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The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia
Scythia
at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian
Scythian
people, the Alans.[1] By 370 AD, the Huns
Huns
had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns
Huns
had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns
Huns
and the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
people, who were northern neighbours of China
China
in the 3rd century BC.[2] Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no scholarly consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and that of the Huns.[1] Priscus, a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian, mentions that the Huns
Huns
had a language of their own; little of it has survived and its relationships have mainly been considered the Turkic or Mongolic languages. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila
Attila
the Hun's rule, including very many speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire.[3] Their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns
Huns
may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.[4] They formed a unified empire under Attila
Attila
the Hun, who died in 453; after a defeat at the Battle of Nedao their empire disintegrated over the next 15 years. Their descendants, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south, east and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
Central Asia
from about the 4th to 6th centuries. Variants of the Hun
Hun
name are recorded in the Caucasus
Caucasus
until the early 8th century.

Contents

1 Origin 2 History

2.1 Before Attila 2.2 Under Attila
Attila
and Bleda 2.3 Unified Empire under Attila 2.4 After Attila

3 Society and culture

3.1 Appearance 3.2 Artificial cranial deformation 3.3 Government 3.4 Language

4 Warfare

4.1 Strategy and tactics 4.2 Military equipment

5 Legacy

5.1 Legends 5.2 Claims of Hunnic heritage 5.3 20th-century use in reference to Germans 5.4 Sectarian
Sectarian
slur in Northern Ireland and Scotland

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources

9.1 Primary sources 9.2 Secondary sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

Origin

The Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
Belt (in   on the map).

The Huns
Huns
were "a confederation of warrior bands",[attribution needed] ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in the Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
in the 4th to 6th centuries AD.[5] Most aspects of their ethnogenesis (including their language and their links to other peoples of the steppes) are uncertain.[6][7] Walter Pohl states: "All we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors."[8] The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, who completed his work of the history of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the early 390s, recorded that the "people of the Huns
Huns
… dwell beyond the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
near the frozen ocean".[9][10] Jerome
Jerome
associated them with the Scythians
Scythians
in a letter, written four years after the Huns
Huns
invaded the empire's eastern provinces in 395.[11] The equation of the Huns
Huns
with the Scythians, together with a general fear of the coming of the Antichrist
Antichrist
in the late 4th century, gave rise to their identification with Gog and Magog (whom Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
had shut off behind inaccessible mountains, according to a popular legend).[12] This demonization of the Huns
Huns
is also reflected in Jordanes's Getica, written in the 6th century, which portrayed them as a people descending from "unclean spirits"[13] and expelled Gothic witches.[14][15]

Domain and influence of Xiongnu
Xiongnu
under Modu Chanyu
Modu Chanyu
around 205 BC, the believed place of Huns' origin.

Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns
Huns
who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
("howling slaves") who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia
Mongolia
between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD.[16][17] Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
had retreated north-westward; their descendants may have migrated through Eurasia and consequently they may have some degree of cultural and genetic continuity with the Huns.[18] Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological research.[19] Thereafter the identification of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
as the Huns' ancestors became controversial among some.[20]

A Hunnish cauldron

The similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links between the two peoples.[1] The Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Dharmarakṣa, who was an important translator of Indian religious texts in the 3rd century AD, applied the word Xiongnu
Xiongnu
when translating the references to the Huna people
Huna people
into Chinese.[21] According to Zhengzhang Shangfang, Xiongnu
Xiongnu
was pronounced [hoŋ.naː] in Late Old Chinese, corresponding well to Huna.[22] A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of northern China
China
by the "Xwn" people in a letter, written in 313 AD.[21] Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or Xwn were the "exact transcriptions" of the Chinese "Xiongnu" name.[23] Christopher P. Atwood rejects that interpretation because of the "very poor phonological match" between the three words.[24] For instance, Xiongnu
Xiongnu
begins with a voiceless velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless glottal fricative; Xiongnu
Xiongnu
is a two-syllable word, but Xwn only has one syllable. However, Atwood agrees with the overall idenfitication between the two, showing instead that Xwn comes via Chinese transcription of Wēnnàshāh into Bactrian Onnashāh and from there into Sogdian while Sanskrit Huna came via Chinese Huní and Greek Khōnai. He argues it was ultimately transmitted by Baktrian Greek merchants to the Pontic where it became Ounni and Hunni in Roman Greek and Latin.[25] The Chinese Book of Wei contain references to "the remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu" who lived in the region of the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
in the early 5th century AD.[26] According to De la Vaissière, the Chinese source proves that nomadic groups preserved their Xiongnu
Xiongnu
identity for centuries after the fall of their empire.[26]

A gold stag with eagle's head, and ten further heads in the antlers. From a Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tomb on the frontier, 4th-3rd century BC

Both the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Huns
Huns
used bronze cauldrons, similarly to all peoples of the steppes.[27] Based on the study and categorization of cauldrons from archaeological sites of the Eurasian Steppes, archaeologist Toshio Hayashi concludes that the spread of the cauldrons "may indicate the route of migration of the Hunnic tribes" from Mongolia
Mongolia
to the northern region of Central Asia
Central Asia
in the 2nd or 3rd century AD, and from Central Asia
Central Asia
towards Europe in the second half of the 4th century, which also implies the Huns' association with the Xiongnu.[28] The Huns
Huns
practised artificial cranial deformation, but there is no evidence of such practice among the Xiongnu.[29][page needed] This custom had already been practised in the Eurasian Steppes in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and in the early Iron Age, but it disappeared around 500 BC.[30] It again started to spread among the local inhabitants of the region of the Talas River
Talas River
and in the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
in the 1st century BC.[30] In addition to the Huns, the custom is also evidenced among the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
and Alans.[31] The lengthy pony-tail, which was a characteristic of the Xiongnu, was not documented among the Huns.[32] When writing of the relationship between the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Huns, historian Hyun Jin Kim concludes: "Thus to refer to Hun- Xiongnu
Xiongnu
links in terms of old racial theories or even ethnic affiliations simply makes a mockery of the actual historical reality of these extensive, multiethnic, polyglot steppe empires".[33] He also emphasizes that "the ancestors of the Hunnic core tribes … were part of the Xiongnu Empire and possessed a strong Xiongnu
Xiongnu
element, and the ruling elite of the Huns
Huns
… claimed to belong to the political tradition of this imperial entity."[33] Taking into account the historical gap between the Chinese reports of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and the European records of the Huns, Peter Heather states: "Even if we do make some connection between fourth-century Huns
Huns
and first-century [Xiongnu], therefore, an awful lot of water had passed under an awful lot of bridges during 300 years worth of lost history."[32] History Before Attila

