Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the
Central Asia between the 4th and 6th century AD.
According to European tradition, they were first reported living east
of the Volga River, in an area that was part of
Scythia at the time;
the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a
Scythian people, the Alans. By 370 AD, the
Huns had arrived on the
Volga, and by 430 the
Huns had established a vast, if short-lived,
dominion in Europe.
In the 18th century, the French scholar
Joseph de Guignes became the
first to propose a link between the
Huns and the
Xiongnu people, who
were northern neighbours of
China in the 3rd century BC. Since
Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to
investigating such a connection. However, there is no scholarly
consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the
Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Priscus, a 5th-century Roman diplomat
and Greek historian, mentions that the
Huns had a language of their
own; little of it has survived and its relationships have mainly been
considered the Turkic or Mongolic languages. Numerous other ethnic
groups were included under
Attila the Hun's rule, including very many
speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua
franca of the Empire. Their main military technique was mounted
Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing
factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed a
unified empire under
Attila the Hun, who died in 453; after a defeat
Battle of Nedao their empire disintegrated over the next 15
years. Their descendants, or successors with similar names, are
recorded by neighbouring populations to the south, east and west as
having occupied parts of
Eastern Europe and
Central Asia from about
the 4th to 6th centuries. Variants of the
Hun name are recorded in the
Caucasus until the early 8th century.
2.1 Before Attila
Attila and Bleda
2.3 Unified Empire under Attila
2.4 After Attila
3 Society and culture
3.2 Artificial cranial deformation
4.1 Strategy and tactics
4.2 Military equipment
5.2 Claims of Hunnic heritage
5.3 20th-century use in reference to Germans
Sectarian slur in Northern Ireland and Scotland
6 See also
9.1 Primary sources
9.2 Secondary sources
10 Further reading
11 External links
Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map).
Huns were "a confederation of warrior bands",[attribution needed]
ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in
Eurasian Steppe in the 4th to 6th centuries AD. Most aspects of
their ethnogenesis (including their language and their links to other
peoples of the steppes) are uncertain.
Walter Pohl states: "All
we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described
prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors."
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, who completed his work of
the history of the
Roman Empire in the early 390s, recorded that the
"people of the
Huns … dwell beyond the
Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov near the frozen
Jerome associated them with the
Scythians in a letter,
written four years after the
Huns invaded the empire's eastern
provinces in 395. The equation of the
Huns with the Scythians,
together with a general fear of the coming of the
Antichrist in the
late 4th century, gave rise to their identification with Gog and Magog
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great had shut off behind inaccessible mountains,
according to a popular legend). This demonization of the
also reflected in Jordanes's Getica, written in the 6th century, which
portrayed them as a people descending from "unclean spirits" and
expelled Gothic witches.
Domain and influence of
Modu Chanyu around 205 BC, the
believed place of Huns' origin.
Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have
Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th
century AD with the
Xiongnu ("howling slaves") who had invaded China
from the territory of present-day
Mongolia between the 3rd century BC
and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the
Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the
Xiongnu had retreated
north-westward; their descendants may have migrated through Eurasia
and consequently they may have some degree of cultural and genetic
continuity with the Huns.
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to
challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of
written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological
research. Thereafter the identification of the
Xiongnu as the
Huns' ancestors became controversial among some.
A Hunnish cauldron
The similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links
between the two peoples. The
Buddhist monk Dharmarakṣa, who was
an important translator of Indian religious texts in the 3rd century
AD, applied the word
Xiongnu when translating the references to the
Huna people into Chinese. According to Zhengzhang Shangfang,
Xiongnu was pronounced [hoŋ.naː] in Late Old Chinese, corresponding
well to Huna. A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of
China by the "Xwn" people in a letter, written in 313 AD.
Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or
Xwn were the "exact transcriptions" of the Chinese "Xiongnu" name.
Christopher P. Atwood rejects that interpretation because of the "very
poor phonological match" between the three words. For instance,
Xiongnu begins with a voiceless velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless
Xiongnu is a two-syllable word, but Xwn only has
one syllable. However, Atwood agrees with the overall idenfitication
between the two, showing instead that Xwn comes via Chinese
transcription of Wēnnàshāh into Bactrian Onnashāh and from there
into Sogdian while Sanskrit Huna came via Chinese Huní and Greek
Khōnai. He argues it was ultimately transmitted by Baktrian Greek
merchants to the Pontic where it became Ounni and Hunni in Roman Greek
and Latin. The Chinese
Book of Wei contain references to "the
remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu" who lived in the region of
Altai Mountains in the early 5th century AD. According to De
la Vaissière, the Chinese source proves that nomadic groups preserved
Xiongnu identity for centuries after the fall of their
A gold stag with eagle's head, and ten further heads in the antlers.
Xiongnu tomb on the frontier, 4th-3rd century BC
Huns used bronze cauldrons, similarly to all
peoples of the steppes. Based on the study and categorization of
cauldrons from archaeological sites of the Eurasian Steppes,
archaeologist Toshio Hayashi concludes that the spread of the
cauldrons "may indicate the route of migration of the Hunnic tribes"
Mongolia to the northern region of
Central Asia in the 2nd or 3rd
century AD, and from
Central Asia towards Europe in the second half of
the 4th century, which also implies the Huns' association with the
Huns practised artificial cranial deformation, but
there is no evidence of such practice among the
Xiongnu.[page needed] This custom had already been practised
in the Eurasian Steppes in the
Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age,
but it disappeared around 500 BC. It again started to spread among
the local inhabitants of the region of the
Talas River and in the
Pamir Mountains in the 1st century BC. In addition to the Huns,
the custom is also evidenced among the
Yuezhi and Alans. The
lengthy pony-tail, which was a characteristic of the Xiongnu, was not
documented among the Huns.
