The lend-lease policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense
of the United States", (Pub.L. 77–11, H.R. 1776,
55 Stat. 31, enacted March 11, 1941) was a program
by which the United States supplied Free France, the United Kingdom,
the Republic of China, and later the
Soviet Union and other Allied
nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. The
policy was signed into law on March 11, 1941 and ended overnight
without prior warning when the war against Japan ended. The aid was
free for all countries, although goods in transit when the program
ended were charged for. Some transport ships were returned to the US
after the war, but practically all the items sent out were used up or
worthless in peacetime. In return for the aid, the U.S. was given
leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory during the war.
The program was under the direct control of the White House, with
Roosevelt paying close attention, assisted by Harry Hopkins, W.
Averell Harriman, Edward Stettinius Jr.. Roosevelt often sent them on
special missions to London and Moscow, where their control over Lend
Lease gave them importance. The budget was hidden away in the overall
military budget, and details were not released until after the war.
A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to $681 billion presently)
was involved, or 11% of the total war expenditures of the U.S. In
all, $31.4 billion (equivalent to $427 billion today) went to
Britain and its Empire, $11.3 billion (equivalent to $154 billion
today) to the Soviet Union, $3.2 billion (equivalent to
$43.5 billion today) to France, $1.6 billion (equivalent to
$21.7 billion today) to China, and the remaining $2.6 billion to
the other Allies. Reverse lend-lease policies comprised services such
as rent on bases used by the U.S., and totaled $7.8 billion; of this,
$6.8 billion came from the British and the Commonwealth, mostly
Australia and India. The terms of the agreement provided that the
materiel was to be used until returned or destroyed. In practice very
little equipment was in usable shape for peacetime uses. Supplies that
arrived after the termination date were sold to Britain at a large
discount for £1.075 billion, using long-term loans from the United
States. Canada was not part of Lend Lease. However it operated a
similar program called Mutual Aid that sent a loan of $1 billion and
$3.4 billion in supplies and services to Britain and other
This program effectively ended the United States' pretense of
neutrality and was a decisive change from non-interventionist policy,
which had dominated United States foreign relations since 1931. (See
Neutrality Acts of 1930s.)
1 Historical background
5 Returning goods after the war
6 US deliveries to the Soviet Union
7 British deliveries to the Soviet Union
8 Reverse Lend-lease
9 Canadian aid to Britain
11 See also
13 External links
Food aid from America: British pupils wave for the camera as they
receive plates of bacon and eggs.
After the defeat of
France during June 1940, the British Commonwealth
and Empire were the only forces engaged in war against Germany and
Italy, until the Italian invasion of Greece. Britain had been paying
for its material with gold as part of the "cash and carry" program, as
required by the US Neutrality Acts of the 1930s, but by 1941 it had
liquidated so many assets that its cash was becoming depleted.
During this same period, the U.S. government began to mobilize for
total war, instituting the first-ever peacetime draft and a fivefold
increase in the defense budget (from $2 billion to $10 billion). In
the meantime, as the British began becoming short of money, arms, and
other supplies, Prime Minister
Winston Churchill pressed President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt for American help. Sympathetic to the British
plight but hampered by public opinion and the Neutrality Acts, which
forbade arms sales on credit or the loaning of money to belligerent
nations, Roosevelt eventually came up with the idea of "lend–lease".
As one Roosevelt biographer has characterized it: "If there was no
practical alternative, there was certainly no moral one either.
Britain and the Commonwealth were carrying the battle for all
civilization, and the overwhelming majority of Americans, led in the
late election by their president, wished to help them." As the
President himself put it, "There can be no reasoning with incendiary
In September 1940, during the
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain the British government
Tizard Mission to the United States. The aim of the
British Technical and Scientific Mission was to obtain the industrial
resources to exploit the military potential of the research and
development work completed by the UK up to the beginning of World War
II, but that Britain itself could not exploit due to the immediate
requirements of war-related production. The shared technology included
the cavity magnetron (key technology at the time for highly effective
radar; the American historian James Phinney Baxter III later called
"the most valuable cargo ever brought to our shores"), the
design for the VT fuze, details of Frank Whittle's jet engine and the
Frisch–Peierls memorandum describing the feasibility of an atomic
bomb. Though these may be considered the most significant, many
other items were also transported, including designs for rockets,
superchargers, gyroscopic gunsights, submarine detection devices,
self-sealing fuel tanks and plastic explosives.