A suggested path of Hunnic movement westwards (labels in German)

The 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
mentioned a people called Chuni (Χοῦνοι or Χουνοί) when listing the peoples of the western region of the Eurasian Steppes.[34][35] The Chuni lived "between the Bastarnae
Bastarnae
and the Roxolani", according to Ptolemy.[34][35] Edward Arthur Thompson said, the similarity between the two ethnonyms (Chuni and Huns) is only a coincidence: Western Roman authors often wrote Chunni or Chuni in reference to the Huns; East Romans never used the guttural "[x]" at the beginning of their name.[35] Maenchen-Helfen and Denis Sinor
Denis Sinor
also dispute the association of the Chuni with Attila's Huns.[36] However, Maenchen-Helfen proposes that Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
referred to Ptolemy's report of the Chuni when stating that the Huns
Huns
"are mentioned only cursorily in ancient writers".[9][36] He does not exclude either that the Urugundi who invaded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the steppes to the north of the Lower Danube
Danube
in 250 AD, according to Zosimus, were identical with the Vurugundi, whom Agathias
Agathias
listed among the Hunnic tribes.[37] The Romans became aware of the Huns
Huns
when the Hunnic invasion of the Pontic steppes
Pontic steppes
forced thousands of Goths
Goths
to move to the Lower Danube to seek refuge in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 376, according to the contemporaneous Ammianus Marcellinus.[32] Their sudden appearance in the written sources suggests that the Huns
Huns
crossed the Volga River from the east not much earlier.[10] They invaded the land of the Alans, which was located to the east of the Don River, slaughtering many of them and forcing the survivors to submit themselves to them or to flee across the Don.[38][39][40] The reasons for the Huns' sudden attack on the neighboring peoples are unknown.[41] After rejecting several possible reasons (including a climate change in the steppes and the neighboring peoples' pressure), Peter Heather concludes that the Hunnic Empire developed from "warbands on the make", launching profitable plundering raids, which enabled them to increase their military power and to impose their authority on the neighboring peoples.[42] After they subjugated the Alans, the Huns
Huns
and their Alan auxiliaries started plundering the wealthy settlements of the Greuthungi, or eastern Goths, to the west of the Don.[32] The Greuthungic king, Ermanaric, resisted for a while, but finally "he found release from his fears by taking his own life",[43] according to Ammianus Marcellinus.[32] Marcellinus's report refers either to Ermanaric's suicide[44] or to his ritual sacrifice.[32] His great-nephew, Vithimiris, succeeded him.[44] He hired Huns
Huns
to fight against the Alans
Alans
who invaded the Greuthungi's land, but he was killed in a battle.[44][39] After Vithimiris's death, most Greuthungi
Greuthungi
submitted themselves to the Huns.[44] Those who decided to resist marched to the Dniester River which was the border between the lands of the Greuthungi
Greuthungi
and the Thervingi, or western Goths.[45] They were under the command of Alatheus and Saphrax, because Vithimiris's son, Viderichus, was a child.[45] Athanaric, the leader of the Thervingi, met the refugees along the Dniester at the head of his troops.[32] However, a Hunnic army bypassed the Goths
Goths
and attacked them from the rear, forcing Athanaric to retreat towards the Carpathian Mountains.[32] Athanaric wanted to fortify the borders, but Hunnic raids into the land west of the Dniester continued.[32] Most Thervingi
Thervingi
realized that they could not resist the Huns.[32] They went to the Lower Danube, requesting asylum in the Roman Empire.[46] The Greuthingi under the leadership of Alatheus and Saphrax also marched to the river.[32] Most Roman troops had been transferred from the Balkan Peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
to fight against the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
in Armenia.[32] Emperor Valens
Valens
permitted the Thervingi to cross the Lower Danube
Lower Danube
and to settle in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the autumn of 376.[47] The Thervingi
Thervingi
were followed by the Greuthingi, and also by the Taifali
Taifali
and "other tribes that formerly dwelt with the Goths
Goths
and Taifali" to the north of the Lower Danube, according to Zosimus.[47] Food shortage and abuse stirred the Goths
Goths
to revolt in early 377.[46] The ensuing war between the Goths
Goths
and the Romans lasted for more than five years.[32]

The Barbarian invasions
Barbarian invasions
of the 5th century were triggered by the destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns
Huns
in 372–375. The city of Rome was captured and looted by the Visigoths
Visigoths
in 410 and by the Vandals
Vandals
in 455.

Support for the Gothic chieftains diminished as refugees headed into Thrace
Thrace
and towards the safety of the Roman garrisons. After these invasions, the Huns
Huns
begin to be noted as Foederati
Foederati
and mercenaries. As early as 380, a group of Huns
Huns
was given Foederati status and allowed to settle in Pannonia. Hunnish mercenaries were also seen on several occasions in the succession struggles of the Eastern and Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
during the late 4th century. However, it is most likely that these were individual mercenary bands, not a Hunnish kingdom.[1]

Detail of Hunnish gold and garnet bracelet, 5th century, Walters Art Museum

An Hunnish oval openwork fibula set with a carnelian and decorated with a geometric pattern of gold wire, 4th century, Walters Art Museum

