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Criminology
CRIMINOLOGY (from Latin
Latin
crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia ) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology
Criminology
is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists , psychologists , philosophers , psychiatrists , social anthropologists , as well as scholars of law. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie
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Justice
JUSTICE is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture . An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke
John Locke
argued for the theory of natural law . Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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War Crime
A WAR CRIME is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture , destroying civilian property, taking hostages , perfidy , rape , using child soldiers , pillaging , declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality , such as strategic bombing of civilian populations. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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Social Learning Theory
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others. It states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement . In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and punishments, a process known as vicarious reinforcement. When a particular behavior is rewarded regularly, it will most likely persist; conversely, if a particular behavior is constantly punished, it will most likely desist. The theory expands on traditional behavioral theories , in which behavior is governed solely by reinforcements, by placing emphasis on the important roles of various internal processes in the learning individual
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Solitary Confinement
SOLITARY CONFINEMENT is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact , often with the exception of members of prison staff , for 22–24 hours a day, with a sentence ranging from days to decades. It is mostly employed as a form of punishment beyond incarceration for a prisoner, usually for violations of prison regulations. However, it is also used as an additional measure of protection for vulnerable inmates. In the case of prisoners at high risk of suicide , it can be used to prevent access to items that could allow the prisoner to self-harm
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Psychopathy
PSYCHOPATHY, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy , is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior , impaired empathy and remorse , and bold , disinhibited , egotistical traits . Different conceptions of psychopathy have been used throughout history . These conceptions are only partly overlapping and may sometimes be contradictory. Hervey M. Cleckley , an American psychiatrist, influenced the initial diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality reaction/disturbance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), as did American psychologist George E. Partridge
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Symbolic Interactionism
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM is a sociological perspective which developed around the middle of the twentieth century and that continues to be influential in some areas of the discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology . Symbolic interactionism is derived from the American philosophy of pragmatism and particularly from the work of George Herbert Mead . Symbolic interactionism is an American theory that develops from practical considerations and that alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others. Herbert Blumer , a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term and put forward an influential summary: people act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them, and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation
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Chicago School (sociology)
In sociology and later criminology , the CHICAGO SCHOOL (sometimes described as the ECOLOGICAL SCHOOL) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology , and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago
Chicago
, now applied elsewhere. While involving scholars at several Chicago
Chicago
area universities, the term is often used interchangeably to refer to the University of Chicago
Chicago
's sociology department. Following World War II
World War II
, a "Second Chicago School" arose whose members used symbolic interactionism combined with methods of field research (today often referred to as ethnography ), to create a new body of work
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Rehabilitation (penology)
REHABILITATION is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy , to counter habitual offending , also known as criminal recidivism
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Prison Reform
PRISON REFORM is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons , establish a more effective penal system , or implement alternatives to incarceration . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 1.2 United States * 1.3 Europe
Europe
* 2 Theories * 2.1 Retribution, vengeance and retaliation * 2.2 Deterrence * 2.3 Rehabilitation, reform and correction * 2.4 Removal from society * 2.5 Restitution or repayment * 2.6 Reduction in immediate costs * 3 Examples * 3.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 3.2 United States * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY Prison
Prison
populations of various countries in 2008 Prisons have only been used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries
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Crimes Against Humanity
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials . Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts – such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court, as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative
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Prisoners' Rights
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
; the United Nations ' Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners , the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment , and the Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities CONTENTS * 1 Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PRISON LITIGATION REFORM ACT Main article: Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act In the United States
United States
, the Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act, or PLRA, is a federal statute enacted in 1996 with the intent of limiting "frivolous lawsuits" by prisoners
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Participatory Justice
PARTICIPATORY JUSTICE is the use of alternative dispute resolution , such as mediation , conciliation , and arbitration , in criminal justice systems, instead of, or before, going to court. It is sometimes called "community dispute resolution". In rare cases, it also refers to the use of The Internet
The Internet
or a television reality show to catch a perpetrator . Once used primarily in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, Asia
Asia
, and Africa
Africa
, participatory justice has been "exported" to the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
. It is used in a variety of cases, including between "Landlords and Tenants, Neighbours, Parents and Children, Families and Schools, Consumers and Merchants ..
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Retributive Justice
RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE is a theory of justice which holds that the best response to a crime is a suitable punishment , inflicted for its own sake. The only goal in retributive justice is punishment. Preventing future crimes (deterrence ) or rehabilitation of the offender are not important in determining punishments. Retributivists hold that when an offender breaks the law, justice requires that the criminal suffer in return. They maintain that retribution is different from revenge , because retributive justice is only directed at wrongs, has inherent limits, is not personal, involves no pleasure at the suffering of others, and employs procedural standards. De Legibus, 106 BC; see also Ronen Perry, This paragraph MAY REQUIRE COPY EDITING FOR GRAMMAR, STYLE, COHESION, TONE, OR SPELLING. You can assist by editing it . (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )The concept is found in most cultures around the world and in many ancient texts
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Anomie
ANOMIE (/ˈænəˌmi/ ) is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community, e.g., under unruly scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of self-regulatory values . It was popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
in his influential book Suicide
Suicide
(1897). Durkheim never uses the term normlessness; rather, he describes anomie as "derangement", and "an insatiable will". Durkheim used the term "the malady of the infinite" because desire without limit can never be fulfilled; it only becomes more intense. For Durkheim, anomie arises more generally from a mismatch between personal or group standards and wider social standards, or from the lack of a social ethic, which produces moral deregulation and an absence of legitimate aspirations
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Prison
A PRISON, CORRECTIONAL FACILITY, DETENTION CENTER ( US English ), JAIL (US and Australia), GAOL (dated) ( British English
British English
), PENITENTIARY (sometime used in American English
American English
) or REMAND CENTRE is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state . Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until they are brought to trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment. Besides their use for punishing crimes, jails and prisons are frequently used by authoritarian regimes against perceived opponents
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