During December 1940, President Roosevelt proclaimed the U.S.A. would
be the "Arsenal of Democracy" and proposed selling munitions to
Britain and Canada. Isolationists were strongly opposed, warning it
would result in American involvement with what was considered by most
Americans as an essentially European conflict. In time, opinion
shifted as increasing numbers of Americans began to consider the
advantage of funding the British war against Germany, while staying
free of the hostilities themselves. Propaganda showing the
devastation of British cities during The Blitz, as well as popular
depictions of Germans as savage also rallied public opinion to the
Allies, especially after the defeat of France.
After a decade of neutrality, Roosevelt knew that the change to Allied
support must be gradual, especially since
German Americans were the
largest ethnicity in America at the time. Originally, the American
policy was to help the British but not join the war. During early
February 1941, a Gallup poll revealed that 54 percent of Americans
were in favor of giving aid to the British without qualifications of
lend-Lease. A further 15 percent were in favor with qualifications
such as: "If it doesn't get us into war," or "If the British can give
us some security for what we give them." Only 22 percent were
unequivocally against the President's proposal. When poll participants
were asked their party affiliation, the poll revealed a political
divide: 69 percent of Democrats were unequivocally in favor of
Lend-Lease, whereas only 38 percent of Republicans favored the bill
without qualification. At least one poll spokesperson also noted that,
"approximately twice as many Republicans" gave "qualified answers as
Opposition to the lend-lease bill was strongest among isolationist
Republicans in Congress, who feared the measure would be "the longest
single step this nation has yet taken toward direct involvement in the
war abroad". When the House of Representatives finally took a roll
call vote on February 9, 1941, the 260 to 165 vote was largely along
party lines. Democrats voted 238 to 25 in favor and Republicans 24 in
favor and 135 against.
The vote in the Senate, which occurred a month later, revealed a
similar partisan difference. 49 Democrats (79 percent) voted "aye"
with only 13 Democrats (21 percent) voting "nay." In contrast, 17
Republicans (63 percent) voted "nay" while 10 Senate Republicans (37
percent) sided with the Democrats to pass the bill.
President Roosevelt signed the lend-lease bill into law on 11 March
1941. It permitted him to "sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease,
lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense
the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any
defense article." In April, this policy was extended to China, and
in October to the Soviet Union. Roosevelt approved US $1 billion in
Lend-Lease aid to Britain at the end of October 1941.
This followed the 1940 Destroyers for Bases Agreement, whereby 50 US
Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy and the Royal
Canadian Navy in exchange for basing rights in the Caribbean.
Churchill also granted the US base rights in
Bermuda and Newfoundland
for free, allowing British military assets to be redeployed.
After the United States entered the war in December 1941,
foreign-policy was rarely discussed by Congress, and there was very
little demand to cut Lend Lease spending. In spring 1944, the House
passed a bill to renew the Lend Lease program by a vote of 334 to 21.
The Senate passed it by a vote of 63 to 1.
President Roosevelt established the Office of Lend-Lease
Administration during 1941, appointing steel executive Edward R.
Stettinius as head. During September 1943, he was promoted to
Undersecretary of State, and
Leo Crowley became director of the
Foreign Economic Administration which was given responsibility for
Lend-lease aid to the USSR was nominally managed by Stettinius.
Roosevelt's Soviet Protocol Committee was dominated by Harry Hopkins
and General John York, who were totally sympathetic to the provision
of "unconditional aid". Few Americans objected to Soviet aid until
The program began to be ended after VE Day. During April 1945,
Congress voted that it should not be used for post-conflict purposes,
and during August 1945, after Japanese surrender, the program was
ended. Prior to his death during April of that year, Roosevelt had
announced his intention to end the program from September 1945.
