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Elam
Elam
Elam
(/ˈiːləm/) (Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾, haltamti,Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠, NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan
Khuzestan
and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam
Elam
stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian
Akkadian
elamtu, and the Elamite
Elamite
haltamti. Elamite
Elamite
states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East.[1] In classical literature, Elam
Elam
was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa.[2] Elam
Elam
was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period (Copper Age)
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Prehistory Of Iran
The prehistory of Iran could be divided to Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow:Contents1 Paleolithic 2 Epipaleolithic 3 Neolithic 4 Chalcolithic 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPaleolithic[edit] One of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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Scythians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast
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Zarmihrids
The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra
Sukhra
left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I
Khosrau I
protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan
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Alid Dynasties Of Northern Iran
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Dabuyid Dynasty
The Dabuyid or Gaubarid Dynasty was a Zoroastrian[1] Iranian dynasty that started in the early seventh century as an independent group of rulers, reigning over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and parts of western Khorasan.[2] Dabuyid rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Khorasan lasted from ca. AD 642 to the Abbasid
Abbasid
conquest in 760.Contents1 History 2 Dabuyid rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The family's early history is semi-mythical, and recorded by the later historian Ibn Isfandiyar. According to this story, the Dabuyids were descended from a brother of the Sassanid
Sassanid
shah Kavadh I. His grandson Firuz conquered Gilan, and Firuz's grandson Gil, surnamed Gavbara, then extended the family's rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
as well
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Persian Mythology
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Kayanian Dynasty
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Kingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia,[3] or simply Greater Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Մեծ Հայք Mets Hayk;[4] Latin: Armenia
Armenia
Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD. Its history is divided into successive reigns by three royal dynasties: Orontid (321 BC–200 BC),[5][6] Artaxiad (189 BC–12 AD) and Arsacid (52–428). The root of the kingdom lies in one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire
Empire
of Persia
Persia
called Armenia
Armenia
( Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia), which was formed from the territory of the Kingdom of Ararat (860 BC–590 BC) after it was conquered by the Median Empire
Empire
in 590 BC
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Kingdom Of Cappadocia
The Kingdom of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
was a Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom[1][2] centered in the historical region of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). It developed from the former Achaemenid satrapy of Cappadocia, and it was founded by its last satrap, Ariarathes (later Ariarathes I). Throughout its history, it was ruled by three families in succession; the House of Ariarathes (331-96 BC), the House of Ariobarzanes (96 BC-36 BC), and lastly that of Archelaus (36 BC-17 AD)
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Bavand Dynasty
The Bavand dynasty
Bavand dynasty
(Persian: باوندیان‎) (also spelled Bavend), or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.Contents1 Origins 2 History2.1 Kayusiyya line3 Culture 4 Bavandid rulers4.1 Kayusiyya 4.2 Ispahbadhiyya 4.3 Kinkhwariyya5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksOrigins[edit] The dynasty itself traced its descent back to Bav, who was alleged to be a grandson of the Sasanian
Sasanian
prince Kawus, brother of Khosrau I,[1] and son of the shah Kavadh I
Kavadh I
(ruled 488–531), who supposedly fled to Tabaristan
Tabaristan
from the Muslim conquest of Persia
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