When writing of the relationship between the
Xiongnu and Huns,
historian Hyun Jin Kim concludes: "Thus to refer to Hun-
in terms of old racial theories or even ethnic affiliations simply
makes a mockery of the actual historical reality of these extensive,
multiethnic, polyglot steppe empires". He also emphasizes that
"the ancestors of the Hunnic core tribes … were part of the Xiongnu
Empire and possessed a strong
Xiongnu element, and the ruling elite of
Huns … claimed to belong to the political tradition of this
imperial entity." Taking into account the historical gap between
the Chinese reports of the
Xiongnu and the European records of the
Peter Heather states: "Even if we do make some connection
Huns and first-century [Xiongnu], therefore, an
awful lot of water had passed under an awful lot of bridges during 300
years worth of lost history."
A suggested path of Hunnic movement westwards (labels in German)
The 2nd-century geographer
Ptolemy mentioned a people called Chuni
(Χοῦνοι or Χουνοί) when listing the peoples of the
western region of the Eurasian Steppes. The Chuni lived
Bastarnae and the Roxolani", according to
Edward Arthur Thompson said, the similarity between
the two ethnonyms (Chuni and Huns) is only a coincidence: Western
Roman authors often wrote Chunni or Chuni in reference to the Huns;
East Romans never used the guttural "[x]" at the beginning of their
name. Maenchen-Helfen and
Denis Sinor also dispute the association
of the Chuni with Attila's Huns. However, Maenchen-Helfen proposes
Ammianus Marcellinus referred to Ptolemy's report of the Chuni
when stating that the
Huns "are mentioned only cursorily in ancient
writers". He does not exclude either that the Urugundi who
Roman Empire from the steppes to the north of the Lower
Danube in 250 AD, according to Zosimus, were identical with the
Agathias listed among the Hunnic tribes.
The Romans became aware of the
Huns when the Hunnic invasion of the
Pontic steppes forced thousands of
Goths to move to the Lower Danube
to seek refuge in the
Roman Empire in 376, according to the
contemporaneous Ammianus Marcellinus. Their sudden appearance in
the written sources suggests that the
Huns crossed the Volga River
from the east not much earlier. They invaded the land of the
Alans, which was located to the east of the Don River, slaughtering
many of them and forcing the survivors to submit themselves to them or
to flee across the Don. The reasons for the Huns' sudden
attack on the neighboring peoples are unknown. After rejecting
several possible reasons (including a climate change in the steppes
and the neighboring peoples' pressure),
Peter Heather concludes that
the Hunnic Empire developed from "warbands on the make", launching
profitable plundering raids, which enabled them to increase their
military power and to impose their authority on the neighboring
After they subjugated the Alans, the
Huns and their Alan auxiliaries
started plundering the wealthy settlements of the Greuthungi, or
eastern Goths, to the west of the Don. The Greuthungic king,
Ermanaric, resisted for a while, but finally "he found release from
his fears by taking his own life", according to Ammianus
Marcellinus. Marcellinus's report refers either to Ermanaric's
suicide or to his ritual sacrifice. His great-nephew,
Vithimiris, succeeded him. He hired
Huns to fight against the
Alans who invaded the Greuthungi's land, but he was killed in a
After Vithimiris's death, most
Greuthungi submitted themselves to the
Huns. Those who decided to resist marched to the Dniester River
which was the border between the lands of the
Greuthungi and the
Thervingi, or western Goths. They were under the command of
Alatheus and Saphrax, because Vithimiris's son, Viderichus, was a
child. Athanaric, the leader of the Thervingi, met the refugees
along the Dniester at the head of his troops. However, a Hunnic
army bypassed the
Goths and attacked them from the rear, forcing
Athanaric to retreat towards the Carpathian Mountains. Athanaric
wanted to fortify the borders, but Hunnic raids into the land west of
the Dniester continued. Most
Thervingi realized that they could
not resist the Huns. They went to the Lower Danube, requesting
asylum in the Roman Empire. The Greuthingi under the leadership of
Saphrax also marched to the river. Most Roman troops
had been transferred from the
Balkan Peninsula to fight against the
Sassanid Empire in Armenia. Emperor
Valens permitted the Thervingi
to cross the
Lower Danube and to settle in the
Roman Empire in the
autumn of 376. The
Thervingi were followed by the Greuthingi, and
also by the
Taifali and "other tribes that formerly dwelt with the
Goths and Taifali" to the north of the Lower Danube, according to
Zosimus. Food shortage and abuse stirred the
Goths to revolt in
early 377. The ensuing war between the
Goths and the Romans lasted
for more than five years.
Barbarian invasions of the 5th century were triggered by the
destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the
Huns in 372–375. The city
of Rome was captured and looted by the
Visigoths in 410 and by the
Vandals in 455.
Support for the Gothic chieftains diminished as refugees headed into
Thrace and towards the safety of the Roman garrisons.
After these invasions, the
Huns begin to be noted as
mercenaries. As early as 380, a group of
Huns was given Foederati
status and allowed to settle in Pannonia. Hunnish mercenaries were
also seen on several occasions in the succession struggles of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire during the late 4th century. However,
it is most likely that these were individual mercenary bands, not a
Detail of Hunnish gold and garnet bracelet, 5th century, Walters Art
An Hunnish oval openwork fibula set with a carnelian and decorated
with a geometric pattern of gold wire, 4th century, Walters Art Museum
In 395 the
Huns began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern
Huns attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and
pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch,
and swarmed through the province of Euphratesia. The forces of Emperor
Theodosius were fully committed in the west so the
unopposed until the end of 398 when the eunuch Eutropius gathered
together a force composed of Romans and
Goths and succeeded in
restoring peace. It is uncertain though, whether or not Eutropius'
forces defeated the
Huns or whether the
Huns left on their own. There
is no record of a notable victory by Eutropius and there is evidence
that the Hunnish forces were already leaving the area by the time he
gathered his forces.
Whether put to flight by Eutropius, or leaving on their own, the Huns
had left the
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire by 398. After this, the
the Sassanid Empire. This invasion was initially successful, coming
close to the capital of the empire at Ctesiphon; however, they were
defeated badly during the Persian counterattack and retreated toward
Caucasus Mountains via the Derbend Pass.