Value of materials supplied by the USA to other allied nations 
Millions of Dollars
Republic of China
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product between Allied and Axis powers,
1938–1945. See Military production during World War II.
Lend-Lease would help the British and Allied forces win the battles of
the late war; the help it gave in the battles of 1941 was
trivial.In 1943–1944, about a quarter of all
British munitions came through Lend-Lease. Aircraft (in particular
transport aircraft) comprised about a quarter of the shipments to
Britain, followed by food, land vehicles and ships.
Even after the United States forces in Europe and the Pacific began to
attain full strength during 1943–1944,
Lend-Lease continued. Most
remaining allies were largely self-sufficient in front line equipment
(such as tanks and fighter aircraft) by this time, but Lend-Lease
provided a useful supplement in this category even so, and Lend-Lease
logistical supplies (including motor vehicles and railroad equipment)
were of enormous assistance.
Much of the aid can be better understood when considering the economic
distortions caused by the war. Most belligerent powers decreased
severely production of non-essentials, concentrating on producing
weapons. This inevitably produced shortages of related products needed
by the military or as part of the military-industrial complex. For
example, the USSR was very dependent on rail transportation, but the
war practically ended rail equipment production. Just 446 locomotives
were produced during the war, with only 92 of those being built
between 1942 and 1945. In total, 92.7% of the wartime production
of railroad equipment by the USSR was supplied by Lend-Lease,
including 1,911 locomotives and 11,225 railcars which augmented
the existing prewar stocks of at least 20,000 locomotives and half a
Furthermore, much of the logistical assistance of the Soviet military
was provided by hundreds of thousands of U.S.-made trucks. Indeed, by
1945, nearly a third of the truck strength of the
Red Army was
U.S.-built. Trucks such as the
Dodge ¾ ton and
Studebaker 2½ ton
were easily the best trucks available in their class on either side on
the Eastern Front. American shipments of telephone cable, aluminum,
canned rations, and clothing were also critical.
Lend-Lease also supplied significant amounts of weapons and
ammunition. The Soviet air force received 18,200 aircraft, which
amounted to about 13% of Soviet wartime aircraft production. And
while most tank units were Soviet-built models, some 7,000 Lend-Lease
tanks were deployed by the Red Army, or 8% of war-time production.
According to the Russian historian Boris Vadimovich Sokolov,
Lend-Lease had a crucial role in winning the war:
On the whole the following conclusion can be drawn: that without these
Western shipments under
Soviet Union not only would not
have been able to win the Great Patriotic War, it would not have been
able even to oppose the German invaders, since it could not itself
produce sufficient quantities of arms and military equipment or
adequate supplies of fuel and ammunition. The Soviet authorities were
well aware of this dependency on Lend-Lease. Thus, Stalin told Harry
Hopkins [FDR's emissary to Moscow in July 1941] that the U.S.S.R.
could not match Germany's might as an occupier of Europe and its
Nikita Khrushchev, having served as a military commissar and
intermediary between Stalin and his generals during the war, addressed
directly the significance of Lend-lease aid in his memoirs:
I would like to express my candid opinion about Stalin’s views on
Red Army and the
Soviet Union could have coped with Nazi
Germany and survived the war without aid from the United States and
Britain. First, I would like to tell about some remarks Stalin made
and repeated several times when we were "discussing freely" among
ourselves. He stated bluntly that if the United States had not helped
us, we would not have won the war. If we had had to fight Nazi Germany
one on one, we could not have stood up against Germany's pressure, and
we would have lost the war. No one ever discussed this subject
officially, and I don't think Stalin left any written evidence of his
opinion, but I will state here that several times in conversations
with me he noted that these were the actual circumstances. He never
made a special point of holding a conversation on the subject, but
when we were engaged in some kind of relaxed conversation, going over
international questions of the past and present, and when we would
return to the subject of the path we had traveled during the war, that
is what he said. When I listened to his remarks, I was fully in
agreement with him, and today I am even more so.
