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Astra (satellites)
Astra is the brand name for a number of geostationary communication satellites, both individually and as a group, which are owned and operated by SES S.A., a global satellite operator based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg. The name is also used to describe the pan-European broadcasting system provided by these satellites, the channels carried on them, and even the reception equipment. At the time of the launch of the first Astra satellite, Astra 1A in 1988, the satellite's operator was known as Société Européenne des Satellites
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Geostationary Satellite
A geostationary orbit, geostationary Earth
Earth
orbit (often referred to as geosynchronous equatorial orbit)[1] (GEO) is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. An object in such an orbit appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers. Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located
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Astra 31.5°E
Astra 31.5°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 31.5° east position in the Clarke Belt owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg
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SES-5
SES-5 (also known as Astra 4B and Sirius 5) is a commercial geostationary communication satellite operated by SES. It was launched on 9 July 2012. It was constructed by Space Systems/Loral, and is based on the LS-1300
LS-1300
satellite bus. It carries 24 C-band and 36 Ku-band
Ku-band
transponders. It covers Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Europe, Atlantic Ocean.[1][2]See also[edit]Spaceflight portal2012 in spaceflightReferences[edit]^ "SES 5 / Astra 4B". Gunter's Space. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ "SES-5". SES World Skies
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Proton (rocket Family)
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches. The first Proton rocket was launched in 1965. Modern versions of the launch system are still in use as of 2017, making it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center plant in Moscow, transported to the Baikonur Cosmodrome, brought to the launch pad horizontally, and raised into vertical position for launch.[3][4] As with many Soviet rockets, the names of recurring payloads became associated with the Proton. The moniker "Proton" originates from a series of similarly named scientific satellites, which were among the rocket's first payloads
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Proton-M
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index
GRAU index
8K82M or 8K82KM, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton. It is built by Khrunichev, and launched from sites 81 and 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in Kazakhstan. Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services
International Launch Services
(ILS), and generally use Site 200/39
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Eurostar E3000
The Eurostar E3000 is a generic satellite model most commonly used for commercial and military communications satellites manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space
(formerly Astrium). It is a member of Airbus Defence and Space's Eurostar family. It utilises a chemical, bi-propellant propulsion system for orbit raising and on-station manoeuvres with an optional plasma propulsion system (PPS). The PPS harnesses the Newtonian effect as a result of the ionisation of xenon gas employed by the use of Hall effect
Hall effect
plasma thrusters. This system is most commonly used for North-South station-keeping
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Airbus Defence And Space
Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space SAS is a division of Airbus
Airbus
responsible for defence and aerospace products and services. The division was formed in January 2014 during the corporate restructuring of European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), and comprises the former Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian
Cassidian
divisions.[6] It is the world's second largest space company after Boeing
Boeing
and one of the top ten defence companies in the world.[7] Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space has its corporate headquarters in Ottobrunn, Germany, and is led by Dirk Hoke, the Chief Executive Officer. The company has three divisions: Military Aircraft (led by Fernando Alonso), Space Systems (led by Nicolas Chamussy), and Communication-Intelligence-Security (led by Evert Dudok)
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Astrium
Astrium
Astrium
was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013
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Ka Band
The Ka band
Ka band
("kay-ay band") is a portion of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as frequencies in the range 26.5–40 gigahertz (GHz),[1] i.e. wavelengths from slightly over one centimeter down to 7.5 millimeters.[2] The band is called Ka, short for "K-above" because it is the upper part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. The 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellites, uplink in either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands,[3] and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes
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Ku Band
The Ku band
Ku band
(pronunciation: /ˌkeɪˈjuː/) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under" (originally German: Kurz-unten), because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands (Ku, K, and Ka) because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission
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Ariane 5 ECA
Ariane 5
Ariane 5
is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO). Ariane 5
Ariane 5
rockets are manufactured under the authority of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Airbus Defence and Space is the prime contractor for the vehicles, leading a consortium of other European contractors. Ariane 5
Ariane 5
is operated and marketed by Arianespace
Arianespace
as part of the Ariane programme
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Atlas V
Atlas V
Atlas V
(pronounced "atlas five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family. It was formerly operated by Lockheed Martin and is now operated by United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance
(ULA), a joint venture with Boeing. Each Atlas V
Atlas V
rocket uses a Russian-built RD-180
RD-180
engine burning kerosene and liquid oxygen to power its first stage and an American-built RL10
RL10
engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to power its Centaur upper stage. The RD-180
RD-180
engines are provided by RD Amross, while Aerojet Rocketdyne
Aerojet Rocketdyne
provides both the RL10
RL10
engines and the strap-on boosters used in some configurations. The standard payload fairing sizes are 4 or 5 meters in diameter and of various lengths
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Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
(NYSE: LMT) is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Corporation
with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
employs approximately 100,000 people worldwide.[1] Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
is one of the largest companies in the aerospace, defense, security, and technologies industry
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Ultra-high-definition Television
Ultra-high-definition television
Ultra-high-definition television
(also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats that were first proposed by NHK
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Communication Satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations.[1] Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth
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