During their brief diversion from the
Eastern Roman Empire, the Huns
appear to have threatened tribes further west, as evidenced by
Radagaisus' entering Italy at the end of 405 and the crossing of the
Gaul by Vandals, Sueves, and
Alans in 406. The
not then appear to have been a single force with a single ruler. Many
Huns were employed as mercenaries by both East and West Romans and by
the Goths. Uldin, the first
Hun known by name, headed a group of
Alans fighting against
Radagaisus in defense of Italy. Uldin
was also known for defeating Gothic rebels giving trouble to the East
Romans around the
Danube and beheading the
400–401. Gainas' head was given to the East Romans for display in
Constantinople in an apparent exchange of gifts.
The East Romans began to feel the pressure from Uldin's
Huns again in
Uldin crossed the
Danube and captured a fortress in
Castra Martis, which was betrayed from within.
Uldin then proceeded to
ransack Thrace. The East Romans tried to buy
Uldin off, but his sum
was too high so they instead bought off Uldin's subordinates. This
resulted in many desertions from Uldin's group of Huns.
Alaric's brother-in-law, Athaulf, appears to have had
in his employ south of the
Julian Alps in 409. These were countered by
another small band of
Huns hired by Honorius' minister Olympius. Later
in 409, the West Romans stationed ten thousand
Huns in Italy and
Dalmatia to fend off Alaric, who then abandoned plans to march on
Attila and Bleda
Attila the Hun" portrait by sculptor George S. Stuart
with the legend,
Atila, Flagelum Dei
(dubiously-spelled Latin for
"Attila, Scourge of God")
From 434 the brothers
Bleda ruled the
Huns together. Attila
Bleda were as ambitious as their uncle Rugila. In 435 they forced
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire to sign the Treaty of Margus, giving the
Huns trade rights and an annual tribute from the Romans. The Romans
also agreed to give up Hunnic refugees (individuals who could have
threatened the brothers' grip on power) for execution. With their
southern border protected by the terms of this treaty, the
turn their full attention to the further subjugation of tribes to the
When the Romans breached the treaty in 440,
Castra Constantias, a Roman fortress and marketplace on the banks of
the Danube. The Eastern Romans stopped delivery of the agreed
tribute, and they broke other conditions of the Treaty of Margus. The
Hunnic kings turned their attention back to the Eastern Romans.
Reports that the Bishop of Margus had crossed into
Hun lands and
desecrated royal graves further angered the
Hun kings. War broke out
between the two empires, and the
Huns overcame a weak
Roman army to
raze the cities of Margus,
Singidunum and Viminacium. Although a truce
was signed in 441, two years later
Constantinople again failed to
deliver the tribute and war resumed. In the following campaign, Hun
armies came alarmingly close to Constantinople, sacking Sardica,
Arcadiopolis and Philippopolis along the way. Suffering a complete
defeat at the Battle of Chersonesus, the
Eastern Roman Emperor
Theodosius II gave in to
Hun demands and in autumn 443 signed the
Peace of Anatolius with the two
Hun kings. The
Huns returned to their
lands with a vast train full of plunder.
Unified Empire under Attila
The Hunnic Empire circa 450 CE
Various tribal languages
Attila and Bleda
Huns appear north-west of the Caspian Sea
Balamber began uniting the
Huns and Germanic tribes
Bleda become co-rulers of the united tribes
Death of Bleda,
Attila becomes sole ruler
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
Invasion of northern Italy
Battle of Nedao
Dengizich, son of Attila, dies
Today part of
Huns at the Battle of Chalons.
Bleda died in 445, with some historians speculating that his death was
at the hands of Attila. With his brother gone,
Attila was able to
establish undisputed control over his subjects. In 447,
Huns back toward the
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire once more. His invasion
Thrace was devastating. The
Eastern Roman Empire
was already beset by internal problems, such as famine and plague, as
well as riots and a series of earthquakes in
Constantinople itself. A
last-minute rebuilding of its walls preserved Constantinople
unscathed. Victory over a
Roman army left the
Eastern Roman lands and they raided as far south as
Thermopylae. Only disease forced them to retreat, and the war came to
an end in 449 with an agreement in which the Romans agreed to pay
Attila an annual tribute of 2100 pounds of gold. Our only first-hand
account of conditions among the
Huns and of
Attila himself is by
Priscus, an official in the peace embassy to Attila.
Throughout their raids on the
Eastern Roman Empire, the
maintained good relations with the Western Empire, and in particular
with Flavius Aetius, a powerful Roman general (sometimes even referred
to as the de facto ruler of the Western Empire) who in his youth had
spent time as a hostage with the Huns. However, this all changed in
450 when Honoria, sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III,
Attila a ring and requested his help to escape her betrothal to a
Attila claimed her as his bride and half the Western Roman
Empire as dowry. Additionally, a dispute arose between
Aetius about the rightful heir to a king of the Salian Franks.
Finally, Attila's ability to distribute treasure to favoured followers
was an important support to his power, and the repeated extortion from
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire had left it with little to plunder.
In 451, Attila's forces entered Gaul, accumulating contingents from
Goths and Burgundian tribes en route. Once in Gaul, the
Huns first attacked Metz, then his armies continued westwards, passing
both Paris and
Troyes to lay siege to Orléans.
Aetius was given the duty of relieving
Orléans by Emperor Valentinian
III. Bolstered by Frankish and Visigothic troops (under King
Theodoric), Aetius' own
Roman army met the
Huns at the Battle of the
Catalaunian Plains. Although a tactical defeat for Attila, thwarting
his invasion of
Gaul and forcing his retreat back to non-Roman lands,
the macrohistorical significance of the allied and Roman victory is a
matter of debate.
The following year,
Attila renewed his claims to
Honoria and territory
in the Western Roman Empire. Leading his horde across the Alps and
into Northern Italy, he sacked and razed the cities of Aquileia,
Vicetia, Verona, Brixia,
Bergamum and Milan. Hoping to avoid the sack
of Rome, Emperor
Valentinian III sent three envoys, the high civilian
officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as Pope Leo I, who
Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him
the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with
Prosper of Aquitaine describes the historic meeting,
giving all the credit of the successful negotiation to Leo. Priscus
reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died
shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause. More practically,
Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were
faring little better in 452; Attila's invasion of the plains of
Northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest. To advance on
Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy,
and taking the city would not have improved Attila's supply situation.