In 395 the Huns
Huns
began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern Roman Empire.[48] Huns
Huns
attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch, and swarmed through the province of Euphratesia. The forces of Emperor Theodosius were fully committed in the west so the Huns
Huns
moved unopposed until the end of 398 when the eunuch Eutropius gathered together a force composed of Romans and Goths
Goths
and succeeded in restoring peace. It is uncertain though, whether or not Eutropius' forces defeated the Huns
Huns
or whether the Huns
Huns
left on their own. There is no record of a notable victory by Eutropius and there is evidence that the Hunnish forces were already leaving the area by the time he gathered his forces.[1] Whether put to flight by Eutropius, or leaving on their own, the Huns had left the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
by 398. After this, the Huns
Huns
invaded the Sassanid Empire. This invasion was initially successful, coming close to the capital of the empire at Ctesiphon; however, they were defeated badly during the Persian counterattack and retreated toward the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains via the Derbend Pass.[1] During their brief diversion from the Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
Empire, the Huns appear to have threatened tribes further west, as evidenced by Radagaisus' entering Italy at the end of 405 and the crossing of the Rhine into Gaul
Gaul
by Vandals, Sueves, and Alans
Alans
in 406.[48] The Huns
Huns
do not then appear to have been a single force with a single ruler. Many Huns
Huns
were employed as mercenaries by both East and West Romans and by the Goths. Uldin, the first Hun
Hun
known by name,[48] headed a group of Huns
Huns
and Alans
Alans
fighting against Radagaisus
Radagaisus
in defense of Italy. Uldin was also known for defeating Gothic rebels giving trouble to the East Romans around the Danube
Danube
and beheading the Goth
Goth
Gainas around 400–401. Gainas' head was given to the East Romans for display in Constantinople
Constantinople
in an apparent exchange of gifts. The East Romans began to feel the pressure from Uldin's Huns
Huns
again in 408. Uldin crossed the Danube
Danube
and captured a fortress in Moesia
Moesia
named Castra Martis, which was betrayed from within. Uldin then proceeded to ransack Thrace. The East Romans tried to buy Uldin off, but his sum was too high so they instead bought off Uldin's subordinates. This resulted in many desertions from Uldin's group of Huns. Alaric's brother-in-law, Athaulf, appears to have had Hun
Hun
mercenaries in his employ south of the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
in 409. These were countered by another small band of Huns
Huns
hired by Honorius' minister Olympius. Later in 409, the West Romans stationed ten thousand Huns
Huns
in Italy and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to fend off Alaric, who then abandoned plans to march on Rome. Under Attila
Attila
and Bleda

" Attila
Attila
the Hun" portrait by sculptor George S. Stuart

Renaissance
Renaissance
medal with the legend, Atila, Flagelum Dei (dubiously-spelled Latin for "Attila, Scourge of God")

From 434 the brothers Attila
Attila
and Bleda ruled the Huns
Huns
together. Attila and Bleda were as ambitious as their uncle Rugila. In 435 they forced the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
to sign the Treaty of Margus,[49] giving the Huns
Huns
trade rights and an annual tribute from the Romans. The Romans also agreed to give up Hunnic refugees (individuals who could have threatened the brothers' grip on power) for execution. With their southern border protected by the terms of this treaty, the Huns
Huns
could turn their full attention to the further subjugation of tribes to the west. When the Romans breached the treaty in 440, Attila
Attila
and Bleda attacked Castra Constantias, a Roman fortress and marketplace on the banks of the Danube.[50] The Eastern Romans stopped delivery of the agreed tribute, and they broke other conditions of the Treaty of Margus. The Hunnic kings turned their attention back to the Eastern Romans. Reports that the Bishop of Margus had crossed into Hun
Hun
lands and desecrated royal graves further angered the Hun
Hun
kings. War broke out between the two empires, and the Huns
Huns
overcame a weak Roman army
Roman army
to raze the cities of Margus, Singidunum
Singidunum
and Viminacium. Although a truce was signed in 441, two years later Constantinople
Constantinople
again failed to deliver the tribute and war resumed. In the following campaign, Hun armies came alarmingly close to Constantinople, sacking Sardica, Arcadiopolis and Philippopolis along the way. Suffering a complete defeat at the Battle of Chersonesus, the Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
Emperor Theodosius II
Theodosius II
gave in to Hun
Hun
demands and in autumn 443 signed the Peace of Anatolius with the two Hun
Hun
kings. The Huns
Huns
returned to their lands with a vast train full of plunder. Unified Empire under Attila

Hunnic Empire

370s–469

The Hunnic Empire circa 450 CE

Capital Not specified

Languages Hunnic Gothic Various tribal languages

Government Tribal Confederation

High King

 •  370s Balamber

 •  c. 435–445 Attila
Attila
and Bleda

 •  445–453 Attila

 •  453–469 Dengizich

History

 •  Huns
Huns
appear north-west of the Caspian Sea pre 370s

 •  Balamber began uniting the Huns
Huns
and Germanic tribes 370s

 •  Attila
Attila
and Bleda become co-rulers of the united tribes 437

 •  Death of Bleda, Attila
Attila
becomes sole ruler 445

 •  Battle of the Catalaunian Plains 451

 •  Invasion of northern Italy 452

 •  Battle of Nedao 454

 •  Dengizich, son of Attila, dies 469

Today part of  Hungary  Ukraine  Moldova  Russia  Romania  Slovakia  Czech Republic  Poland  Germany  Belarus  Serbia  Austria  Lithuania  Croatia  Bulgaria

The Huns
Huns
at the Battle of Chalons.

