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Doctrine Of Equivalents
The doctrine of equivalents is a legal rule in many (but not all) of the world's patent systems that allows a court to hold a party liable for patent infringement even though the infringing device or process does not fall within the literal scope of a patent claim, but nevertheless is equivalent to the claimed invention. U.S
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House Of Lords
The House of Lords
House of Lords
of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster.[2] Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual
Lords Spiritual
and Temporal of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed.[3] The membership of the House of Lords
House of Lords
is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal
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Federal Supreme Court Of Switzerland
The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
Switzerland
(German: Bundesgericht, French: Tribunal fédéral, Italian: Tribunale federale, Romansh:  Tribunal federal (help·info)) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation. As part of the judiciary, it is one of the three branches of government in Switzerland's political system. It is headquartered in the Federal Courthouse in Lausanne
Lausanne
in the canton of Vaud. The two social security divisions of the Federal Supreme Court (formerly Federal Insurance Court, as an organizationally independent unit of the Federal Supreme Court), are located in Lucerne. The United Federal Assembly elects 38 federal justices to the Federal Supreme Court
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European Patent Convention
The European Patent Convention
European Patent Convention
(EPC), also known as the Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973, is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation
European Patent Organisation
and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted. The term European patent is used to refer to patents granted under the European Patent Convention
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EPC 2000
The EPC 2000 or European Patent Convention
European Patent Convention
2000 is the version of the European Patent Convention
European Patent Convention
(EPC) as revised by the Act Revising the Convention on the Grant of European Patents signed in Munich
Munich
on November 29, 2000. On June 28, 2001, the Administrative Council of the European Patent Organisation
European Patent Organisation
adopted the final new text of the EPC 2000. The EPC 2000 entered into force on December 13, 2007.[1] The EPC 2000 does not introduce any major changes in substantive patent law,[2][3] except changes concerning novelty,[4] industrial applicability and priority rights
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Paris Convention For The Protection Of Industrial Property
The Paris
Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris, France, on 20 March 1883, was one of the first intellectual property treaties. It established a Union for the protection of industrial property. The Convention is currently still in force. The substantive provisions of the Convention fall into three main categories: national treatment, priority right and common rules.[1]Contents1 Contents1.1 National treatment 1.2 Priority right 1.3 Temporary protection for goods shown at some international exhibitions 1.4 Mutual independence of patents and trademarks in the different Countries of the Union2 History 3 Contracting parties3.1 Former contracting parties4 Administration 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksContents[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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World Intellectual Property Organization
The World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies[1][2][notes 1] of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN). WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world".[5] WIPO currently has 191 member states,[6] administers 26 international treaties,[7] and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The current Director-General of WIPO is Francis Gurry, who took office on 1 October 2008.[8] 186 of the UN member states as well as the Cook Islands, Holy See
Holy See
and Niue
Niue
are members of WIPO. Non-members are the states of Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, South Sudan
South Sudan
and East Timor
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Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[2]) is the highest federal court of the United States. Established pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution in 1789, it has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases involving issues of federal law plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is generally the final interpreter of federal law including the United States
United States
Constitution, but it may act only within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction
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Remington Rand
Remington Rand
Remington Rand
(1927–1955) was an early American business machines manufacturer, best known originally as a typewriter manufacturer and in a later incarnation as the manufacturer of the UNIVAC
UNIVAC
line of mainframe computers. Remington Rand
Remington Rand
was a diversified conglomerate making other office equipment, electric shavers, etc. The Remington Rand Building at 315 Park Avenue South in New York City
New York City
is a 20-floor skyscraper completed in 1911.[1]Contents1 History 2 Products2.1 Typewriters 2.2 The UNIVAC 2.3 Other products3 Depiction in popular culture 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Rock Ledge estate in Rowayton, Connecticut, company headquarters from 1943 to 1964
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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Lord Neuberger
David Edmond Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, PC HonFRS (/ˈnjuːbɜːrɡər/; born 10 January 1948) is an English judge. He served as President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
from 2012 to 2017. He was a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
until the House of Lords' judicial functions were transferred to the new Supreme Court in 2009, at which point he became Master of the Rolls, the second most senior judge in England and Wales. Neuberger was appointed to the Supreme Court in 2012
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Improver Corp V Remington Consumer Products Ltd
Improver Corporation v Remington Consumer Product Limited [1990] F.S.R. 181 is a leading United Kingdom case on patent infringement, particularly in relation to how to establish what specifically a patent covers.Contents1 The Catnic Decision 2 The Improver Questions 3 Facts and findings of the case 4 Continued relevance 5 Foreign relevance 6 ReferencesThe Catnic Decision[edit] The earlier case of Catnic Components Ltd. v Hill & Smith Ltd., Lord Diplock had established the principle that patents were to be read in a "purposive" manner. The question to be answered in establishing infringement, as formulated by Lord Diplock, was a complex, multi-part enquiry. The Improver Questions[edit] In the Improver case, Mr Justice Hoffmann (as he then was), on behalf of the Patents Court, reformulated the test as a series of three questions to establish whether a variant (alleged infringing article) infringes the claims of a patent
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Purposive Approach
The purposive approach (sometimes referred to as purposivism,[1] purposive construction,[2] purposive interpretation,[3] or the modern principle in construction)[4] is an approach to statutory and constitutional interpretation under which common law courts interpret an enactment (a statute, part of a statute, or a clause of a constitution) within the context of the law's purpose. Purposive interpretation is a derivation of mischief rule set in Heydon's Case,[5] and intended to replace the mischief rule, the plain meaning rule and the golden rule.[6] Purposive interpretation is used when the courts use extraneous materials from the pre-enactment phase of legislation, including early drafts, hansards, committee reports, and white papers
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Federal Patent Court Of Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Patent
Patent
Court (German: Bundespatentgericht, French: Tribunal fédéral des brevets) is a Swiss federal court
Swiss federal court
competent for particular legal matters, such as patent cases
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