Secondly, an East Roman force had crossed the
Danube and defeated the
Huns who had been left behind by
Attila to safeguard their home
territories. Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to
retire from Italy before moving south of the Po.
Honoria or her dowry.
Eastern Roman Emperor
Marcian then halted tribute payments.
From the Pannonian Basin,
Attila planned to attack Constantinople.
However, in 453 he married a girl with the Germanic name Ildico, and
died of a haemorrhage on his wedding night.
After Attila's death in 453, the Hunnic Empire faced an internal power
struggle between its vassalized
Germanic peoples and the Hunnic ruling
body. Led by Ellak, Attila's favored son and ruler of the Akatziri,
Huns engaged the Gepid king
Ardaric at the Battle of Nedao, who
led a coalition of Germanic Peoples to overthrow Hunnic imperial
authority. The Amali
Goths would revolt the same year under Valamir,
allegedly defeating the
Huns in a separate engagement. However,
this did not result in the complete collapse of Hunnic power in the
Carpathian region, but did result in the loss of many of their
Germanic vassals. At the same time, the
Huns were also dealing with
the arrival of more Oghur Turkic-speaking peoples from the East,
including the Oghurs, Saragurs, Onogurs, and the Sabirs. In 463, the
Saragurs defeated the Akatziri, or Akatir Huns, and asserted dominance
in the Pontic region.
In 458 some
Huns served under Tudila in Majorian's army, probably
belonging to a group settled under Emnetzur and Ultzindur in Dacia
Ripensis. The western
Huns under Dengzich were experiencing
difficulties in 461, when they were defeated by
Valamir in a war
against the Sadages, a people allied with the Huns. His
campaigning was also met with dissatisfaction from Ernak, ruler of the
Akatziri Huns, who wanted to focus on the incoming Oghur speaking
peoples. In 465–466,
Ernak and Dengzich sent ambassadors to
Constantinople requesting a peace treaty, and asking to establish a
market for the exchange of needed provisions. However these requests
were rejected, and Dengzich attacked the Romans in 467, without the
assistance of Ernak. He was surrounded by the Romans and besieged, and
came to an agreement that they would surrender if they were given land
and his starving forces given food. During the negotiations, a
service of the Romans named Chelchel persuaded the enemy
Hun overlords. The Romans, under their General
with the help of his bucellarii, then attacked the quarreling Goths
and Huns, defeating them.
In 469, Anagastes, the son of Arnegisclus who was slain by Attila,
brought Dengzich's head and paraded it through the streets before
mounting it on a stake in the Hippodrome. Some Historians, like
John Man, accept this date as the end of the Hunnic Empire.
However others, such as Kim, argue it continued under
absorbed the incoming Oghur speakers. These people were similar to the
Huns and Attila's empire continued as the Kutrigur and Utigur
Hunno-Bulgars. This conclusion is still subject to some
Society and culture
Huns were illiterate and thus kept no records, all surviving
accounts were written by enemies of the Huns, and none describe the
Huns as attractive either morally or in appearance. Jordanes, a Goth
writing in Italy in 551, a century after the collapse of the Hunnic
Empire, describes the
Huns as a "savage race, which dwelt at first in
the swamps, a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human and having
no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human
Jordanes goes on to write:
They made their foes flee in horror because their swarthy aspect was
fearful, and they had, if I may call it so, a sort of shapeless lump,
not a head, with pin-holes rather than eyes. Their hardihood is
evident in their wild appearance, and they are beings who are cruel to
their children on the very day they are born. For they cut the cheeks
of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment
of milk they must learn to endure wounds. Hence they grow old
beardless and their young men are without comeliness, because a face
furrowed by the sword spoils by its scars the natural beauty of a
beard. They are short in stature, quick in bodily movement, alert
horsemen, broad shouldered, ready in the use of bow and arrow, and
have firm-set necks which are ever erect in pride. Though they live in
the form of men, they have the cruelty of wild beasts.:127–8
Jordanes also recounted how
Priscus had described
Attila the Hun, the
Emperor of the
Huns from 434–453, as: "Short of stature, with a
broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and
sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing
evidence of his origin.":182
In forming their view of Attila's people, the Romans tapped into
attitudes inherited from the Greeks. These were the vilest creatures
imaginable. They came from the North and everyone knew that the colder
the climate was, the more barbaric the people were. They knew
nothing of metal, had no religion and lived like savages, without
fire, eating their food raw, living off roots, and meat tenderized by
placing it under their horses' saddles. They had no buildings, not so
much as a reed hut, indeed, they feared the very idea of venturing
under a roof.
The description of
Huns given by the Romans has prompted some
historians to believe they were of East Asian origin. Denis Sinor,
noting the paucity of anthropological evidence, wrote that "there is
no reason to question the basic accuracy of the western descriptions,
and the absence of massive supporting evidence by physical
anthropology cannot weaken the point they so tellingly make. It is the
unusual that most attracts attention." However, Austrian traveler
Maenchen-Helfen wrote in the 20th century:
Ammianus' description begins with a strange misunderstanding ...
This was repeated by Claudian and Sidonius and reinterpreted by
Cassiodorus. Ammianus' explanation of the thin beards is wrong. Like
so many other people, the
Huns inflicted wounds on their live flesh as
a sign of grief when their kinsmen were dying.
The 6th-century Roman historian
Procopius of Caesarea (Book I. ch. 3),
Huns of Europe with the
Hephthalites or "White Huns" who
subjugated the Sassanids and invaded northwestern India, stating that
they were of the same stock, "in fact as well as in name", although he
Huns with the Hephthalites, in that the Hephthalites
were sedentary, white-skinned, and possessed "not ugly"
The Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White
Huns [...] The Ephthalitae
are of the stock of the
Huns in fact as well as in name, however they
do not mingle with any of the
Huns known to us, for they occupy a land
neither adjoining nor even very near to them; but their territory lies
immediately to the north of Persia [...] They are not nomads like the
other Hunnic peoples, but for a long period have been established in a
goodly land... They are the only ones among the
Huns who have white
bodies and countenances which are not ugly. It is also true that their
manner of living is unlike that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a
savage life as they do; but they are ruled by one king, and since they
possess a lawful constitution, they observe right and justice in their
dealings both with one another and with their neighbours, in no degree
less than the Romans and the Persians
Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation of the Alchon Huns, possible relatives
of the European Huns, as seen on a portrait of king
Khingila c. 440
– 490 CE.
Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation was practiced by the
Huns and sometimes
by tribes under their influence. Artificial cranial
deformation of the circular type can be used to trace the route that
Huns took from north
China to the Central Asian steppes and
subsequently to the southern Russian steppes. The people who
practiced annular type artificial cranial deformation in Central Asia
Some artificially deformed crania from the 5th–6th Century AD have
been found in Northeastern
Hungary and elsewhere in Western Europe.
None of them have any Mongoloid features and all the skulls appear
Europoid; these skulls may have belonged to Germanic or other subject
groups whose parents wished to elevate their status by following a
custom introduced by the Huns.
Hunnic governmental structure has long been debated. In the past many
scholars argued that the
Huns did not have a central organization
until after they entered Europe.
Peter Heather argued the
Huns were a
disorganized confederation in which leaders acted completely
independently and that eventually established a ranking hierarchy,
much like Germanic societies. However this has been challenged in
recent years. According to Kim, it is now believed that the Huns
Xiongnu organization, in which their polity was divided
into Left, Right, South, and North, in that order of priority. It
is also thought that the
Huns continued the council of "six
horns/nobles" that the
Xiongnu had under their emperor. It is
unknown what the
Hun emperor was called, but the terms Chanyu,
Aniliki, Shah, and Yabgu are possible or interchangeable titles for
the same position, as they were in use by other contemporary peoples
during that period. Likewise, it is suggested that that the Huns
continued to use the decimal military organization of the
Further information: Hunnic language
A variety of languages were spoken within the
Hun Empire. It has
been supposed that by the 440s, the "Huns" were more Germanic-speaking
subject than speakers of Hunnic, and as such Gothic may have been a
lingua franca of the Empire. Kim however points out that there
is no evidence for the idea that Gothic was a lingua franca.
Subjects of the
Huns also included Iranian-speaking
Sarmatians. Based on some etymological interpretation of the words
strava, medos, and kamos and subsequent historical appearance, the
other languages have been taken to include a form of Proto-Slavic
Priscus noted that the
Hunnic language differed from other languages
spoken at Attila's court. He recounts how
Zerco made Attila's
guests laugh also by the "promiscuous jumble of words, Latin mixed
with Hunnish and Gothic".
Priscus said that Attila's "Scythian"
subjects spoke "besides their own barbarian tongues, either Hunnish,
or Gothic, or, as many have dealings with the Western Romans, Latin;
but not one of them easily speaks Greek, except captives from the
Thracian or Illyrian frontier regions".
The ancient sources are thus clear that there was a Hunnic language.
The literary sources preserve many names, and three Indo-European
words (medos, kamos, strava), which have been studied for more than a
century and a half.
Otto Maenchen-Helfen noted that the thesis
Huns spoke a Turkic language has a long history behind
it. Maenchen-Helfen held that by Turkic origin of Hunnic tribal
and proper names, the
Huns spoke a Turkic language. Denis Sinor
argued that "at least part of the
Hun leadership was
Traditionally notable studies of proper names chronologically include
that of Gyula Németh, Gerhard Doerfer, Maenchen-Helfen, and Omeljan
Pritsak. In Pritsak's 1982 study The Hunnic Language of the Attila
Clan, he analyzes the 33 survived personal names and concludes:
It was not a Turkic language, but one between Turkic and Mongolian,
probably closer to the former than the latter. The language had strong
Bulgar language and to modern Chuvash, but also had some
important connections, especially lexical and morphological, to
Ottoman Turkish and Yakut.
On the basis of the existing name records, a number of scholars
suggest that the
Huns spoke a Turkic language of the Oghur branch,
which also includes the Bulgar,
Khazar and Chuvash
Peter Heather called the
Huns "the first
group of Turkic, as opposed to Iranian, nomads to have intruded into
Europe". Many recent scholars agree that Hunnic was related to
Turkic and Mongolian languages.
In 2013, Hyun Jin Kim suggested that "from the names that we do know,
most of which seem to be Turkic... the Hunnic elite was predominantly
Turkic-speaking." He also suggests that the Xiongnu, who had
originally spoken Yeniseian, flipped to Oghur Turkic when they
absorbed the Dingling and crossed into Central Asia, like the later
Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate. He noted that, beside Hunnic,
people in Attila's court also spoke Gothic and Latin, and that in the
western part of the Empire, where subjected
Goths lived, people
Huns probably spoke both the Hunnic and Gothic languages.
An example would be the Germanic or Germanized names of noted Huns
Nevertheless, some scholars still conclude that the Hunnic language
cannot presently be classified, and attempts to classify it as Turkic
or Mongolic are speculative.
Huns in battle with the Alans. An 1870s engraving after a drawing by
Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1805–1880).
Strategy and tactics
Hun warfare as a whole is not well studied, and many scholars as of
recent have discounted Ammianus' description of the Huns. This
was first pointed out by E.A. Thompson, who stated that the
never have conquered Europe without iron armor and weapons. The
only accurate information on
Hun warfare comes from the 6th-century
Strategikon, which describes the warfare of "Dealing with the
Scythians, that is, Avars, Turks, and others whose way of life
resembles that of the Hunnish peoples." The Strategikon describes the
Huns as devious and very experienced in military
matters. They are described as preferring to defeat their enemies
by deceit, surprise attacks, and cutting off supplies. The Huns
brought large numbers of horses to use as replacements and to give the
impression of a larger army on campaign. The Hunnish peoples did
not set up an entrenched camp, but spread out across the grazing
fields according to clan, and guard their necessary horses until they
began forming the battle line under the cover of early morning. The
Strategikon states the
Huns also stationed sentries at significant
distances and in constant contact with each other in order to prevent
According to the Strategikon, the
Huns did not form a battle line in
the method that the Romans and Persians used, but in irregularly sized
divisions in a single line, and keep a separate force nearby for
ambushes and as a reserve. The Strategikon also states the
deep formations with a dense and even front. Otto Maenchen-Helfen
states that the
Huns likely formed up in divisions according to tribal
clans and families which Ammianus calls Cunei, the leader of which was
called a Cur and inherited the title as it was passed down through the
clan. The Strategikon states that the
Huns kept their spare
horses and baggage train to either side of the line about a mile away,
with a moderate sized guard, and would sometimes tie their spare
horses together behind the main battle line. The
to fight at long range, utilizing ambush, encirclement, and the
feigned retreat. The Strategikon also makes note of the wedge shaped
formations mentioned by Ammianus, and corroborated as familial
regiments by Maenchen-Helfen. The Strategikon states
Huns preferred to pursue their enemies relentlessly after a
victory and then wear them out by a long siege after defeat.
