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Consequentialism
Consequentialism
Consequentialism
is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Consequentialism
Consequentialism
is primarily non-prescriptive, meaning the moral worth of an action is determined by its potential consequence, not by whether it follows a set of written edicts or laws
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Demosthenes
Demosthenes
Demosthenes
(/dɪˈmɒs.θəniːz/; Greek: Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs; Attic Greek: [dɛːmosˈtʰenɛːs]; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes
Demosthenes
learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance
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Han Feizi
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eThe Han Feizi
Han Feizi
(Chinese: 韓非子) is an ancient
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Hope
Hope
Hope
is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.[1] As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation".[2] Among its opposites are dejection, hopelessness and despair.[3]Contents1 In psychology1.1 Hope
Hope
theory2 In healthcare2.1 Background 2.2 Major theories 2.3 Major empirical findings 2.4 Applications 2.5 Impediments 2.6 Benefits3 In culture 4 In management 5 In literature5.1 Symbolism6 In mythology 7 In religion7.1 Christianity 7.2 Hinduism8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksIn psychology[edit]Hope, which lay at the bottom of the box, remained
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Faith In Christianity
Faith in Christianity
Christianity
is a central idea taught by Jesus
Jesus
himself in reference to the gospel (Good News).[1] In the understanding of Jesus[clarification needed] it was an act of trust and self-abandonment in which people no longer rely on their own strength and policies but commit themselves to the power and guiding word of him in whom they believe.[2][3] Since the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
the meaning of this term has been an object of major theological disagreement in Western Christianity
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Wisdom
Wisdom
Wisdom
or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.[1] There appears to be consensus that wisdom is associated with attributes such as compassion, experiential self-knowledge, non-attachment and virtues such as ethics and benevolence.[2][3][4] Wisdom
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Temperance (virtue)
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.[1] It is typically described in terms of what an individual voluntarily refrains from doing.[2] This includes restraint from retaliation in the form of non-violence and forgiveness, restraint from arrogance in the form of humility and modesty, restraint from excesses such as splurging now in the form of prudence, and restraint from excessive anger or craving for something in the form of calmness and self-control.[2] Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement. In classical iconography, the virtue is often depicted as a woman holding two vessels transferring water from one to another
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Courage
Courage
Courage
(also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Physical courage is bravery in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, discouragement, or personal loss. The classical virtue of fortitude (andreia, fortitudo) is also translated "courage", but includes the aspects of perseverance and patience.[1] In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching
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Eudaemonist
Eudaimonia
Eudaimonia
(Greek: εὐδαιμονία [eu̯dai̯moníaː]), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia /juːdɪˈmoʊniə/, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.[1] Etymologically, it consists of the words "eu" ("good") and "daimōn" ("spirit")
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End (philosophy)
Instrumental and intrinsic value are technical labels for two poles of an ancient dichotomy. People seem to reason differently about what they ought to do, seeking legitimate ends, and what they are able to do, seeking efficient means. When reasoning about ends, they apply the criterion intrinsic value. It identifies legitimate rules of behavior, such as the Ten Commandments. When reasoning about means they apply the criterion instrumental value. It identifies efficient tools, such as scientific and technological theories. Few question the existence of these two criteria, but their relative authority is in constant dispute. This article explains the meaning of and disputes about these two criteria for judging means and ends. Evidence is drawn from the work of four scholars
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Saying
A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style
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Karl Popper
Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[7] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.[8][9][10] He is generally regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science.[11][12][13] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. Popper is also known for his opposition to the classical justificationist account of knowledge, which he replaced with critical rationalism, namely "the first non-justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy."[14] In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he came to believe made a flourishing open society possible
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Slippery Slope
A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device[1] in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.[2] The core of the slippery slope argument is that a specific decision under debate is likely to result in unintended consequences. The strength of such an argument depends on the warrant, i.e. whether or not one can demonstrate a process that leads to the significant effect. This type of argument is sometimes used as a form of fear mongering, in which the probable consequences of a given action are exaggerated in an attempt to scare the audience. The fallacious sense of "slippery slope" is often used synonymously with continuum fallacy, in that it ignores the possibility of middle ground and assumes a discrete transition from category A to category B
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Amartya Sen
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (Bengali: [ˈɔmort:o ˈʃen]; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines, and indexes of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries. He is currently the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor at Harvard University[4] and member of faculty at Harvard Law School. He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
and was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences[5] in 1998 and India's Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics
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Rule Egoism
Rule egoism is the doctrine under which an individual evaluates the optimal set of rules according to whether conformity to those rules bring the most benefit to himself.[1] See also[edit]Enlightened self-interest Ethical egoism Psychological egoism Rational egoism Rule utilitarianism Virtue ethicsReferences[edit]^ Kagan, Shelly. 1998. Normative Ethics
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