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Chewiness
Chewiness is the mouthfeel sensation of labored chewing due to sustained, elastic resistance from the food. Foods typically considered chewy include caramel, rare steak, and chewing gum. Chewiness is empirically measured by the metrics of chew count[1] and chew rate.[citation needed] References[edit]^ Harrington, G.; Pearson, A.M. (1962). "Chew count as a measure of tenderness of pork loins with various degrees of marbling". Journal of Food
Food
Science. 27: 106. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1962.tb00067.x. External links[edit]Comments on the use of the word "chewiness" by Alina Surmacka Szczesniak, formerly Principal Scientist, General Foods Technical Center, and founding editor of Journal of Texture Studies Postmelt Chewiness of Mozzarella Cheese from the Journal of Dairy ScienceThis food-related article is a stub
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Mouthfeel
Mouthfeel
Mouthfeel
refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste. It is a fundamental sensory attribute which, along with taste and smell, determines the overall flavor of a food item.[1][2] Mouthfeel
Mouthfeel
is also sometimes referred to as texture.[2] It is used in many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs, such as wine-tasting and food rheology.[3] It is evaluated from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing and aftertaste
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Mastication
Chewing
Chewing
or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow a more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding. The muscles of mastication move the jaws to bring the teeth into intermittent contact, repeatedly occluding and opening. As chewing continues, the food is made softer and warmer, and the enzymes in saliva begin to break down carbohydrates in the food. After chewing, the food (now called a bolus) is swallowed. It enters the esophagus and via peristalsis continues on to the stomach, where the next step of digestion occurs.[1] Premastication is sometimes performed by human parents for infants who are unable to do so for themselves
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is quartz fibre[citation needed] which is not even a perfect elastic body
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Foodstuff
Food
Food
is any substance[1] consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture
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Caramel
Caramel
Caramel
(/ˈkærəmɛl/ or /ˈkɑːrməl/[1][2]) is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard. The process of caramelization consists of heating sugar slowly to around 170 °C (338 °F). As the sugar heats, the molecules break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor. A variety of candies, desserts, and confections are made with caramel: brittles, nougats, pralines, crème brûlée, crème caramel, and caramel apples
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Doneness
Doneness
Doneness
is a gauge of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the: colour, juiciness and internal temperature when cooked. The gradations of cooking are most often used in reference to beef (especially steak and roasts) but are also applicable to: lamb, pork, poultry, veal and seafood (especially fish). Gradations; their description, and the associated temperature ranges vary regionally from cuisine to cuisine and in local practice and terminology
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Steak
A steak (/ˈsteɪk/) is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone. Exceptions, in which the meat is sliced parallel to the fibers, include the skirt steak that is cut from the plate, the flank steak that is cut from the abdominal muscles, and the Silverfinger steak that is cut from the loin and includes three rib bones. When the word "steak" is used without qualification, it generally refers to a beefsteak. In a larger sense, there are also fish steaks, ground meat steaks, pork steak and many more varieties of steaks. Steaks are usually grilled,[1] but they can be pan-fried
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Alina Surmacka Szczesniak
Alina Surmacka Szczesniak
Alina Surmacka Szczesniak
(July 8, 1925 – July 23, 2016) was a Polish-born American food scientist best known for her contributions to food texture.[1] In 2002, she received the plaque of Honorary President of the International Federation of Surveyors on behalf of her father, Wladysław Surmacki, who was to be President in 1942, but did not survive the war.[citation needed]Szcześniak receiving plaque in 2002.Education and career[edit] Szcześniak attended Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College
as a foreign student after the Second World War, which she spent in her native Poland. Szcześniak earned her graduate degree in food technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then worked for General Foods in the field of food chemistry, focusing on texture studies
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Food
Food
Food
is any substance[1] consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Chewing Gum
Chewing gum
Chewing gum
is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed
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Chewiness
Chewiness is the mouthfeel sensation of labored chewing due to sustained, elastic resistance from the food. Foods typically considered chewy include caramel, rare steak, and chewing gum. Chewiness is empirically measured by the metrics of chew count[1] and chew rate.[citation needed] References[edit]^ Harrington, G.; Pearson, A.M. (1962). "Chew count as a measure of tenderness of pork loins with various degrees of marbling". Journal of Food
Food
Science. 27: 106. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1962.tb00067.x. External links[edit]Comments on the use of the word "chewiness" by Alina Surmacka Szczesniak, formerly Principal Scientist, General Foods Technical Center, and founding editor of Journal of Texture Studies Postmelt Chewiness of Mozzarella Cheese from the Journal of Dairy ScienceThis food-related article is a stub
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