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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation
The SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia
South Asia
. Its member states include Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, India
India
, Nepal
Nepal
, the Maldives
Maldives
, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka . SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% (US$ 2.9 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2015. SAARC was founded in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 8th December, 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
, Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration . It launched the South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006
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UKUSA Agreement
The UNITED KINGDOM – UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AGREEMENT (UKUSA, /juːkuːˈsɑː/ ew-koo-SAH ) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, New Zealand , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the United States
United States
. The alliance of intelligence operations is also known as the Five Eyes . In classification markings this is abbreviated as FVEY, with the individual countries being abbreviated as AUS, CAN, NZL, GBR, and USA, respectively. Emerging from an informal agreement related to the 1941 Atlantic Charter , the secret treaty was renewed with the passage of the 1943 BRUSA Agreement , before being officially enacted on 5 March 1946 by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States
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Pacific Islands Forum
The PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. It was founded in 1971 as the SOUTH PACIFIC FORUM. In 1999, the name was changed; PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM is more inclusive of the Forum's Oceania
Oceania
-spanning membership of both north and south Pacific island countries , including Australia
Australia
. It is an official observer at the United Nations
United Nations
. The mission of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
is “to work in support of Forum member governments, to enhance the economic and social well-being of the people of the South Pacific by fostering cooperation between governments and between international agencies, and by representing the interests of Forum members in ways agreed by the Forum”
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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International Criminal Court
The INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC or ICCT) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague
The Hague
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide , crimes against humanity , and war crimes . The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore only exercise its jurisdiction when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 July 2002, the date that the Rome Statute entered into force. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document
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International Olympic Committee
Coordinates : 46°31′5″N 6°35′49″E / 46.51806°N 6.59694°E / 46.51806; 6.59694 International
International
Olympic Committee Comité International
International
Olympique MOTTO Citius, Altius, Fortius (
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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OPEC
ORGANIZATION OF THE PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC, /ˈoʊpɛk/ OH-pek , or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of 14 nations as of May 2017, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members ( Iran
Iran
, Iraq
Iraq
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Venezuela
Venezuela
), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna
Vienna
. As of 2016, the 14 countries accounted for an estimated 44 percent of global oil production and 73 percent of the world\'s "proven" oil reserves , giving OPEC
OPEC
a major influence on global oil prices that were previously determined by American-dominated multinational oil companies
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Organisation Of Islamic Cooperation
ORGANISATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION (OIC; Arabic : منظمة التعاون الإسلامي‎‎; French : Organisation de la Coopération Islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states , with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world
Muslim world
" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world
Muslim world
in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony". The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations
United Nations
and the European Union
European Union
. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French
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Organisation For Economic Co-operation And Development
The ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD; French : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy , providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI ) and are regarded as developed countries . OECD is an official United Nations
United Nations
Observer
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GUAM Organization For Democracy And Economic Development
The GUAM ORGANIZATION FOR DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (Russian : Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia , Ukraine
Ukraine
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Moldova
Moldova
. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Members * 3 Organizational structure * 4 History * 5 Issues * 6 Secretary General * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWGUAM's charter was signed during a summit in Yalta
Yalta
on 6 to 7 June 2001 by the four current members and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, which later withdrew
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WTO
The WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade . The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement , signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Trade
(GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world. The WTO deals with regulation of trade between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments :fol.9–10 and ratified by their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986–1994)
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