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Crimson
HTML/CSS Crimson #DC143C B: Normalized to (byte) H: Normalized to (hundred) ELECTRIC CRIMSON COLOR COORDINATES HEX TRIPLET #FF003F SRGB B (R , G , B ) (255, 0, 63) CMYK H (C , M , Y , K ) (0, 100, 75, 0) HSV (H , S , V ) (345°, 100%, 100%) SOURCE B: Normalized to (byte) H: Normalized to (hundred) CRIMSON is a strong, red color, inclining to purple . It originally meant the color of the kermes dye produced from a scale insect , Kermes vermilio , but the name is now sometimes also used as a generic term for slightly bluish-red colors that are between black and rose
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Ochre
OCHRE ( British English
British English
) (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər ; from Greek: ὠχρός, ōkhrós, (pale yellow, pale) or OCHER (American English ; see spelling differences ), is a natural earth pigment containing hydrated iron oxide , which ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colors produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre" (or, in some dialects, RUDDLE)
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Sienna
SIENNA (from Italian : terra di Siena, " Siena
Siena
earth") is an earth pigment containing iron oxide and manganese oxide . In its natural state, it is yellow-brown and is called raw sienna. When heated, it becomes a reddish brown and is called burnt sienna. It takes its name from the city-state of Siena
Siena
, where it was produced during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Along with ochre and umber , it was one of the first pigments to be used by humans, and is found in many cave paintings. Since the Renaissance
Renaissance
, it has been one of the brown pigments most widely used by artists. The first recorded use of sienna as a colour name in English was in 1760
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Umber
UMBER is a natural brown or reddish-brown earth pigment that contains iron oxide and manganese oxide . It's darker than the other similar earth pigments, ochre and sienna . In its natural form, it's called raw umber. When heated (calcinated), the color becomes more intense, and the color is known as burnt umber. The name comes from terra d'ombra, or earth of Umbria
Umbria
, the Italian name of the pigment. Umbria
Umbria
is a mountainous region in central Italy where the pigment was originally extracted. The word also may be related to the Latin word Umbra. Umber
Umber
is not one precise color, but a range of different colors, from medium to dark, from yellowish to reddish to grayish. The color of the natural earth depends upon the amount of iron oxide and manganese in the clay
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Old Spanish
OLD SPANISH, also known as OLD CASTILIAN (Spanish : castellano antiguo, romance castellano) or MEDIEVAL SPANISH (Spanish : español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin
Latin
spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language
Spanish language
that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish. The poem Cantar de Mio Cid
Cantar de Mio Cid
(The Poem of the Cid), published around 1200, remains the best known and most extensive work of literature in Old Spanish
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Alum
The ALUMS /ˈælum/ are a class of chemical compounds . Alums are double sulfate salts, with the general formula AM(SO 4) 2·12H 2O, where A is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium and M is a trivalent metal ion such as aluminium or chromium(III) . By itself, "alum" often refers to potassium alum , the hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate with the formula K Al (SO 4)2·12H 2O. Other alums with aluminium as their trivalent ion are named after the monovalent ion. Alum
Alum
may also refer to aluminum hydroxide gel used as a vaccine adjuvant
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Madder Lake
ALIZARIN or 1,2-DIHYDROXYANTHRAQUINONE (also known as MORDANT RED 11 and TURKEY RED ) is an organic compound with formula C 14H 8O 4 that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye , principally for dyeing textile fabrics. Historically it was derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. In 1869, it became the first natural pigment to be duplicated synthetically. Alizarin
Alizarin
is the main ingredient for the manufacture of the madder lake pigments known to painters as Rose madder and Alizarin
Alizarin
crimson . Alizarin
Alizarin
in the most common usage of the term has a deep red color, but the term is also part of the name for several related non-red dyes, such as Alizarine Cyanine Green and Alizarine Brilliant Blue
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Alizarin
ALIZARIN or 1,2-DIHYDROXYANTHRAQUINONE (also known as MORDANT RED 11 and TURKEY RED ) is an organic compound with formula C 14H 8O 4 that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye , principally for dyeing textile fabrics. Historically it was derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. In 1869, it became the first natural pigment to be duplicated synthetically. Alizarin
