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Charaton
CHARATON ( Olympiodorus of Thebes : Χαράτων) was one of the first kings of the Huns
Huns
. In end of 412 or beginning of 413, Charaton received the Byzantine ambassador Olympiodorus sent by Honorius . Olympiodorus travelled to Charaton’s kingdom by sea, but does not record whether the sea in question was the Black or Adriatic. As the History deals exclusively with the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, it was probably Adriatic, and visited them somewhere in Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
. Olympiodorus recounts; "Donatus and the Huns, and the skillfulness of their kings in shooting with the bow. The author relates that he himself was sent on a mission to them and Donatus, and gives a tragic account of his wanderings and perils by the sea. How Donatus, being deceived by an oath, was unlawfully put to death
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University Of California Press
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, otherwise known as UC PRESS, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing . It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868. Its headquarters are located in Oakland, California
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Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen
OTTO JOHN MAENCHEN-HELFEN (in German : OTTO MäNCHEN-HELFEN) (July 26, 1894 in Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria
– January 29, 1969 in Berkeley, California ) was an Austrian academic, sinologist , historian, author, and traveler. From 1927 to 1930 he worked at the Marx -Engels Institute in Moscow
Moscow
, and from 1930 to 1933 in Berlin
Berlin
. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, he returned to Austria, and after the Anschluss
Anschluss
in 1938 he emigrated to the United States
United States
, eventually becoming a professor at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
. He was the author of several oft-cited books, including a history of the Huns . He was the first non Russian to travel and report on Tannu Tuva
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Ottoman Turkish Language
OTTOMAN TURKISH /ˈɒtəmən/ , or the OTTOMAN LANGUAGE (لسان عثمانى‎‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian , and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet . During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary, while words of Arabic
Arabic
origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Rugila
RUGILA or RUGA (also RUAS; died second half of the 430s AD), was a ruler who was a major factor in the Huns early victories over the Roman Empire. He served as an important forerunner with brother Octar , with whom initially ruled in dual kingship, possibly a geographical division where Rugila ruled over Eastern Huns while Octar over Western Huns, during the 5th century AD . ETYMOLOGYThe name is mentioned in three variants, Ρούγας (Rougas), Ρουας (Rouas), and ΄Ρωίλας (Roilas). Common spellings are Ruga, Roas, Rugila. Otto Maenchen-Helfen included this name among those of Germanic or Germanized origin, but without any derivation, only comparison with Rugemirus and Rugolf. Denis Sinor considered a name with initial r- not of Altaic origin (example Ragnaris ). Omeljan Pritsak dervied it from Old Turkic and considered it to be of composite form, with the change ουγα- > ουα, Greek suffix -ς, and those with ila as Gothicized variant
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute
The HARVARD UKRAINIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE (HURI) is a research institute affiliated with Harvard University
Harvard University
devoted to Ukrainian studies , including the history , culture , language , and politics of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Other areas of study include Ukrainian literature , archaeology , art , economics , and anthropology . Faculty at the Institute include the three endowed professorships in Ukrainian Studies, which are in the Department of History and the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures; these are supplemented by other Harvard faculty as well as visiting scholars. HURI was formally founded in 1973 by Omeljan Pritsak and other leading scholars in Ukrainian studies. It functions as a focal point for undergraduate and graduate students, fellows, and professors and provides assistance with their research
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Altaic Languages
ALTAIC (/ælˈteɪ.ᵻk/ ) is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia
Siberia
, now widely seen as discredited. The Turkic , Mongolic , and Tungusic groups are invariably included in the family; some authors added Korean and Japonic languages. These languages are spoken in a wide arc stretching from eastern Europe
Europe
, through Central Asia
Central Asia
to Anatolia
Anatolia
and to the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and Japanese archipelago in East Asia
East Asia
. The group is named after the Altai mountain range in Central Asia
Central Asia
. Another view includes only Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic. This view was widespread prior to the 1960s, but has almost no supporters among specialists today
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Saka Language
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
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Omeljan Pritsak
OMELJAN PRITSAK (Ukrainian : Омеля́н Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People\'s Republic – 29 May 2006, Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts
, U.S.) was the first Mykhailo Hrushevsky Professor of Ukrainian History at Harvard University
Harvard University
and the founder and first director (1973–1989) of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Main interests * 3 Ukrainian historian * 4 Politics * 5 Published works * 6 Further reading * 7 References CAREERFrom 1921 till 1936 he lived in Ternopil
Ternopil
, where he graduated the state Polish gymnasium
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Honorius (emperor)
HONORIUS (Latin : Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 393 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla , and brother of Arcadius , who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic. His reign was supported by his principal general, Stilicho
Stilicho
, who was successively Honorius's guardian (during his childhood) and his father-in-law (after the emperor became an adult). Stilicho's generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution in 408, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse
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Byzantine
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Huns
The HUNS were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th century AD and the 7th century AD. As per European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River
Volga River
, in an area that was part of Scythia
Scythia
at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans
Alans
. By 370 AD, the Huns
Huns
had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns
Huns
had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe
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Pannonian Basin
The PANNONIAN BASIN or CARPATHIAN BASIN is a large basin in Central Europe
Central Europe
. The geomorphological term PANNONIAN PLAIN is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense, with only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch Pannonian Sea
Pannonian Sea
dried out. It is a geomorphological subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system , specifically a sediment-filled back-arc basin . Most of the plain consists of the Great Hungarian Plain
Plain
(in the south and east, including the Eastern Slovak Lowland ) and the Little Hungarian Plain (in the northwest), divided by the Transdanubian Mountains
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