecticides (bug killers), but most simply discourage insects and send them flying or crawling away
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Icaridin
Icaridin, also known as picaridin, is an insect repellent. It has broad efficacy against various insects and is almost colorless and odorless. The name picaridin was proposed as an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) to the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), but the official name that has been approved by the WHO
WHO
is icaridin. Trade names include Bayrepel and Saltidin among others. The compound was developed by the German chemical company Bayer
Bayer
and was given the name Bayrepel
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Quaternary Ammonium Cation
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+ 4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.[1] Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+ 4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution
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Polyurethane
Polyurethane
Polyurethane
(PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. While most polyurethanes are thermosetting polymers that do not melt when heated, thermoplastic polyurethanes are also available. Polyurethane
Polyurethane
polymers are traditionally and most commonly formed by reacting a di- or poly-isocyanate with a polyol
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Aspartic Acid
Aspartic acid
Aspartic acid
(symbol Asp or D;[3] encoded by the codons [GAU and GAC]), also known as aspartate, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.[4] Similar to all other amino acids it contains an amino group and a carboxylic acid
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Polymerize
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.[2][3][4] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.Contents1 Introduction 2 Step-growth 3 Chain-growth3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering 3.2 Photopolymerization4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit]Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . → A A A A . . . displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA... Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . → A B A B . . . displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB..
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Alcohol (chemistry)
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Elastomers
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (having both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak inter-molecular forces, generally having low Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and high failure strain compared with other materials.[1] The term, which is derived from elastic polymer,[2] is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, although the latter is preferred when referring to vulcanisates.[3] Each of the monomers which link to form the polymer is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen or silicon. Elastomers are amorphous polymers existing above their glass transition temperature, so that considerable segmental motion is possible. At ambient temperatures, rubbers are thus relatively soft (E ≈ 3 MPa) and deformable. Their primary uses are for seals, adhesives and molded flexible parts. Application areas for different types of rubber are manifold and cover segments as diverse as tires, shoe soles, and damping and insulating elements
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Toluene Diisocyanate
Toluene
Toluene
diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(NCO)2. Two of the six possible isomers are commercially important: 2,4-TDI (CAS: 584-84-9) and 2,6-TDI (CAS: 91-08-7). 2,4-TDI is produced in the pure state, but TDI is often marketed as 80/20 and 65/35 mixtures of the 2,4 and 2,6 isomers respectively. It is produced on a large scale, accounting for 34.1% of the global isocyanate market in 2000, second only to MDI.[3] Approximately 1.4 billion kilograms were produced in 2000.[4] All isomers of TDI are colorless, although commercial samples can appear yellow.Contents1 Synthesis 2 Applications 3 Hazards 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksSynthesis[edit] 2,4-TDI is prepared in three steps from toluene via dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene (TDA). Finally, the TDA is subjected to phosgenation, i.e., treatment with phosgene to form TDI
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