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Cripps Mission
The Cripps mission was an attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. The mission was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Privy Seal
Lord Privy Seal
which held the rank of a senior minister, and leader of the House of Commons. Cripps belonged to the left-wing Labour Party, traditionally sympathetic to Indian self-rule, but was also a member of the coalition War Cabinet led by the Conservative Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Cripps was sent to negotiate an agreement with the nationalist leaders, speaking for the majority Hindu population, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, speaking for the minority Muslim population. Cripps worked to keep India loyal to the British war effort in exchange for a promise of full self-government after the war. Cripps promised to give dominion status after the war as well as elections to be held after the war
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British Government
Her Majesty's Government, commonly referred to as the UK government or British government, is the central government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland.[3][4] The government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining ministers. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet.[4] The government ministers all sit in Parliament, and are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation,[5] and since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election (as was the case in 2017) in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by
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Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords):1,700,000 (1937)[1] 2,600,000 (1939)[2] 5,700,000 (1945)[3] Chinese Communists:166,700 (1938)[4] 488,744 (1940)[5] 1,200,000 (1945)[6] Japanese:600,000 (1937)[7] 1,015,000 (1939)[8] 1,124,900 (1945)[9] (excluding Burma campaign
Burma campaign
and Manchuria) Puppet states and collaborators: 900,000 (1945)[10]Casualties and lossesChinese Nationalists:Official ROC data:1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 miss
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Burma
Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1][8] officially the Republic
Republic
of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[9] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[5] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size
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Lend-Lease
The lend-lease policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", (Pub.L. 77–11, H.R. 1776, 55 Stat. 31, enacted March 11, 1941)[1] was a program by which the United States supplied Free France, the United Kingdom, the Republic of China, and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. The policy was signed into law on March 11, 1941 and ended overnight without prior warning when the war against Japan ended. The aid was free for all countries, although goods in transit when the program ended were charged for. Some transport ships were returned to the US after the war, but practically all the items sent out were used up or worthless in peacetime. In return for the aid, the U.S
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Governor of New York GovernorshipPresident of the United States PresidencyFirst Term1932 campaignElection1st Inauguration First 100 daysNew Deal Glass-Steagall Act WPA Social Security SEC Fireside ChatsSecond Term1936 campaignElection2nd InaugurationSupreme Court Packing National Recovery Act 1937 Recession March of Dimes Pre-war foreign policyThird Term1940 campaignElection3rd InaugurationWorld War IIWorld War IIAttack on Pearl Harbor Infamy Speech Atlantic Charter Japanese Internment Tehran Conference United Nations D-DaySecond Bill of Rights G.I
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Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.[1] Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India, as India
India
soon became a Republic in 1950. Furthermore, he was the First Indian Governor General of the country, the posts were held by British people.[2] He also served as leader of the Indian National Congress, Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajagopalachari founded the Swatantra Party
Swatantra Party
and was one of the first recipients of India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament
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Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/ˈɡɑːndi, ˈɡæn-/;[3] Hindustani: [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India
India
to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")[4]—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa[5]—is now used worldwide
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Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar
Sardar
Patel, was the 1st Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian barrister and statesman, a senior leader of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and a founding father of the Republic of India
India
who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation.[1] In India
India
and elsewhere, he was often addressed as Sardar, which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian
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Maulana Azad
Maulana Sayyid
Sayyid
Abul Kalam
Kalam
Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin AlHussaini Azad ( pronunciation (help·info); 11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
during the Indian independence movement. Following India's independence, he became the first Minister of Education in the Indian government. He is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad; the word Maulana is an honorific meaning 'Our Master', and he had adopted Azad (Free) as his pen name. His contribution to establishing the education foundation in India
India
is recognised by celebrating his birthday as "National Education Day" across India.[1][2] As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well as treaties on religion and philosophy
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Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(/ˈneɪruː, ˈnɛruː/;[1] Hindustani: [ˈdʒəʋaːɦərˈlaːl ˈneːɦru] ( listen); 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India
India
and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and ruled India
India
from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic
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Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/ˈɡɑːndi, ˈɡæn-/;[3] Hindustani: [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India
India
to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")[4]—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa[5]—is now used worldwide
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Republic Of China
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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CommonWealth
Commonwealth
Commonwealth
is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.[dubious – discuss] Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare general good or advantage" dates from the 15th century. Originally a phrase (the common-wealth or the common weal – echoed in the modern synonym "public weal") it comes from the old meaning of "wealth", which is "well-being", and is itself a loose translation of the Latin res publica (republic). The term literally meant "common well-being". In the 17th century, the definition of "commonwealth" expanded from its original sense of "public welfare" or "commonweal" to mean "a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people; a republic or democratic state"
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Viceroy's Executive Council
The Viceroy's Executive Council was the cabinet of the government of British India headed by the Viceroy of India
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