Joseph Stalin, during the
Tehran Conference during 1943, acknowledged
publicly the importance of American efforts during a dinner at the
conference: "Without American production the United Nations [the
Allies] could never have won the war."
In a confidential interview with the wartime correspondent Konstantin
Simonov, the Soviet Marshal
Georgy Zhukov is quoted as saying:
Today  some say the Allies didn’t really help us… But
listen, one cannot deny that the Americans shipped over to us material
without which we could not have equipped our armies held in reserve or
been able to continue the war.
Returning goods after the war
Roosevelt, eager to ensure public consent for this controversial plan,
explained to the public and the press that his plan was comparable to
one neighbor's lending another a garden hose to put out a fire in his
home. "What do I do in such a crisis?" the president asked at a press
conference. "I don't say... 'Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you
have to pay me $15 for it' …I don't want $15 — I want my garden
hose back after the fire is over." To which Senator Robert Taft
(R-Ohio), responded: "Lending war equipment is a good deal like
lending chewing gum—you certainly don't want the same gum back."
In practice, very little was returned except for a few unarmed
transport ships. Surplus military equipment was of no value in
Lend-Lease agreements with 30 countries provided for
repayment not in terms of money or returned goods, but in "joint
action directed towards the creation of a liberalized international
economic order in the postwar world." That is the U.S, would be
"repaid" when the recipient fought the common enemy and joined the
world trade and diplomatic agencies, such as the United Nations.
US deliveries to the Soviet Union
Shipped goods of the western Allies to the Soviet Union.
Warsaw 1945: Willys jeep used by Polish First Army as part of US
Lend-Lease Memorial in
Fairbanks, Alaska commemorates the shipment
of U.S. aircraft to the
Soviet Union along the Northwest Staging
American deliveries to the
Soviet Union can be divided into the
"pre Lend-lease" 22 June 1941 to 30 September 1941 (paid for in gold
and other minerals)
first protocol period from 1 October 1941 to 30 June 1942 (signed 7
October 1941), these supplies were to be manufactured and
delivered by the UK with US credit financing.
second protocol period from 1 July 1942 to 30 June 1943 (signed 6
third protocol period from 1 July 1943 to 30 June 1944 (signed 19
fourth protocol period from 1 July 1944, (signed 17 April 1945),
formally ended 12 May 1945 but deliveries continued for the duration
of the war with Japan (which the
Soviet Union entered on the 8 August
1945) under the "Milepost" agreement until 2 September 1945 when Japan
capitulated. On 20 September 1945 all
Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union
Delivery was via the Arctic Convoys, the Persian Corridor, and the
The Arctic route was the shortest and most direct route for lend-lease
aid to the USSR, though it was also the most dangerous as it involved
sailing past German-occupied Norway. Some 3,964,000 tons of goods were
shipped by the Arctic route; 7% was lost, while 93% arrived
safely. This constituted some 23% of the total aid to the USSR
during the war.
Persian Corridor was the longest route, and was not fully
operational until mid-1942. Thereafter it saw the passage of 4,160,000
tons of goods, 27% of the total.
BM-13N Katyusha on a
Studebaker US6 truck, at the Museum of
the Great Patriotic War, Moscow.
The Pacific Route opened in August 1941, but was affected by the start
of hostilities between Japan and the US; after December 1941, only
Soviet ships could be used, and, as Japan and the USSR observed a
strict neutrality towards each other, only non-military goods could be
transported. Nevertheless, some 8,244,000 tons of goods went by
this route, 50% of the total.
In total, the U.S. deliveries through
Lend-Lease amounted to $11
billion in materials: over 400,000 jeeps and trucks; 12,000 armored
vehicles (including 7,000 tanks, about 1,386 of which were M3 Lees
and 4,102 M4 Shermans); 11,400 aircraft (4,719 of which were Bell
P-39 Airacobras) and 1.75 million tons of food.
