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Benedict's Reagent
Benedict's reagent
Benedict's reagent
(often called Benedict's qualitative solution or Benedict's solution) is a chemical reagent named after American chemist Stanley Rossiter Benedict.[1] It is a complex mixture of sodium carbonate, sodium citrate and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.[2] It is often used in place of Fehling's solution
Fehling's solution
to detect the presence of reducing sugars. The presence of other reducing substances also gives a positive reaction.[3] Such tests that use this reagent are called the Benedict's tests. A positive test with Benedict's reagent
Benedict's reagent
is shown by a color change from clear blue to a brick-red precipitate. Generally, Benedict's test detects the presence of aldehydes and alpha-hydroxy-ketones, also by hemiacetal, including those that occur in certain ketoses
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Human Body Weight
Human body weight
Human body weight
refers to a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the world, although in some countries such as the United States
United States
it is measured in pounds, or as in the United Kingdom, stones and pounds. Most hospitals, even in the United States, now use kilograms for calculations, but use kilograms and pounds together for other purposes. Strictly speaking, body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured with clothes on, but without shoes or heavy accessories such as mobile phones and wallets and using manual or digital weighing scales
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Quantitative Analysis (chemistry)
In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.[1]Contents1 Methods 2 Quantitative vs. qualitative 3 See also 4 ReferencesMethods[edit] Once the presence of certain substances in a sample is known, the study of their absolute or relative abundance can help in determining specific properties. Knowing the composition of a sample is very important, and several ways have been developed to make it possible, like gravimetric[2] and volumetric analysis. Gravimetric analysis yields more accurate data about the composition of a sample than volumetric analysis but also takes more time to perform in the laboratory. Volumetric analysis, on the other hand, doesn't take that much time and can produce satisfactory results
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Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Inositol
Inositol
Inositol
or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula C6H12O6 or (-CHOH-)6, a derivative of cyclohexane with six hydroxyl groups, making it a polyol (multiple alcohol)
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Urine
Urine
Urine
is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals. Urine
Urine
flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder. Urination
Urination
results in urine being excreted from the body through the urethra. The cellular metabolism generates many by-products which are rich in nitrogen and must be cleared from the bloodstream, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine. These by-products are expelled from the body during urination, which is the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. A urinalysis can detect nitrogenous wastes of the mammalian body. Urine
Urine
has a role in the earth's nitrogen cycle. In balanced ecosystems urine fertilizes the soil and thus helps plants to grow. Therefore, urine can be used as a fertilizer. Some animals use it to mark their territories
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
(DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes
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Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin
Vitamin
C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] The disease scurvy is prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds.[4] It is unclear if supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[5][6] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[1]
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Levodopa
L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(/ˌɛlˈdoʊpə/), also known as levodopa (/ˌlɛvoʊˈdoʊpə/) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans,as well as some animals and plants. Humans, as well as a portion of the other animals that utilize L-DOPA
L-DOPA
in their biology, make it via biosynthesis from the amino acid L-tyrosine. L-DOPA
L-DOPA
is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines. Furthermore, L-DOPA
L-DOPA
itself mediates neurotrophic factor release by the brain and CNS.[1][2] L-DOPA
L-DOPA
can be manufactured and in its pure form is sold as a psychoactive drug with the INN levodopa; trade names include Sinemet, Pharmacopa, Atamet, Stalevo, Madopar, and Prolopa
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Homogentisic Acid
Homogentisic acid
Homogentisic acid
(2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is a phenolic acid usually found in Arbutus unedo
Arbutus unedo
(strawberry-tree) honey.[1] It is also present in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli[2] as well as in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica[3] where it is associated with the production of brown pigments
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Alkaptonuria
Alkaptonuria
Alkaptonuria
is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein. It is caused by a mutation in the HGD gene for the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.5); if a person inherits abnormal copies from each parent (it is a recessive condition) the body accumulates an intermediate substance called homogentisic acid in the blood and tissues. Homogentisic acid
Homogentisic acid
and its oxidized form alkapton are excreted in the urine, giving it an unusually dark color. The accumulating homogentisic acid causes damage to cartilage (ochronosis, leading to osteoarthritis) and heart valves as well as precipitating as kidney stones and stones in other organs
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Copper Thiocyanate
Copper(I) thiocyanate (or cuprous thiocyanate) is a coordination polymer with formula CuSCN. It is an air-stable, white solid used as a precursor for the preparation of other thiocyanate salts.Contents1 Structure 2 Synthesis 3 Double salts 4 Uses 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] Two polymorphs have been characterized. The one pictured above features copper(I) in a characteristic tetrahedral coordination geometry. The sulfur end of the SCN- ligand is triply bridging.[2] Synthesis[edit] Copper(I) thiocyanate forms from the spontaneous decomposition of dry black copper(II) thiocyanate, releasing thiocyanogen, especially when heated. It is also formed from copper(II) thiocyanate under water, releasing (among others) thiocyanic acid and the highly poisonous hydrogen cyanide.[3] It is conveniently prepared from solutions of copper(II) in water, such as copper(II) sulphate
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
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Calibration
Calibration
Calibration
in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler. The outcome of the comparison can result in no significant error being noted on the device under test, a significant error being noted but no adjustment made, or an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level
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Dextrose Equivalent
Dextrose
Dextrose
equivalent (DE) is a measure of the amount of reducing sugars present in a sugar product, expressed as a percentage on a dry basis relative to dextrose. The dextrose equivalent gives an indication of the average degree of polymerisation (DP) for starch sugars. As a rule of thumb, DE × DP = 120. In all glucose polymers, from the native starch to glucose syrup, the molecular chain begins with a reducing sugar, containing a free aldehyde. As the starch is hydrolysed, the molecules become shorter and more reducing sugars are present
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Jones Reductor
A Jones reductor is a device which can be used to reduce a metal ion in aqueous solution to a very low oxidation state. The active component is a zinc amalgam. It can be used to prepare solutions of ions, such as chromium(II), Cr2+, and uranium(III), U3+, which are immediately oxidized on contact with air.[1]Contents1 Preparation and use 2 Applications 3 See also 4 ReferencesPreparation and use[edit] Amalgamated zinc is first prepared by treating zinc metal with a 2% solution of mercury(II) chloride, in a beaker. The metal may be in the granulated form or as shavings, wool, or 20-30 mesh powder. The mercury ions are able to penetrate the passive layer and are reduced to elemental mercury, forming the amalgam, which is a kind of alloy of both metals, on the metal surface
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