The Strategikon states the
Huns typically used maille, swords, bows,
and lances, and that most Hunnic warriors were armed with both the bow
and lance and used them interchangeably as needed. It also states the
Huns used quilted linen, wool, or sometimes iron barding for their
horses and also wore quilted coifs and kaftans. This assessment
is largely corroborated by archaeological finds of
equipment, such as the Volnikovka and Brut Burials.
A late Roman ridge helmet of the Berkasovo-Type was found with a Hun
burial at Concesti. A Hunnic helmet of the Segmentehelm type was
found at Chudjasky, and another of the Bandhelm type at Turaevo.
Fragments of lamellar helmets dating to the Hunnic period and within
the Hunnic sphere have been found at Iatrus, Illichevka, and
Hun lamellar armour has not been found in Europe,
although two fragments of likely
Hun origin have been found on the
Upper Ob and in West Kazakhstan dating to the 3rd–4th
centuries. An unpublished find at a military
warehouse near Toprachioi,
Romania is known but it is uncertain if it
can be attributed to
Hun origin. It is known that the Eurasian Avars
introduced Lamellar armor to the Roman Army and Migration Era
Germanics in the Middle 6th Century, but this later type does not
appear before then.
It is also widely accepted that the
Huns introduced the langseax, a
60 cm cutting blade that became popular among the migration era
Germanics and in the Late Roman Army, into Europe. It is believed
these blades originated in
China and that the
Sarmatians and Huns
served as a transmission vector, using shorter seaxes in Central Asia
that developed into the narrow langseax in
Eastern Europe during the
late 4th and first half of the 5th century. These earlier blades date
as far back as the 1st century AD, with the first of the newer type
Eastern Europe being the Wien-Simmerming example, dated
to the late 4th century AD. Other notable
Hun examples include
the Langseax from the more recent find at Volnikovka in Russia.
Huns used a type of spatha in the Iranic or Sassanid style, with a
long, straight approximately 83 cm blade, usually with a diamond
shaped iron guard plate. Swords of this style have been found at
sites such as Altlussheim, Szirmabesenyo, Volnikovka, Novo-Ivanovka,
and Tsibilium 61. They typically had gold foil hilts, gold sheet
scabbards, and scabbard fittings decorated in the polychrome style.
The sword was carried in the "Iranian style" attached to a swordbelt,
rather than on a baldric.
The most famous weapon of the
Huns is the Qum Darya-type composite
recurve bow, often called the "Hunnish Bow". This bow was invented
some time in the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC with the earliest finds near
Lake Baikal, but spread across
Eurasia long before the Hunnic
migration. These bows were typified by being asymmetric in
cross-section between 145–155 cm in length, having between
4–9 lathes on the grip and in the siyahs. Although whole bows
rarely survive in European climatic conditions, finds of bone Siyahs
are quite common and characteristic of steppe burials. Complete
specimens have been found at sites in the Tarim Basin and Gobi Desert
such as Niya, Qum Darya, and Shombuuziin-Belchir. Eurasian nomads such
Huns typically used trilobate diamond shaped iron arrowheads,
attached using birch tar and a tang, with typically 75 cm shafts
and fletching attached with tar and sinew whipping. Such trilobate
arrowheads are believed to be more accurate and have better
penetrating power or capacity to injure than flat arrowheads.
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Chroniclers writing centuries later often mentioned or alluded to Huns
or their purported descendants. These include:
Annals of Salzburg
Liutprand of Cremona's Antapodosis
Regino of Prüm's chronicle
Widukind of Corvey's Saxon Chronicle
Nestor the Chronicler's Primary Chronicle
Legends of Saints Cyril and Methodius
Aventinus's Chronicon Bavaria
Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio
Leo VI the Wise's Tactica
Hungarians continued this tradition (see Gesta Hunnorum et
Hungarorum, Chronicon Pictum, Gesta Hungarorum).
Memory of the Hunnic conquest was transmitted orally among Germanic
peoples and is an important component in the
Old Norse Völsunga saga
Hervarar saga and in the
Middle High German
Middle High German Nibelungenlied. These
stories all portray
Migration Period events from a millennium earlier.
In the Hervarar saga, the
Goths make first contact with the
Huns and meet them in an epic battle on the plains of the
In the Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild marries
Attila (Etzel in German)
after her first husband Siegfried was murdered by Hagen with the
complicity of her brother, King Gunther. She then uses her power as
Etzel's wife to take a bloody revenge in which not only Hagen and
Gunther but all Burgundian knights find their death at festivities to
which she and Etzel had invited them.
In the Völsunga saga,
Attila (Atli in Norse) defeats the Frankish
Sigebert I (
Sigurðr or Siegfried) and the Burgundian King
Gunnar or Gunther), but is later assassinated by Queen
Gudrun or Kriemhild), the sister of the latter and wife of
In the German "Saga of Tidreck of Bern", its written versions
beginning from the 13th century, the
Huns are called Frisians. Frisia
was often called Hunaland in the Middle Ages.