Roughly 17.5 million tons of military equipment, vehicles, industrial
supplies, and food were shipped from the Western Hemisphere to the
USSR, 94% coming from the US. For comparison, a total of 22 million
tons landed in Europe to supply American forces from January 1942 to
May 1945. It has been estimated that American deliveries to the USSR
Persian Corridor alone were sufficient, by US Army
standards, to maintain sixty combat divisions in the line.
The United States delivered to the
Soviet Union from October 1, 1941
to May 31, 1945 the following: 427,284 trucks, 13,303 combat vehicles,
35,170 motorcycles, 2,328 ordnance service vehicles, 2,670,371 tons of
petroleum products (gasoline and oil) or 57.8 percent of the
High-octane aviation fuel, 4,478,116 tons of foodstuffs (canned
meats, sugar, flour, salt, etc.), 1,911 steam locomotives, 66 Diesel
locomotives, 9,920 flat cars, 1,000 dump cars, 120 tank cars, and 35
heavy machinery cars. Provided ordnance goods (ammunition, artillery
shells, mines, assorted explosives) amounted to 53 percent of total
domestic production. One item typical of many was a tire plant
that was lifted bodily from the Ford Company's River Rouge Plant and
transferred to the USSR. The 1947 money value of the supplies and
services amounted to about eleven billion dollars.
British deliveries to the Soviet Union
Red Army in Bucharest near Boulevard of Carol I. with British-supplied
Valentine tank destined for the
Soviet Union leaves the factory in
In June 1941, within weeks of the German invasion of the USSR, the
first British aid convoy set off along the dangerous Arctic sea route
to Murmansk, arriving in September. It carried 40 Hawker Hurricanes
along with 550 mechanics and pilots of No. 151 Wing to provide
immediate air defence of the port and to train Soviet pilots. The
convoy was the first of many convoys to
what became known as the Arctic convoys, the returning ships carried
the gold that the USSR was using to pay the US.
By the end of 1941, early shipments of Matilda, Valentine and Tetrarch
tanks represented only 6.5% of total Soviet tank production but over
25% of medium and heavy tanks produced for the Red Army. The
British tanks first saw action with the 138 Independent Tank Battalion
in the Volga Reservoir on 20 November 1941.
constituted 30 to 40 percent of heavy and medium tank strength before
Moscow at the beginning of December 1941.
British Mk III 'Valentine' destroyed in the Soviet Union, January
Significant numbers of British Churchill, Matilda and Valentine tanks
were shipped to the USSR.
Between June 1941 and May 1945, Britain delivered to the USSR:
4,000+ other aircraft
27 naval vessels
5,218 tanks (including 1,380 Valentines from Canada)
5,000+ anti-tank guns
4,020 ambulances and trucks
323 machinery trucks
1,212 Universal Carriers and Loyd Carriers (with another 1,348 from
£1.15bn worth of aircraft engines
1,474 radar sets
4,338 radio sets
600 naval radar and sonar sets
Hundreds of naval guns
15 million pairs of boots
In total 4 million tonnes of war material including food and medical
supplies were delivered. The munitions totaled £308m (not including
naval munitions supplied), the food and raw materials totaled £120m
in 1946 index. In accordance with the Anglo-Soviet Military Supplies
Agreement of 27 June 1942, military aid sent from Britain to the
Soviet Union during the war was entirely free of charge.
Reverse Lend-lease was the supply of equipment and services to the
United States. Nearly $8 billion (equivalent to $124 billion today)
worth of war material was provided to U.S. forces by her allies, 90%
of this sum coming from the British Empire. Reciprocal
contributions included the
Austin K2/Y military ambulance, British
aviation spark plugs used in B-17 Flying Fortresses, Canadian-made
Fairmile launches used in anti-submarine warfare, Mosquito
photo-reconnaissance aircraft, and Indian petroleum products.
Australia and New Zealand supplied the bulk of foodstuffs to United
States forces in the South Pacific. Though diminutive in
comparison, Soviet-supplied reverse lend-lease included 300,000 metric
tons of chromium and 32,000 metric tons of manganese ore, as well as
wood, gold and platinum.