Bleda died in 445, with some historians speculating that his death was at the hands of Attila. With his brother gone, Attila
Attila
was able to establish undisputed control over his subjects. In 447, Attila
Attila
turned the Huns
Huns
back toward the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
once more. His invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
and Thrace
Thrace
was devastating. The Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
Empire was already beset by internal problems, such as famine and plague, as well as riots and a series of earthquakes in Constantinople
Constantinople
itself. A last-minute rebuilding of its walls preserved Constantinople unscathed. Victory over a Roman army
Roman army
left the Huns
Huns
virtually unchallenged in Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
lands and they raided as far south as Thermopylae. Only disease forced them to retreat, and the war came to an end in 449 with an agreement in which the Romans agreed to pay Attila
Attila
an annual tribute of 2100 pounds of gold. Our only first-hand account of conditions among the Huns
Huns
and of Attila
Attila
himself is by Priscus, an official in the peace embassy to Attila. Throughout their raids on the Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
Empire, the Huns
Huns
had maintained good relations with the Western Empire, and in particular with Flavius Aetius, a powerful Roman general (sometimes even referred to as the de facto ruler of the Western Empire) who in his youth had spent time as a hostage with the Huns. However, this all changed in 450 when Honoria, sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, sent Attila
Attila
a ring and requested his help to escape her betrothal to a senator. Attila
Attila
claimed her as his bride and half the Western Roman Empire as dowry.[51] Additionally, a dispute arose between Attila
Attila
and Aetius about the rightful heir to a king of the Salian Franks. Finally, Attila's ability to distribute treasure to favoured followers was an important support to his power, and the repeated extortion from the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
had left it with little to plunder. In 451, Attila's forces entered Gaul, accumulating contingents from the Franks, Goths
Goths
and Burgundian tribes en route. Once in Gaul, the Huns
Huns
first attacked Metz, then his armies continued westwards, passing both Paris and Troyes
Troyes
to lay siege to Orléans. Aetius was given the duty of relieving Orléans
Orléans
by Emperor Valentinian III. Bolstered by Frankish and Visigothic troops (under King Theodoric), Aetius' own Roman army
Roman army
met the Huns
Huns
at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Although a tactical defeat for Attila, thwarting his invasion of Gaul
Gaul
and forcing his retreat back to non-Roman lands, the macrohistorical significance of the allied and Roman victory is a matter of debate.[52][53][54] The following year, Attila
Attila
renewed his claims to Honoria
Honoria
and territory in the Western Roman Empire. Leading his horde across the Alps and into Northern Italy, he sacked and razed the cities of Aquileia, Vicetia, Verona, Brixia, Bergamum
Bergamum
and Milan. Hoping to avoid the sack of Rome, Emperor Valentinian III
Valentinian III
sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as Pope Leo I, who met Attila
Attila
at Mincio
Mincio
in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. Prosper of Aquitaine describes the historic meeting, giving all the credit of the successful negotiation to Leo. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause. More practically, Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were faring little better in 452;[55] Attila's invasion of the plains of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
this year did not improve the harvest. To advance on Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy, and taking the city would not have improved Attila's supply situation. Secondly, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube
Danube
and defeated the Huns
Huns
who had been left behind by Attila
Attila
to safeguard their home territories. Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire from Italy before moving south of the Po. Attila
Attila
retreated without Honoria
Honoria
or her dowry.[56] The new Eastern Roman
Eastern Roman
Emperor Marcian
Marcian
then halted tribute payments. From the Pannonian Basin, Attila
Attila
planned to attack Constantinople. However, in 453 he married a girl with the Germanic name Ildico, and died of a haemorrhage on his wedding night.[57] After Attila After Attila's death in 453, the Hunnic Empire faced an internal power struggle between its vassalized Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and the Hunnic ruling body. Led by Ellak, Attila's favored son and ruler of the Akatziri, the Huns
Huns
engaged the Gepid king Ardaric
Ardaric
at the Battle of Nedao, who led a coalition of Germanic Peoples to overthrow Hunnic imperial authority. The Amali Goths
Goths
would revolt the same year under Valamir, allegedly defeating the Huns
Huns
in a separate engagement.[58] However, this did not result in the complete collapse of Hunnic power in the Carpathian region, but did result in the loss of many of their Germanic vassals. At the same time, the Huns
Huns
were also dealing with the arrival of more Oghur Turkic-speaking peoples from the East, including the Oghurs, Saragurs, Onogurs, and the Sabirs. In 463, the Saragurs defeated the Akatziri, or Akatir Huns, and asserted dominance in the Pontic region.[59] In 458 some Huns
Huns
served under Tudila in Majorian's army, probably belonging to a group settled under Emnetzur and Ultzindur in Dacia Ripensis.[60] The western Huns
Huns
under Dengzich were experiencing difficulties in 461, when they were defeated by Valamir in a war against the Sadages, a people allied with the Huns.[61] His campaigning was also met with dissatisfaction from Ernak, ruler of the Akatziri Huns, who wanted to focus on the incoming Oghur speaking peoples.[59] In 465–466, Ernak and Dengzich sent ambassadors to Constantinople
Constantinople
requesting a peace treaty, and asking to establish a market for the exchange of needed provisions. However these requests were rejected, and Dengzich attacked the Romans in 467, without the assistance of Ernak. He was surrounded by the Romans and besieged, and came to an agreement that they would surrender if they were given land and his starving forces given food. During the negotiations, a Hun
Hun
in service of the Romans named Chelchel persuaded the enemy Goths
Goths
to attack their Hun
Hun
overlords. The Romans, under their General Aspar
Aspar
and with the help of his bucellarii, then attacked the quarreling Goths and Huns, defeating them.[62] In 469, Anagastes, the son of Arnegisclus who was slain by Attila, brought Dengzich's head and paraded it through the streets before mounting it on a stake in the Hippodrome.[63] Some Historians, like John Man, accept this date as the end of the Hunnic Empire.[64] However others, such as Kim, argue it continued under Ernak who absorbed the incoming Oghur speakers. These people were similar to the Huns
Huns
and Attila's empire continued as the Kutrigur and Utigur Hunno-Bulgars.[59] This conclusion is still subject to some controversy. Society and culture Appearance As the Huns
Huns
were illiterate and thus kept no records, all surviving accounts were written by enemies of the Huns, and none describe the Huns
Huns
as attractive either morally or in appearance. Jordanes, a Goth writing in Italy in 551, a century after the collapse of the Hunnic Empire, describes the Huns
Huns
as a "savage race, which dwelt at first in the swamps, a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human and having no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human speech."[65]:122 Jordanes
Jordanes
goes on to write:

They made their foes flee in horror because their swarthy aspect was fearful, and they had, if I may call it so, a sort of shapeless lump, not a head, with pin-holes rather than eyes. Their hardihood is evident in their wild appearance, and they are beings who are cruel to their children on the very day they are born. For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds. Hence they grow old beardless and their young men are without comeliness, because a face furrowed by the sword spoils by its scars the natural beauty of a beard. They are short in stature, quick in bodily movement, alert horsemen, broad shouldered, ready in the use of bow and arrow, and have firm-set necks which are ever erect in pride. Though they live in the form of men, they have the cruelty of wild beasts.[65]:127–8

Jordanes
Jordanes
also recounted how Priscus
Priscus
had described Attila
Attila
the Hun, the Emperor of the Huns
Huns
from 434–453, as: "Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin."[66]:182 In forming their view of Attila's people, the Romans tapped into attitudes inherited from the Greeks. These were the vilest creatures imaginable. They came from the North and everyone knew that the colder the climate was, the more barbaric the people were.[67] They knew nothing of metal, had no religion and lived like savages, without fire, eating their food raw, living off roots, and meat tenderized by placing it under their horses' saddles. They had no buildings, not so much as a reed hut, indeed, they feared the very idea of venturing under a roof.[67] The description of Huns
Huns
given by the Romans has prompted some historians to believe they were of East Asian origin. Denis Sinor, noting the paucity of anthropological evidence, wrote that "there is no reason to question the basic accuracy of the western descriptions, and the absence of massive supporting evidence by physical anthropology cannot weaken the point they so tellingly make. It is the unusual that most attracts attention."[1] However, Austrian traveler Maenchen-Helfen wrote in the 20th century:

