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Carlumab
CARLUMAB (alternate identifier CNTO 888 ) is a discontinued human recombinant monoclonal antibody (type IgG1 kappa) that targets human CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1 ). Carlumab
Carlumab
was under development for use in the treatment of oncology and immune indications and was studied for application in systemic sclerosis , atherosclerosis , diabetic nephropathy , liver fibrosis and type 2 diabetes . The inhibitory binding of Carlumab
Carlumab
to CCL2 was hypothesized to inhibit angiogenesis and consequently modulate tumor cell proliferation. Studies focusing on the effects of Carlumab
Carlumab
have been performed in vitro on cell lines and in vivo on mice and in humans including phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials evaluating the efficacy, safety and dose requirements of the drug
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Clinical Trial
CLINICAL TRIALS are experiments or observations done in clinical research . Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines , drugs , dietary choices , dietary supplements , and medical devices ) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy . They are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought. These authorities are responsible for vetting the risk/benefit ratio of the trial – their approval does not mean that the therapy is 'safe' or effective, only that the trial may be conducted
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Pulmonary Fibrosis
PULMONARY FIBROSIS (literally "scarring of the lungs ") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems. Scar formation, the accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue (the process called fibrosis ), leads to thickening of the walls, and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood. As a consequence patients suffer from perpetual shortness of breath . In some patients the specific cause of the disease can be diagnosed, but in others the probable cause cannot be determined, a condition called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . There is no known cure for the scars and damage in the lung due to pulmonary fibrosis
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Angiogenesis
ANGIOGENESIS is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis , which is the de novo formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization , although discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease. Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis
is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue . However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer
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Liver Fibrosis
CIRRHOSIS is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage. This damage is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue . Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years. Early on, there are often no symptoms. As the disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak , itchy , have swelling in the lower legs , develop yellow skin , bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen , or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin . The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected . Other complications include hepatic encephalopathy , bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus or dilated stomach veins , and liver cancer . Hepatic encephalopathy results in confusion and may lead to unconsciousness . Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis
is most commonly caused by alcohol , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
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Prostate Cancer
PROSTATE CANCER is the development of cancer in the prostate , a gland in the male reproductive system . Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes . It may initially cause no symptoms. In later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating , blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis , back or when urinating. A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells . Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race . About 99% of cases occur in those over the age of 50. Having a first-degree relative with the disease increases the risk two to threefold. In the United States, it is more common in the black population than the white population
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Immunosuppression
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system . Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant , Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant , or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren\'s syndrome , or Crohn\'s disease . This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy ), plasmapharesis , or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons ( chemotherapy or HIV
HIV
), is said to be immunocompromised
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American Medical Association
The AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs —and medical students in the United States. The AMA's stated mission is "to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health." The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which has the largest circulation of any weekly medical journal in the world. The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Diabetic Nephropathy
DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY (or DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE ) is a progressive kidney disease involving damage to the capillaries in the kidneys ' glomeruli because of longstanding diabetes mellitus . It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse scarring of the glomeruli . It is a common complication of diabetes and is a prime reason for dialysis in many developed countries. It is classified as a small blood vessel complication of diabetes. Play media Video explanation CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Causes * 3 Mechanism * 4 Diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 Prognosis * 7 Epidemiology * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSDuring its early course, diabetic nephropathy often has no symptoms . Symptoms can take 5 to 10 years to appear after the kidney damage begins
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Immune System
The IMMUNE SYSTEM is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease . To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens , from viruses to parasitic worms , and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue . In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system , or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity . In humans, the blood–brain barrier , blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier , and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system , which protects the brain
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL (ATC) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic , pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics . Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use). This means that one drug can have more than one code: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), for example, has A01AD05 (WHO) as a drug for local oral treatment, B01AC06 (WHO) as a platelet inhibitor , and N02BA01 (WHO) as an analgesic and antipyretic
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Antigen
In immunology , an ANTIGEN is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response on the part of the host organism , though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself . In other words, an antigen is any Substance that causes an immune system to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the antigen and the initiation of a tailored response . The antibody is said to "match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to adaptations performed to a region of the antibody ; because of this, many different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen
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