Widsith, possibly one of the oldest pieces of
English literature to
survive to the present day, lists a number of ancient kings of tribes
sorted according to their popularity and impact; Attila, King of the
Huns, comes first, followed immediately by
Eormanric of the
Widsith may be by far the oldest extant work that
tells of the Battle of the
Goths and Huns, also recounted in later
Scandinavian works such as the Hervarar saga;:179 in Widsith,
however, the battle's details are presented as "sober historical
facts" rather than as the "heroic stories" of later works.:184
The name Attila, rendered in
Old English as Ætla,[note 1] was a given
name in use in Anglo-Saxon
England (ex. Bishop
Ætla of Dorchester)
and its use in
England at the time may have been connected to the
heroic kings legend represented in works like Widsith, though
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen doubts the use of the name by the
Anglo-Saxons had anything to do with the Huns, and argues it was more
likely to be based directly on the name's Germanic origin meaning
Claims of Hunnic heritage
Atilla – Kurultáj
Hungarian horsemen at Great Kurultáj 2014, the Hun-Turkic tribal
Hungarians (Magyars) in particular lay claim to Hunnic heritage.
Although Magyar tribes only began to settle in the geographical area
Hungary in the very end of the 9th century, over 400
years after the breakup of Attila's Hunnic Empire, Hungarian
prehistory includes Magyar origin myths. There is also a medieval
legend of a lineage that makes
Attila the sixth-generation ancestor of
Árpád conqueror of the modern Pannonian basin, through Attila's son
Csaba, his son Ed, his son Ügyek, his son Előd, his son Álmos.
Álmos was ruler of the Magyars and the father of Arpad The
national anthem of
Hungary describes the
Hungarians as "blood of
Bendegúz'" (the medieval and modern Hungarian version of Mundzuk,
Attila's father). Attila's brother, Bleda, is called
Buda in modern
Hungarian and some medieval chronicles and literary works attribute
the name of the city of
Buda to him.
There is a legend among the Székely people that claims that after the
death of Attila, in a battle called the Battle of Krimhilda, 3000 Hun
warriors managed to escape and settle in a place called "Csigle-mező"
(today Transylvania) and they changed their name from
Huns to Szekler
(Székely). According to the Hungarian scholar Egyed, the Székelys
Hungarian language "without any trace of a Turkic
substratum", indicating that they did not have a language shift during
their history, and proposes that the
Székelys were descended from
privileged Hungarian groups. They therefore could not have
been related to the Huns, who most likely spoke an Oghur Turkic
In Book V, Chapter 9 of his Ecclesiastical History of the English
People, which was written in Latin, the Anglo-Saxon historian Bede
gave a list of peoples that included the Huns. James Campbell
notes regarding this passage that though this list of peoples has
generally been regarded by historians as being a list of peoples
Germany at the time
Bede wrote this passage in the 8th
century, "the sense of the Latin is that these are the peoples from
Anglo-Saxons living in Britain were derived.":53
Regarding the inclusion of the
Huns among these peoples, he writes
that the list of peoples fits the 5th century better, when the
Anglo-Saxons began migrating to Britain, than the 8th century, and
notes that "
Huns sound odd; it is equally odd that
Priscus heard of a
Attila that he had authority over the islands in the
ocean.":123–124 Leonard Neidorf, however, interprets the
passage as being about the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons, the Angles,
Saxons, and Jutes, sharing a common Germanic heritage with the Huns
and the other groups
20th-century use in reference to Germans
A First World War Canadian electoral campaign poster
On 27 July 1900, during the
Boxer Rebellion in China,
Germany gave the order to act ruthlessly towards the rebels:
"Mercy will not be shown, prisoners will not be taken. Just as a
thousand years ago, the
Attila won a reputation of might
that lives on in legends, so may the name of
Germany in China, such
that no Chinese will even again dare so much as to look askance at a
The term "Hun" from this speech was later used for the Germans by
British propaganda during World War I. The comparison was helped by
Pickelhaube helmet worn by German forces until 1916, which
would be reminiscent of images depicting ancient
Hun helmets. This
usage, emphasising the idea that the Germans were barbarians, was
reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war. The French
Théodore Botrel described the
Kaiser as "an Attila,
without remorse", launching "cannibal hordes".
The usage of the term "Hun" to describe Germans resurfaced during
World War II. For example,
Winston Churchill 1941 said in a broadcast
speech: "There are less than 70,000,000 malignant Huns, some of whom
are curable and others killable, most of whom are already engaged in
holding down Austrians, Czechs, Poles and the many other ancient races
they now bully and pillage." Later that year Churchill referred
to the invasion of the
Soviet Union as "the dull, drilled, docile
brutish masses of the
Hun soldiery, plodding on like a swarm of
crawling locusts." During this time American President Franklin
D. Roosevelt also referred to the German people in this way, saying
that an Allied invasion into Southern France would surely "be
successful and of great assistance to Eisenhower in driving the Huns
Sectarian slur in Northern Ireland and Scotland
"Hun" is also used as an sectarian slur against Protestants in
Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, the term has been
used by fans of
Celtic FC in
Old Firm derbies against Rangers FC
supporters, while Orange Halls in Ulster have been daubed with
graffiti reading KAH ("Kill all Huns").
A pamphlet issued to PSNI officers in 2008 listed "Huns" – along
with the terms "black", "prods" or "jaffas" (referring to the Orange
Order) for Protestants and "fenians", "taigs", "chucks" or "spongers"
for Irish Catholics – as terms not to use to avoid causing
List of Hunnic rulers
^ The Æ/æ in
Ætla is pronounced like the 'a' in 'cat' in most
Modern English dialects; it is the near-open front unrounded vowel.
Old English phonology.)
^ a b c d e f g h i Sinor (editor), Denis (1990). The Cambridge
history of early Inner Asia (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]:
Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 177–203.
ISBN 9780521243049. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ de Guignes, Joseph (1756–1758). Histoire générale des Huns, des
Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares (in French).
^ Heather 2010, p. 228.
^ "However, the seed and origin of all the ruin and various disasters
that the wrath of Mars aroused ... we have found to be (the
invasions of the Huns)". Ammianus 1922, XXXI, ch. 2
^ Pohl 1999, pp. 501–502.
^ Heather 2010, p. 502.
^ de la Vaissière 2015, p. 176.
^ Pohl 1999, p. 502.
^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus: The Later
Roman Empire (31.2.), p. 411.