In a November 1943 report to Congress, President Roosevelt said of
Allied participation in reverse Lend-lease:
...the expenditures made by the British
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations for
reverse lend-lease aid furnished to the United States, and of the
expansion of this program so as to include exports of materials and
foodstuffs for the account of United States agencies from the United
Kingdom and the British colonies, emphasizes the contribution which
the British Commonwealth has made to the defense of the United States
while taking its place on the battle fronts. It is an indication of
the extent to which the British have been able to pool their resources
with ours so that the needed weapon may be in the hands of that
soldier—whatever may be his nationality- who can at the proper
moment use it most effectively to defeat our common enemies.
In 1945–46, the value of Reciprocal Aid from New Zealand exceeded
that of Lend-Lease, though in 1942–43, the value of
New Zealand was much more than that of Reciprocal Aid. Britain also
supplied extensive material assistance to American forces stationed in
Europe, for example the USAAF was supplied with hundreds of Spitfire
Mk V and Mk VIII fighter aircraft.
The cooperation that was built up with Canada during the war was an
amalgam compounded of diverse elements of which the air and land
routes to Alaska, the Canol project, and the CRYSTAL and CRIMSON
activities were the most costly in point of effort and funds expended.
... The total of defense materials and services that Canada received
through lend-lease channels amounted in value to approximately
... Some idea of the scope of economic collaboration can be had from
the fact that from the beginning of 1942 through 1945 Canada, on her
part, furnished the United States with $1,000,000,000 to
$1,250,000,000 in defense materials and services.
... Although most of the actual construction of joint defense
facilities, except the
Alaska Highway and the Canol project, had been
carried out by Canada, most of the original cost was borne by the
United States. The agreement was that all temporary construction for
the use of American forces and all permanent construction required by
the United States forces beyond Canadian requirements would be paid
for by the United States, and that the cost of all other construction
of permanent value would be met by Canada. Although it was not
entirely reasonable that Canada should pay for any construction that
the Canadian Government considered unnecessary or that did not conform
to Canadian requirements, nevertheless considerations of self-respect
and national sovereignty led the Canadian Government to suggest a new
... The total amount that Canada agreed to pay under the new
arrangement came to about $76,800,000, which was some $13,870,000 less
than the United States had spent on the facilities.
Canadian aid to Britain
Main article: Billion Dollar Gift and Mutual Aid
Canada had its own version of lend-lease for Britain. Canada
gave Britain gifts totaling $3.5 billion during the war, plus a
zero-interest loan of $1 billion; Britain used the money to buy
Canadian food and war supplies. Canada also loaned $1.2
billion on a long-term basis to Britain immediately after the war;
these loans were fully repaid in late 2006.
The Gander Air Base (RCAF Station Gander) located at Gander
International Airport built in 1936 in Newfoundland was leased by
Britain to Canada for 99 years because of its urgent need for the
movement of fighter and bomber aircraft to Britain. The lease
became redundant when Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province in
Lend-Lease aid comprised supplies purchased in the U.S.,
but Roosevelt allowed
Lend-Lease to purchase supplies from Canada, for
shipment to Britain, China and Soviet Union.
Main article: Anglo-American loan
Congress had not authorized the gift of supplies delivered after the
cutoff date, so the U.S. charged for them, usually at a 90% discount.
Large quantities of undelivered goods were in Britain or in transit
Lend-Lease terminated on 2 September 1945. Britain wished to
retain some of this equipment in the immediate post war period. In
1946, the post-war
Anglo-American loan further indebted Britain to the
Lend-Lease items retained were sold to Britain at 10% of nominal
value, giving an initial loan value of £1.075 billion for the
Lend-Lease portion of the post-war loans. Payment was to be stretched
out over 50 annual payments, starting in 1951 and with five years of
deferred payments, at 2% interest. The final payment of $83.3
million (£42.5 million), due on 31 December 2006 (repayment having
been deferred in the allowed five years and during a sixth year not
allowed), was made on 29 December 2006 (the last working day of the
year). After this final payment Britain's Economic Secretary to the
Treasury formally thanked the U.S. for its wartime support.
