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Dikarya
Ascomycota BasidiomycotaSynonyms[1]Carpomycetaceae Bessey (1907) Neomycota Caval.-Sm.
Caval.-Sm.
(1998) Dikarya
Dikarya
is a subkingdom of Fungi
Fungi
that includes the divisions Ascomycota
Ascomycota
and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons, may be filamentous or unicellular, but are always without flagella
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Amanita Pantherina
edibility: poisonous or psychoactive Amanita
Amanita
pantherina, also known as the panther cap and false blusher due to its similarity to the true blusher ( Amanita
Amanita
rubescens), is a species of fungus found in Europe
Europe
and Western Asia.Contents1 Description 2 Habitat and distribution 3 Biochemistry 4 Legal status 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit]Cap: 4 – 11 cm wide, hemispheric at first, then convex to plano-convex, deep brown to hazel-brown to pale ochraceous brown, densely distributed warts that are pure white to sordid cream, minutely verruculose, floccose, easily removable. Viscid when wet, with a short striate margin. The flesh is white, unchanging when injured. Gills: free, close to crowded, white becoming greyish, truncate. Spores: white in deposit, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid to elongate, infrequently globose
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Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge King's College LondonKnown for His system of classification of all organismsAwards Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(1998) International Prize for Biology
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Taxon
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking, especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion
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Opisthokont
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") or Choanozoa
Choanozoa
are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms,[5] together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom").[6] The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group",[7] are generally recognized as a clade
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Unikont
Unikonts or Amorphea
Amorphea
are members of a taxonomic supergroup that includes the basal Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
and Obazoa. That latter contains the Opisthokonta, which includes the Fungi, Animals and the Choanomonada, or Choanoflagellates
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Evolutionary
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Nucleariids
Nucleariida is a group of amoebae[1] with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater. They are distinguished from the superficially similar vampyrellids mainly by having mitochondria with discoid cristae. Classification[edit] Nucleariids are opisthokonts,[2] the group which includes animals, fungi and several smaller groups
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Choanozoa
Choanozoa
Choanozoa
(Greek: χόανος (choanos) "funnel" and ζῶον (zōon) "animal") is the name of a phylum of eukaryotes that belongs to the line of opisthokonts. The Animals appear to have emerged in the Choanozoa, as sister clade of the Choanoflagellates. Also the Fungi and Opisthosporidia
Opisthosporidia
appear to have emerged in the Choanozoa, as a sister clade of the Cristidiscoidea
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Animalia
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Holozoa
Holozoa
Holozoa
is a group of organisms that includes animals and their closest single-celled relatives, but excludes fungi.[1][2][3][4] Holozoa
Holozoa
is also an old name for the tunicate genus Distaplia.[5] Because Holozoa
Holozoa
is a clade including all organisms more closely related to animals than to fungi, some authors prefer it to recognizing paraphyletic groups such as Choanozoa, which mostly consists of Holozoa
Holozoa
minus animals.[6] Perhaps the best-known holozoans, apart from animals, are the choanoflagellates, which strongly resemble the collar cells of sponges, and so were theorized to be related to sponges even in the 19th century
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Opisthokonta
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") or Choanozoa
Choanozoa
are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms,[5] together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom").[6] The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group",[7] are generally recognized as a clade
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Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists,[2] often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.[3][4] In most classification schemes, Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
is ranked as a phylum within either the kingdom Protista[5] or the kingdom Protozoa.[6] In the classification favored by the International Society of Protistologists, it is retained as an unranked "supergroup" within Eukaryota.[3] Molecular genetic analysis supports Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
as a monophyletic clade
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