Ammianus' description begins with a strange misunderstanding ... This was repeated by Claudian and Sidonius and reinterpreted by Cassiodorus. Ammianus' explanation of the thin beards is wrong. Like so many other people, the Huns
Huns
inflicted wounds on their live flesh as a sign of grief when their kinsmen were dying.[68]

The 6th-century Roman historian Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea (Book I. ch. 3), related the Huns
Huns
of Europe with the Hephthalites
Hephthalites
or "White Huns" who subjugated the Sassanids and invaded northwestern India, stating that they were of the same stock, "in fact as well as in name", although he contrasted the Huns
Huns
with the Hephthalites, in that the Hephthalites were sedentary, white-skinned, and possessed "not ugly" features:[69][70]

The Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White Huns
Huns
[...] The Ephthalitae are of the stock of the Huns
Huns
in fact as well as in name, however they do not mingle with any of the Huns
Huns
known to us, for they occupy a land neither adjoining nor even very near to them; but their territory lies immediately to the north of Persia [...] They are not nomads like the other Hunnic peoples, but for a long period have been established in a goodly land... They are the only ones among the Huns
Huns
who have white bodies and countenances which are not ugly. It is also true that their manner of living is unlike that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a savage life as they do; but they are ruled by one king, and since they possess a lawful constitution, they observe right and justice in their dealings both with one another and with their neighbours, in no degree less than the Romans and the Persians[71]

Artificial cranial deformation

Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation
of the Alchon Huns, possible relatives of the European Huns, as seen on a portrait of king Khingila
Khingila
c. 440 – 490 CE.[72]

Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation
was practiced by the Huns
Huns
and sometimes by tribes under their influence.[73][74][75][76] Artificial cranial deformation of the circular type can be used to trace the route that the Huns
Huns
took from north China
China
to the Central Asian steppes and subsequently to the southern Russian steppes.[77] The people who practiced annular type artificial cranial deformation in Central Asia were Yuezhi/Kushans.[78][79][80] Some artificially deformed crania from the 5th–6th Century AD have been found in Northeastern Hungary
Hungary
and elsewhere in Western Europe. None of them have any Mongoloid features and all the skulls appear Europoid; these skulls may have belonged to Germanic or other subject groups whose parents wished to elevate their status by following a custom introduced by the Huns.[30] Government Hunnic governmental structure has long been debated. In the past many scholars argued that the Huns
Huns
did not have a central organization until after they entered Europe. Peter Heather argued the Huns
Huns
were a disorganized confederation in which leaders acted completely independently and that eventually established a ranking hierarchy, much like Germanic societies.[81] However this has been challenged in recent years. According to Kim, it is now believed that the Huns continued the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
organization, in which their polity was divided into Left, Right, South, and North, in that order of priority.[82] It is also thought that the Huns
Huns
continued the council of "six horns/nobles" that the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
had under their emperor.[83] It is unknown what the Hun
Hun
emperor was called, but the terms Chanyu, Aniliki, Shah, and Yabgu are possible or interchangeable titles for the same position, as they were in use by other contemporary peoples during that period.[84] Likewise, it is suggested that that the Huns continued to use the decimal military organization of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
as well.[85] Language Further information: Hunnic language A variety of languages were spoken within the Hun
Hun
Empire.[86] It has been supposed that by the 440s, the "Huns" were more Germanic-speaking subject than speakers of Hunnic, and as such Gothic may have been a lingua franca of the Empire.[87][88] Kim however points out that there is no evidence for the idea that Gothic was a lingua franca.[89] Subjects of the Huns
Huns
also included Iranian-speaking Alans
Alans
and Sarmatians.[32] Based on some etymological interpretation of the words strava, medos, and kamos and subsequent historical appearance, the other languages have been taken to include a form of Proto-Slavic language.[90][91][92] Priscus
Priscus
noted that the Hunnic language differed from other languages spoken at Attila's court.[93] He recounts how Zerco made Attila's guests laugh also by the "promiscuous jumble of words, Latin mixed with Hunnish and Gothic".[93] Priscus
Priscus
said that Attila's "Scythian" subjects spoke "besides their own barbarian tongues, either Hunnish, or Gothic, or, as many have dealings with the Western Romans, Latin; but not one of them easily speaks Greek, except captives from the Thracian or Illyrian frontier regions".[94] The ancient sources are thus clear that there was a Hunnic language. The literary sources preserve many names, and three Indo-European words (medos, kamos, strava), which have been studied for more than a century and a half.[95] Otto Maenchen-Helfen noted that the thesis suggesting the Huns
Huns
spoke a Turkic language has a long history behind it.[96] Maenchen-Helfen held that by Turkic origin of Hunnic tribal and proper names, the Huns
Huns
spoke a Turkic language.[97] Denis Sinor argued that "at least part of the Hun
Hun
leadership was Turkic-speaking".[1] Traditionally notable studies of proper names chronologically include that of Gyula Németh, Gerhard Doerfer, Maenchen-Helfen, and Omeljan Pritsak.[1] In Pritsak's 1982 study The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan,[98] he analyzes the 33 survived personal names and concludes:

It was not a Turkic language, but one between Turkic and Mongolian, probably closer to the former than the latter. The language had strong ties to Bulgar language and to modern Chuvash, but also had some important connections, especially lexical and morphological, to Ottoman Turkish and Yakut.[98]

On the basis of the existing name records, a number of scholars suggest that the Huns
Huns
spoke a Turkic language of the Oghur branch, which also includes the Bulgar, Khazar
Khazar
and Chuvash languages.[99][100][101] Peter Heather called the Huns
Huns
"the first group of Turkic, as opposed to Iranian, nomads to have intruded into Europe".[102] Many recent scholars agree that Hunnic was related to Turkic and Mongolian languages.[103] In 2013, Hyun Jin Kim suggested that "from the names that we do know, most of which seem to be Turkic... the Hunnic elite was predominantly Turkic-speaking."[89] He also suggests that the Xiongnu, who had originally spoken Yeniseian, flipped to Oghur Turkic when they absorbed the Dingling and crossed into Central Asia, like the later Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate.[104] He noted that, beside Hunnic, people in Attila's court also spoke Gothic and Latin, and that in the western part of the Empire, where subjected Goths
Goths
lived, people described as Huns
Huns
probably spoke both the Hunnic and Gothic languages. An example would be the Germanic or Germanized names of noted Huns like Laudaricus.[89] Nevertheless, some scholars still conclude that the Hunnic language cannot presently be classified, and attempts to classify it as Turkic or Mongolic are speculative.[105][106][107] Warfare

Huns
Huns
in battle with the Alans. An 1870s engraving after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1805–1880).