Tacit repayment of
Lend-Lease by the British was made in the form of
several valuable technologies, including those related to radar,
sonar, jet engines, antitank weaponry, rockets, superchargers,
gyroscopic gunsights, submarine detection, self-sealing fuel tanks,
and plastic explosives as well as the British contribution to the
Manhattan Project. Many of these were transferred by the Tizard
Mission. The official historian of the Office of Scientific Research
and Development, James Phinney Baxter III, wrote: "When the members of
Tizard Mission brought the cavity magnetron to America in 1940,
they carried the most valuable cargo ever brought to our shores."
While repayment of the interest-free loans was required after the end
of the war under the act, in practice the U.S. did not expect to be
repaid by the USSR after the war. The U.S. received $2M in reverse
Lend-Lease from the USSR. This was mostly in the form of landing,
servicing, and refueling of transport aircraft; some industrial
machinery and rare minerals were sent to the U.S. The U.S. asked for
$1.3B at the cessation of hostilities to settle the debt, but was only
offered $170M by the USSR. The dispute remained unresolved until 1972,
when the U.S. accepted an offer from the USSR to repay $722M linked to
grain shipments from the U.S., with the remainder being written off.
During the war the USSR provided an unknown number of shipments of
rare minerals to the US Treasury as a form of cashless repayment of
Lend-Lease. This was agreed upon before the signing of the first
protocol on 1 October 1941 and extension of credit. Some of these
shipments were intercepted by the Germans. In May 1942, the HMS
Edinburgh was sunk while carrying 4.5 tonnes of Soviet gold intended
for the U.S. Treasury. This gold was salvaged in 1981 and 1986. In
June 1942, the SS Port Nicholson was sunk en route from Halifax,
Canada to New York, allegedly with Soviet platinum, gold, and
industrial diamonds aboard; the wreck was discovered in 2008.
However, none of this cargo has been salvaged, and no documentation of
its treasures has been produced.
Arctic convoys of World War II
Arms Export Control Act
Billion Dollar Gift and Mutual Aid, from Canada
Battle of the Atlantic
Cash and carry (World War II)
Houses for Britain
Lend-Lease Sherman tanks
Military production during World War II
Northwest Staging Route
^ Ebbert, Jean, Marie-Beth Hall & Beach, Edward Latimer. Crossed
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^ McNeill. America, Britain and Russia. p. 778.
^ Granatstein, J.L. (1990). Canada's War: The Politics of the
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^ Crowley, Leo T. "Lend-Lease" in Walter Yust, ed., 10 Eventful Years
(Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc, 1947), 1:520, 2:858–860.
^ Allen 1955, pp. 807–912
^ ”17 Billion Budget Drafted; Defense Takes 10 Billions.” The New
York Times, 28 December 1940.
^ Black 2003, pp. 603–605
^ a b "Address Is Spur To British Hopes; Confirmation of American Aid
in Conflict is Viewed as Heartening, A joining of interests,
Discarding of Peace Talks is Regarded as a Major Point in the Speech."
The New York Times, 30 December 1940.
^ Hind, Angela (5 February 2007). "Briefcase 'that changed the
world'". BBC News. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
^ James Phinney Baxter III (Official Historian of the Office of
Scientific Research and Development), Scientists Against Time (Boston:
Little, Brown, and Co., 1946), page 142.
^ "Radar". Newsweek. December 1, 1997.
^ Brennen, James W. (September 1968), The Proximity Fuze Whose
Brainchild?, United States Naval Institute Proceedings.
^ Kimball 1969
^ "Bill to Aid Britain Strongly Backed." The New York Times, 9
^ Dorris, Henry. "No Vital Changes." The New York Times, 9 February
^ Hinton, Harold B. "All Curbs Downed." The New York Times, 9 March
^ Weeks 2004, p. 24
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