^ a b de la Vaissière 2015, p. 177.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 4.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, pp. 2–4.
^ The Gothic History of
Jordanes (24:121), p. 85.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 5.
^ Heather 2010, p. 209.
^ de la Vaissière 2015, p. 175, 180.
^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University
Press. pp. 38, 55, 72–79. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
^ Wright, David Curtis (2011). The history of
China (2nd ed.). Santa
Barbara: Greenwood. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-313-37748-8.
^ de la Vaissière 2015, p. 175.
^ Wright 2011, p. 60.
^ a b de la Vaissière 2015, p. 179.
^ Zhengzhang 2003, p. 429,505.
^ de la Vaissière 2015, p. 181.
^ Atwood 2012, p. 27.
^ Atwood 2012, p. 28-48.
^ a b de la Vaissière 2015, p. 188.
^ de la Vaissière 2015, p. 187.
^ Hayashi 2014, p. 16.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1945.
^ a b c Molnár, Mónika; János, István; Szűcs, László;
Szathmáry, László (April 2014). "Artificially deformed crania from
the Hun-Germanic Period (5th–6th century AD) in northeastern
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^ Kim 2013, p. 33, 39.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Heather, Peter (2005). The fall of the
Roman Empire : a new history of Rome and the barbarians. New
York: Oxford University Press. pp. 146–167.
^ a b Kim 2013, p. 31.
^ a b Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 447.
^ a b c Thompson 2001, p. 25.
^ a b Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 449.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, pp. 452–453.
^ Thompson 2001, pp. 26–27.
^ a b Heather 2010, p. 215.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 19.
^ Heather 2010, p. 212.
^ Heather 2010, pp. 212–217.
^ Ammianus Marcellinus: The Later
Roman Empire (31.3.), p. 415.
^ a b c d Thompson 2001, p. 27.
^ a b Thompson 2001, p. 28.
^ a b James 2009, p. 51.
^ a b Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 26.
^ a b c Thompson, E. A. 1948. A History of
Attila and the Huns. Oxford
^ Thompson, E. A.; et al. (1999). The Huns. Wiley-Blackwell.
^ Harvey, Bonnie (2003).
Attila the Hun. Infobase Publishing.
^ Halsall 2007, pp. 251–252.
^ Creasy, Edward Shepherd: The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World.
^ Norwich, Byzantium: the Early Centuries. 1997, p. 158.
^ Bury, The Later Roman Empire, pp. 294f.
^ Soren & Soren 1999, p. 472.
^ Halsall 2007, pp. 253–254.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 364.
^ Heather, Peter (1996). The Goths. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
^ a b c Kim, Hyun Jin (2013). The Huns, Rome, and the Birth of Europe.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 132.
^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). On the World of the Huns. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 151, 161–162.
^ Heather, Peter (1996). The Goths. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). On the World of the Huns. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 165–168.
^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). On the World of the Huns. Berkeley:
University of California Press. p. 168.
^ Man, John (2005). Attila: The
Barbarian who Challenged Rome. New
York: St. Martin's Press. p. 278.
^ a b "Who was Who in Roman Times: The
Goths by Jordanes". Retrieved 4
^ "Who was Who in Roman Times :The
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^ a b
Attila The Hun, by John Man, Bantam Books, 2005, p.79
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 361.
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^ The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.286
^ Delius, Peter (2005). Visual History of the World. Washington D.C.:
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^ "Schädelrekonstruktion und Atelierfoto" (in German). Speyer: Museum
der Pfalz. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
^ Bachrach, Bernard S., A history of the
Alans in the West: from their
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early Middle Ages, U of Minnesota Press (1973), pp. 67–69
^ Pany, Doris; Wiltschke-Schrotta, Karin. "Artificial cranial
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^ Torres-Rouff, C.; Yablonsky, L.T. "Cranial vault modification as a
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^ "The Kushan civilization", Buddha Rashmi Mani, page 5: "A particular
intra-cranial investigation relates to an annular artificial head
deformation (macrocephalic), evident on the skulls of diverse racial
groups being a characteristic feature traceable on several figures of
Kushan kings on coins.",
^ Kim 2013, p. 33.
^ Hansen, Bent. "An original Danevang could have been situated in
Central Asia". Retrieved 4 February 2017.
^ Heather, Peter, “
Huns and the End of the
Roman Empire in Western
Europe” in English Historical Review (1995): 11;
^ Kim, The Huns, Rome, and the Birth of Europe, 23, 207
^ Kim, The Huns, Rome, and the Birth of Europe, 58–59, 208
Xiongnu – New Thoughts on an Old Problem, 33;
Kim, The Huns, Rome, and the Birth Of Europe, 31, 59, 206
^ Kim, The Huns, Rome, and the Birth of Europe, 59
^ Blockley, RC 1983. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the
Later Roman Empire. Liverpool: Francis Cairns; citing Priscus
^ Wolfram 1990, p. 254.
^ Wolfram 1997, p. 142.
^ a b c Kim 2013, p. 30.
^ Walter Pohl. 1999. Huns. Late Antiquity: a guide to the
postclassical world, ed. Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont
Brown, Oleg Grabar. Harvard University Press. pp. 501–502
^ Schenker, Alexander. 1995. The Dawn of Slavic: an introduction to
Slavic philology. Yale University Press.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 424–426.
^ a b Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 377.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 382.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 376, 424–426.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 403.
^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 441.
^ a b Pritsak, Omeljan (1982). The Hunnic Language of the
(PDF). IV. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Ukrainian Research
Institute. ISSN 0363-5570.
^ Johanson, Lars; Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages.
^ "It is assumed that the
Huns also were speakers of an l- and r- type
Turkic language and that their migration was responsible for the
appearance of this language in the West." Johanson (1998); cf.
Johanson (2000, 2007) and the articles pertaining to the subject in
Johanson & Csató (ed., 1998).
^ Victor H. Mair, Contact And Exchange in the Ancient World, 2006,
University of Hawaii Press, p.136
^ Heather, Peter. 1995. The
Huns and the End of the
Roman Empire in
Western Europe. English Historical Review, 90: 4-41.
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Tribal hegemony in the former
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire from the decline of
Rome to 843
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