Strategy and tactics Hun
Hun
warfare as a whole is not well studied, and many scholars as of recent have discounted Ammianus' description of the Huns.[108] This was first pointed out by E.A. Thompson, who stated that the Huns
Huns
could never have conquered Europe without iron armor and weapons.[109] The only accurate information on Hun
Hun
warfare comes from the 6th-century Strategikon, which describes the warfare of "Dealing with the Scythians, that is, Avars, Turks, and others whose way of life resembles that of the Hunnish peoples." The Strategikon describes the Avars and Huns
Huns
as devious and very experienced in military matters.[110] They are described as preferring to defeat their enemies by deceit, surprise attacks, and cutting off supplies. The Huns brought large numbers of horses to use as replacements and to give the impression of a larger army on campaign.[110] The Hunnish peoples did not set up an entrenched camp, but spread out across the grazing fields according to clan, and guard their necessary horses until they began forming the battle line under the cover of early morning. The Strategikon states the Huns
Huns
also stationed sentries at significant distances and in constant contact with each other in order to prevent surprise attacks.[111] According to the Strategikon, the Huns
Huns
did not form a battle line in the method that the Romans and Persians used, but in irregularly sized divisions in a single line, and keep a separate force nearby for ambushes and as a reserve. The Strategikon also states the Huns
Huns
used deep formations with a dense and even front.[111] Otto Maenchen-Helfen states that the Huns
Huns
likely formed up in divisions according to tribal clans and families which Ammianus calls Cunei, the leader of which was called a Cur and inherited the title as it was passed down through the clan.[112] The Strategikon states that the Huns
Huns
kept their spare horses and baggage train to either side of the line about a mile away, with a moderate sized guard, and would sometimes tie their spare horses together behind the main battle line.[111] The Huns
Huns
preferred to fight at long range, utilizing ambush, encirclement, and the feigned retreat. The Strategikon also makes note of the wedge shaped formations mentioned by Ammianus, and corroborated as familial regiments by Maenchen-Helfen.[111][112][113] The Strategikon states the Huns
Huns
preferred to pursue their enemies relentlessly after a victory and then wear them out by a long siege after defeat.[111] Military equipment The Strategikon states the Huns
Huns
typically used maille, swords, bows, and lances, and that most Hunnic warriors were armed with both the bow and lance and used them interchangeably as needed. It also states the Huns
Huns
used quilted linen, wool, or sometimes iron barding for their horses and also wore quilted coifs and kaftans.[114] This assessment is largely corroborated by archaeological finds of Hun
Hun
military equipment, such as the Volnikovka and Brut Burials. A late Roman ridge helmet of the Berkasovo-Type was found with a Hun burial at Concesti.[115] A Hunnic helmet of the Segmentehelm type was found at Chudjasky, and another of the Bandhelm type at Turaevo.[116] Fragments of lamellar helmets dating to the Hunnic period and within the Hunnic sphere have been found at Iatrus, Illichevka, and Kalkhni.[115][116] Hun
Hun
lamellar armour has not been found in Europe, although two fragments of likely Hun
Hun
origin have been found on the Upper Ob and in West Kazakhstan dating to the 3rd–4th centuries.[citation needed] An unpublished find at a military warehouse near Toprachioi, Romania
Romania
is known but it is uncertain if it can be attributed to Hun
Hun
origin. It is known that the Eurasian Avars introduced Lamellar armor to the Roman Army and Migration Era Germanics in the Middle 6th Century, but this later type does not appear before then.[115][117] It is also widely accepted that the Huns
Huns
introduced the langseax, a 60 cm cutting blade that became popular among the migration era Germanics and in the Late Roman Army, into Europe.[118] It is believed these blades originated in China
China
and that the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Huns served as a transmission vector, using shorter seaxes in Central Asia that developed into the narrow langseax in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
during the late 4th and first half of the 5th century. These earlier blades date as far back as the 1st century AD, with the first of the newer type appearing in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
being the Wien-Simmerming example, dated to the late 4th century AD.[118] Other notable Hun
Hun
examples include the Langseax from the more recent find at Volnikovka in Russia.[119] The Huns
Huns
used a type of spatha in the Iranic or Sassanid style, with a long, straight approximately 83 cm blade, usually with a diamond shaped iron guard plate.[120] Swords of this style have been found at sites such as Altlussheim, Szirmabesenyo, Volnikovka, Novo-Ivanovka, and Tsibilium 61. They typically had gold foil hilts, gold sheet scabbards, and scabbard fittings decorated in the polychrome style. The sword was carried in the "Iranian style" attached to a swordbelt, rather than on a baldric.[121] The most famous weapon of the Huns
Huns
is the Qum Darya-type composite recurve bow, often called the "Hunnish Bow". This bow was invented some time in the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC with the earliest finds near Lake Baikal, but spread across Eurasia
Eurasia
long before the Hunnic migration. These bows were typified by being asymmetric in cross-section between 145–155 cm in length, having between 4–9 lathes on the grip and in the siyahs.[122] Although whole bows rarely survive in European climatic conditions, finds of bone Siyahs are quite common and characteristic of steppe burials. Complete specimens have been found at sites in the Tarim Basin and Gobi Desert such as Niya, Qum Darya, and Shombuuziin-Belchir. Eurasian nomads such as the Huns
Huns
typically used trilobate diamond shaped iron arrowheads, attached using birch tar and a tang, with typically 75 cm shafts and fletching attached with tar and sinew whipping. Such trilobate arrowheads are believed to be more accurate and have better penetrating power or capacity to injure than flat arrowheads.[122] Legacy Legends

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Chroniclers writing centuries later often mentioned or alluded to Huns or their purported descendants. These include:

Theophylact Simocatta Annales Fuldenses Annales Alamannici Annals of Salzburg Liutprand of Cremona's Antapodosis Regino of Prüm's chronicle Widukind of Corvey's Saxon Chronicle Nestor the Chronicler's Primary Chronicle Legends of Saints Cyril and Methodius Aventinus's Chronicon Bavaria Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio Leo VI the Wise's Tactica

Medieval Hungarians
Hungarians
continued this tradition (see Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, Chronicon Pictum, Gesta Hungarorum). Memory of the Hunnic conquest was transmitted orally among Germanic peoples and is an important component in the Old Norse
Old Norse
Völsunga saga and Hervarar saga
Hervarar saga
and in the Middle High German
Middle High German
Nibelungenlied. These stories all portray Migration Period
Migration Period
events from a millennium earlier. In the Hervarar saga, the Goths
Goths
make first contact with the bow-wielding Huns
Huns
and meet them in an epic battle on the plains of the Danube. In the Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild marries Attila
Attila
(Etzel in German) after her first husband Siegfried was murdered by Hagen with the complicity of her brother, King Gunther. She then uses her power as Etzel's wife to take a bloody revenge in which not only Hagen and Gunther
Gunther
but all Burgundian knights find their death at festivities to which she and Etzel had invited them. In the Völsunga saga, Attila
Attila
(Atli in Norse) defeats the Frankish king Sigebert I
Sigebert I
( Sigurðr
Sigurðr
or Siegfried) and the Burgundian King Guntram
Guntram
( Gunnar
Gunnar
or Gunther), but is later assassinated by Queen Fredegund
Fredegund
( Gudrun
Gudrun
or Kriemhild), the sister of the latter and wife of the former. In the German "Saga of Tidreck of Bern", its written versions beginning from the 13th century, the Huns
Huns
are called Frisians. Frisia was often called Hunaland in the Middle Ages.[123][124] Widsith, possibly one of the oldest pieces of English literature
English literature
to survive to the present day, lists a number of ancient kings of tribes sorted according to their popularity and impact; Attila, King of the Huns, comes first, followed immediately by Eormanric of the Ostrogoths.[125]:187 Widsith may be by far the oldest extant work that tells of the Battle of the Goths
Goths
and Huns, also recounted in later Scandinavian works such as the Hervarar saga;[125]:179 in Widsith, however, the battle's details are presented as "sober historical facts" rather than as the "heroic stories" of later works.[125]:184 The name Attila, rendered in Old English
Old English
as Ætla,[note 1] was a given name in use in Anglo-Saxon England
England
(ex. Bishop Ætla of Dorchester) and its use in England
England
at the time may have been connected to the heroic kings legend represented in works like Widsith,[126] though historian Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen doubts the use of the name by the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
had anything to do with the Huns, and argues it was more likely to be based directly on the name's Germanic origin meaning "little father".[127] Claims of Hunnic heritage

Atilla – Kurultáj

Hungarian horsemen at Great Kurultáj 2014, the Hun-Turkic tribal assembly, Bugac.

The Hungarians
Hungarians
(Magyars) in particular lay claim to Hunnic heritage. Although Magyar tribes only began to settle in the geographical area of present-day Hungary
Hungary
in the very end of the 9th century, over 400 years after the breakup of Attila's Hunnic Empire, Hungarian prehistory includes Magyar origin myths. There is also a medieval legend of a lineage that makes Attila
Attila
the sixth-generation ancestor of Árpád
Árpád
conqueror of the modern Pannonian basin, through Attila's son Csaba, his son Ed, his son Ügyek, his son Előd, his son Álmos. Álmos
Álmos
was ruler of the Magyars and the father of Arpad[128] The national anthem of Hungary
Hungary
describes the Hungarians
Hungarians
as "blood of Bendegúz'" (the medieval and modern Hungarian version of Mundzuk, Attila's father). Attila's brother, Bleda, is called Buda
Buda
in modern Hungarian and some medieval chronicles and literary works attribute the name of the city of Buda
Buda
to him. There is a legend among the Székely people that claims that after the death of Attila, in a battle called the Battle of Krimhilda, 3000 Hun warriors managed to escape and settle in a place called "Csigle-mező" (today Transylvania) and they changed their name from Huns
Huns
to Szekler (Székely). According to the Hungarian scholar Egyed, the Székelys speak the Hungarian language
Hungarian language
"without any trace of a Turkic substratum", indicating that they did not have a language shift during their history, and proposes that the Székelys
Székelys
were descended from privileged Hungarian groups.[129][130] They therefore could not have been related to the Huns, who most likely spoke an Oghur Turkic dialect. In Book V, Chapter 9 of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, which was written in Latin, the Anglo-Saxon historian Bede gave a list of peoples that included the Huns.[131] James Campbell notes regarding this passage that though this list of peoples has generally been regarded by historians as being a list of peoples living in Germany
Germany
at the time Bede
Bede
wrote this passage in the 8th century, "the sense of the Latin is that these are the peoples from whom the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
living in Britain were derived."[132]:53 Regarding the inclusion of the Huns
Huns
among these peoples, he writes that the list of peoples fits the 5th century better, when the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
began migrating to Britain, than the 8th century, and notes that " Huns
Huns
sound odd; it is equally odd that Priscus
Priscus
heard of a boast by Attila
Attila
that he had authority over the islands in the ocean."[132]:123–124 Leonard Neidorf, however, interprets the passage as being about the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, sharing a common Germanic heritage with the Huns and the other groups Bede
Bede
listed.[126] 20th-century use in reference to Germans

