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Criminology
Criminology
Criminology
(from Latin
Latin
crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology
Criminology
is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo
Raffaele Garofalo
as criminologia
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State Crime
State
State
may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media[edit] Music[edit]The State
State
(album), a 1999
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War Crime
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.[1] Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, perfidy, rape, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.[2] The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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Justice
Justice
Justice
is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.[2] The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory say that justice issues from God. In the 17th century, theorists like John Locke advocated natural rights as a derivative of justice.[3] Thinkers in the social contract tradition state that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
said that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians state that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality
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Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.[1] It states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.[2] In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and punishments, a process known as vicarious reinforcement
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Solitary Confinement
Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact, often with the exception of members of prison staff, for 22–24 hours a day, with a sentence ranging from days to decades.[1] It is mostly employed as a form of punishment beyond incarceration for a prisoner, usually for violations of prison regulations. However, it is also used as an additional measure of protection for vulnerable inmates
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Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic interactionism
Symbolic interactionism
is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.[1] In other words, it is a frame of reference to better understand how individuals interact with one another to create symbolic worlds, and in return, how these worlds shapes individual behaviors.[2] Symbolic interactionism
Symbolic interactionism
comes from a sociological perspective which developed around the middle of the twentieth century and that continues to be influential in some areas of the discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology
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Chicago School (sociology)
In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago
Chicago
school (sometimes described as the ecological school) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. While involving scholars at several Chicago
Chicago
area universities, the term is often used interchangeably to refer to the University of Chicago's sociology department. Following the Second World War, a "second Chicago
Chicago
school" arose whose members used symbolic interactionism combined with methods of field research (today often referred to as ethnography), to create a new body of work.[1] The major researchers in the first Chicago
Chicago
school included Nels Anderson, Ernest Burgess, Ruth Shonle Cavan, Edward Franklin Frazier, Everett Hughes, Roderick D
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Psychopathy
Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder[1] characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy, impaired remorse, bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits. Different conceptions of psychopathy have been used throughout history. These conceptions are only partly overlapping and may sometimes be contradictory.[2] Hervey M. Cleckley, an American psychiatrist, influenced the initial diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality reaction/disturbance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), as did American psychologist George E. Partridge.[3] The DSM and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) subsequently introduced the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) respectively, stating that these diagnoses have been referred to (or include what is referred to) as psychopathy or sociopathy
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Crimes Against Humanity
Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
have since been prosecuted by other international courts (for example, the International Court of Justice
Justice
and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court) as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law
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Rehabilitation (penology)
Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy, to counter habitual offending, also known as criminal recidivism.[1][2] Alternatives to imprisonment also exist, such as community service, probation orders, and others entailing guidance and aftercare towards the defenderContents1 Methods1.1 Applications1.1.1 Norway2 Legislation2.1 America 2.2 Europe2.2.1 Germany 2.2.2 Italy3 Psychopathy
Psychopathy
and recidivism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMethods[edit] A successful r
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Prison Reform
Prison
Prison
reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.[1][2][3]Contents1 History1.1 United Kingdom 1.2 United States 1.3 Europe2 Theories2.1 Retribution, vengeance and retaliation 2.2 Deterrence 2.3 Rehabilitation, reform and correction 2.4 Removal from society 2.5 Restitution or repayment 2.6 Reduction in immediate costs3 Examples3.1 United Kingdom 3.2 United States4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] Prison
Prison
populations of various countries in 2008Prisons have only been used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries
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Participatory Justice
Participatory justice
Participatory justice
is the use of alternative dispute resolution, such as mediation, conciliation, and arbitration, in criminal justice systems, instead of, or before, going to court.[1][2] It is sometimes called "community dispute resolution".[3] In rare cases, it also refers to the use of The Internet
The Internet
or a television reality show to catch a perpetrator.[4] Once used primarily in Scandinavia, Asia, and Africa, participatory justice has been "exported" to the United States[3][5][6] and Canada.[2][7][8] It is used in a variety of cases, including between "Landlords and Tenants, Neighbours, Parents and Children, Families and Schools, Consumers and Merchants ..
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Retributive Justice
Retributive justice
Retributive justice
is a theory of justice that holds that the best response to a crime is a punishment proportional to the offense, inflicted because the offender deserves the punishment. Prevention of future crimes (deterrence) or rehabilitation of the offender are not considered in determining such punishments. The theory holds that when an offender breaks the law, justice requires that he or she suffer in return
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Prisoners' Rights
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the United Nations' Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,[1] and the Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities[2]Contents1 Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act[edit] Main article: Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act In the United States, the Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act, or PLRA, is a federal statute enacted in 1996 with the intent of limiting "frivolous lawsuits" by prisoners
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Prison
A prison,[a] also known as a correctional facility, jail,[b] gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center[c] (American English) or remand center[d] is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until they are brought to trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment. Besides their use for punishing crimes, jails and prisons are frequently used by authoritarian regimes against perceived opponents. In American English, prison and jail are often treated as having separate definitions. The term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, and are operated by the state or federal governments
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