Alizarin
is the main ingredient for the manufacture of the madder lake pigments known to painters as Rose madder and Alizarin
Alizarin
crimson . Alizarin
Alizarin
in the most common usage of the term has a deep red color, but the term is also part of the name for several related non-red dyes, such as Alizarine Cyanine Green and Alizarine Brilliant Blue
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Chemist
A CHEMIST (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy + -ist; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista ) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry . Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms . Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties . The word 'chemist' is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry . Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists
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Carl Gräbe
CARL GRäBE (German: ; 24 February 1841 – 19 January 1927) was a German industrial and academic chemist from Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
who held professorships in his field at Leipzig
Leipzig
, Königsberg , and Geneva . He is known for the first synthesis of the economically important dye, alizarin , with Liebermann , and for contributing to the fundamental nomenclature of organic chemistry . BIOGRAPHYGräbe was born in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in 1841. He studied at a vocational high school in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Karlsruhe Polytechnic and in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
. Later he worked for the chemical company Meister Lucius und Brüning (today Hoechst AG ). He supervised the production of Fuchsine and researched violet colorants made using iodine . The work with iodine resulted in eye problems, so he returned to academia
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Carl Liebermann
CARL THEODORE LIEBERMANN (23 February 1842 – 28 December 1914) was a German chemist and student of Adolf von Baeyer . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 References * 4 Associated articles LIFELiebermann first studied at the University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
where Robert Wilhelm Bunsen was teaching. He then joined the group of Adolf von Baeyer at the University of Berlin
Berlin
where he received his Ph.D. in 1865. Together with Carl Gräbe
Carl Gräbe
, Liebermann synthesized the orange-red dye alizarin in 1868. After his habilitation in 1870 he became professor at the University of Berlin
Berlin
after Adolf von Baeyer left for the University of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg
. Shortly after Liebermann retired, in 1914, he died
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Medieval Latin
MEDIEVAL LATIN was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, primarily: as a medium of scholarly exchange; as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
; and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Late Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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Salt
TABLE SALT or COMMON SALT is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts ; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite . Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Carminic Acid
CARMINIC ACID (C22H20O13) is a red glucosidal hydroxyanthrapurin that occurs naturally in some scale insects , such as the cochineal , Armenian cochineal , and Polish cochineal
Polish cochineal
. The insects produce the acid as a deterrent to predators. An aluminum salt of carminic acid is the coloring agent in carmine . Synonyms are C.I. 75470 and C.I. Natural Red 4. The chemical structure of carminic acid consists of a core anthraquinone structure linked to a glucose sugar unit. Carminic acid was first synthesized in the laboratory by organic chemists in 1991. REFERENCES * ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 1850. * ^ Atabey, Hasan; Sari, Hayati; Al-Obaidi, Faisal N. (28 April 2012). "Protonation Equilibria of Carminic Acid and Stability Constants of Its Complexes with Some Divalent Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution". Journal of Solution Chemistry. 41 (5): 793–803. doi :10.1007/s10953-012-9830-7 . * ^ Allevi, P.; et al. (1991)
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Percent
In mathematics , a PERCENTAGE is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. It is often denoted using the percent sign , "%", or the abbreviations "pct.", "pct"; sometimes the abbreviation "pc" is also used. A percentage is a dimensionless number (pure number). CONTENTS* 1 Examples * 1.1 Example 1 * 1.2 Example 2 * 2 History * 3 Percent sign * 4 Calculations * 5 Percentage
Percentage
increase and decrease * 6 Compounding percentages * 7 Word and symbol * 8 Other uses * 9 Related units * 10 Practical applications * 11 See also * 12 References EXAMPLESFor example, 45% (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to  45⁄100 , 45:100 , or 0.45 . Percentages are often used to express a proportionate part of a total
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