A First World War Canadian electoral campaign poster

On 27 July 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
in China, Kaiser
Kaiser
Wilhelm II of Germany
Germany
gave the order to act ruthlessly towards the rebels: "Mercy will not be shown, prisoners will not be taken. Just as a thousand years ago, the Huns
Huns
under Attila
Attila
won a reputation of might that lives on in legends, so may the name of Germany
Germany
in China, such that no Chinese will even again dare so much as to look askance at a German."[133] The term "Hun" from this speech was later used for the Germans by British propaganda during World War I. The comparison was helped by the spiked Pickelhaube
Pickelhaube
helmet worn by German forces until 1916, which would be reminiscent of images depicting ancient Hun
Hun
helmets. This usage, emphasising the idea that the Germans were barbarians, was reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war. The French songwriter Théodore Botrel
Théodore Botrel
described the Kaiser
Kaiser
as "an Attila, without remorse", launching "cannibal hordes".[134] The usage of the term "Hun" to describe Germans resurfaced during World War II. For example, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
1941 said in a broadcast speech: "There are less than 70,000,000 malignant Huns, some of whom are curable and others killable, most of whom are already engaged in holding down Austrians, Czechs, Poles and the many other ancient races they now bully and pillage."[135] Later that year Churchill referred to the invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as "the dull, drilled, docile brutish masses of the Hun
Hun
soldiery, plodding on like a swarm of crawling locusts."[136] During this time American President Franklin D. Roosevelt also referred to the German people in this way, saying that an Allied invasion into Southern France would surely "be successful and of great assistance to Eisenhower in driving the Huns from France."[137] Sectarian
Sectarian
slur in Northern Ireland and Scotland "Hun" is also used as an sectarian slur against Protestants in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[138] In Scotland, the term has been used by fans of Celtic FC
Celtic FC
in Old Firm
Old Firm
derbies against Rangers FC supporters,[139] while Orange Halls in Ulster have been daubed with graffiti reading KAH ("Kill all Huns").[140] A pamphlet issued to PSNI officers in 2008 listed "Huns" – along with the terms "black", "prods" or "jaffas" (referring to the Orange Order) for Protestants and "fenians", "taigs", "chucks" or "spongers" for Irish Catholics – as terms not to use to avoid causing offence.[141] See also

List of Hunnic rulers Nomadic empire

Notes

^ The Æ/æ in Ætla is pronounced like the 'a' in 'cat' in most Modern English dialects; it is the near-open front unrounded vowel. (See also Old English
Old English
phonology.)

References

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Roman Empire
(31.2.), p. 411. ^ a b de la Vaissière 2015, p. 177. ^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 4. ^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, pp. 2–4. ^ The Gothic History of Jordanes
Jordanes
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Roman Empire
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Attila
and the Huns. Oxford University Press. ^ Thompson, E. A.; et al. (1999). The Huns. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 136.  ^ Harvey, Bonnie (2003). Attila
Attila
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Sources Primary sources

Ammianus Marcellinus: The Later Roman Empire
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(AD 354–378) (Selected and translated by Walter Hamilton, With an Introduction and Notes by Andrew Wallace-Hadrill) (2004). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-044406-3. The Gothic History of Jordanes
Jordanes
(in English Version with an Introduction and a Commentary by Charles Christopher Mierow, Ph.D., Instructor in Classics in Princeton University) (2006). Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-77-9.

Secondary sources

Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. (1945). "The Legend of the Origin of the Huns". Byzantion. 17: 244–251.  Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. (1973). The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Edited by Max Knight). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01596-7.  Wolfram, Herwig (1990). History of the Goths. University of California Press. p. 254. ISBN 0-5200-6983-8.  Wolfram, Herwig (1997). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Its Germanic Peoples. University of California Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-5200-8511-6.  Pohl, Walter (1999). "Huns". In Bowersock, G. W.; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 501–502. ISBN 0-674-51173-5.  Thompson, E. A. (2001). The Huns. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-15899-5.  James, Edward (2009). Europe's Barbarians, AD 200–600. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-77296-0.  Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973560-0.  Wright, David Curtis (2011). The History of China. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-37748-8.  Atwood, Christopher P. (2012). " Huns
Huns
and Xiōngnú: New Thoughts on an Old Problem". In Boeck, Brian J.; Martin, Russell E.; Rowland, Daniel. Dubitando: Studies in History and Culture in Honor of Donald Ostrowski. Cambridge University Press. pp. 27–52. ISBN 978-0-8-9357-404-8.  Hyun Jin Kim (2013). The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107009066.  Hayashi, Toshio (2014). " Huns
Huns
were Xiongnu
Xiongnu
or not? From the Viewpoint of Archaeological Material". In Choi, Han Woo; Şahin, Ilhan; Kim, Byung Il; İsakov, Baktıbek; Buyar, Cengiz. Altay Communities: Migrations and Emergence of Nations. Print(ist). pp. 27–52. ISBN 978-975-7914-43-3.  de la Vaissière, Étienne (2015). "The Steppe World and the Rise of the Huns". In Maas, Michael. Age of Attila. Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–192. ISBN 978-1-107-63388-9.  Zhengzhang, Shangfang (2003). "古音字表". 上古音系. 上海教育出版社. pp. 260–581. ISBN 7-5320-9244-5.  Soren, David; Soren, Noelle, eds. (1999). A Roman Villa and a Late Roman Infant Cemetery: Excavation at Poggio. L'Erma di Bretschneider.  Halsall, Guy (2007). Barbarian
Barbarian
Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568. Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading

Attila
Attila
und die Hunnen. Begleitbuch zur Ausstellung. Hrsg. vom Historischen Museum der Pfalz, Speyer. (Stuttgart 2007). Christopher Kelly, Attila
Attila
The Hun: Barbarian
Barbarian
Terror and the Fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(London 2008) Rudi Paul Lindner, Nomadism, Horses and Huns, in: Past and Present 92, 1981, p.  3–19. E. A. Thompson, A History of Attila
Attila
and the Huns
Huns
(1948). Franz Altheim, Attila
Attila
und die Hunnen (1951). J. Werner, Beiträge zur Archäologie des Attila-Reiches (1956). John Man, Attila
Attila
The Hun, A barbarian King and the fall of Rome (2005). W. M. McGovern, Early Empires of Central Asia
Central Asia
(1939) Frederick John Teggart, China
China
and Rome (1969, repr. 1983);

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Huns.

Dorn'eich, Chris M. 2008. Chinese sources on the History of the Niusi-Wusi-Asi(oi)-Rishi(ka)-Arsi-Arshi-Ruzhi and their Kueishuang-Kushan Dynasty. Shiji 110/Hanshu 94A: The Xiongnu: Synopsis of Chinese original Text and several Western Translations with Extant Annotations. A blog on Central Asian history.  "Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Tribal hegemony in the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
from the decline of Rome to 843

Huns
Huns
376–454 Vandals
Vandals
406–534 Visigoths
Visigoths
410–711 Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
493–553 Franks
Franks
509–843 Byzantines 553–568 Lombards
Lombards
568–774 Moors
Moors
711–1492

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