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The Middle East is a transcontinental region in
Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia,Field, Henry.The University of California African Expedition: I, Egypt, ''American Anthropologist,'' New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia), nicknamed the World Island, i ...

Afro-Eurasia
which generally includes
Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant region, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and ...
(except for
Transcaucasia Transcaucasia, also known as the South Caucasus, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains. Transcaucasia roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan ...
), all of
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
(mostly in
North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Su ...
), and
Turkey Turkey ( tr|Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Arme ...

Turkey
( partly in
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or h ...
). The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term
Near East The Near East (Arabic: شرق أدنى, Hebrew: המזרח הקרוב, Aramaic: ܡܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, Persian: خاور نزدیک, Turkish: Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental region comprising Western A ...
(as opposed to the
Far East The Far East is a geographical region that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical disco ...
) beginning in the early 20th century. The broader concept of the "
Greater Middle East The Greater Middle East, is a political term, introduced in March 2004 in a paper by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace as part of the U.S. administration's preparatory work for the G8 summit of June 2004, denoting a vaguely defined ...
" (aka the
Middle East and North Africa MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa. It is alternatively called the WANA (West Asia and North Africa). The MENA acronym is often used in academia, military planning, disaster relief, media planning ...

Middle East and North Africa
or the MENAP) also includes the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar|المغرب , "the west"), also known as Northwest Africa, the Arab Maghreb ( ), and historically as "The Barbary coast", is the western part of North Africa and the Arab World. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania ...
,
Sudan Sudan (; ar|السودان|as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar|جمهورية السودان|link=no|Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, ...
,
Djibouti Djibouti ar|جيبوتي ', french: link=no|Djibouti, so|Jabuuti , officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somalia in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the north, a ...
,
Somalia Somalia,; ar|الصومال|aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
, the
Comoros The Comoros,; ar|جزر القمر, ' officially the Union of the Comoros,Comorian: ''Udzima wa Komori,'' french: Union des Comores, ar|الاتحاد القمري ' is an island country in the Indian Ocean, at the northern end of the Mozam ...
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west ...
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
, and sometimes Transcaucasia and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Russian-ruled, later Soviet ...

Central Asia
into the region. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions. Most Middle Eastern countries (13 out of 18) are part of the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar|العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries which are members of the Arab League. A majority of thes ...
. The most populous countries in the region are Egypt,
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, and Turkey, while
Saudi Arabia (Shahada) | national_anthem = "" "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" | image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg | capital = Riyadh | coordinates = | largest_city = Riyadh | official_languages = Arabic | languages_type = Spoken l ...
is the largest Middle Eastern country by area. The
history of the Middle East Home to the Cradle of civilization|Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East—interchangeable with the Near East—has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations. This history started from the earliest human settlements, continuin ...
dates back to
ancient times Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from t ...
, with the geopolitical importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including
Judaism Judaism ( he|יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Judah", via Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, ...
,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion followers. Its adherents, known as Christians, make up a majority of the populati ...
, and
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
.
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar|عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar|عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to th ...
constitute the majority ethnic group in the region, followed by
Turks Turk or Turks may refer to: Communities * Turkish people, the main ethnic group of Turkey * Turkish citizens, all citizens of the Republic of Turkey, irrespective of ethnicity * Turkic peoples, a collection of ethnic groups that speak languages b ...
,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
,
Kurds Kurds ( ku|کورد ,Kurd|italic=yes|rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria ...
,
Azeris Azerbaijanis (; az|Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az|Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan and the Azerbaijan region of Iran, with a mi ...
,
Copts The Copts ( cop|ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ|translit=niremenkhemi; ar|الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt. Most ethnic Copts are Coptic Orthodox Christia ...
,
Jews Jews ( he|יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish ...
, Assyrians,
Iraqi Turkmen The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled in the singular as Turkoman and Turcoman; tr|Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, Turkish-Iraqis, or the Iraqi-Turkish minority, ( ar|تركمان العراق; tr|Irak Türkleri) are Iraqis of Tur ...
, and
Greek Cypriots Greek Cypriots ( el|Ελληνοκύπριοι, tr|Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community. According to the 2011 census, 659,115 respondents rec ...
. The Middle East generally has a hot,
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are ca ...
climate, with several major rivers providing
irrigation Irrigation is the artificial process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in production of crops. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during per ...
to support
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled peo ...
in limited areas such as the
Nile Delta#REDIRECT Nile Delta#REDIRECT Nile Delta {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in Egypt, the
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of the Armenian Highlands through the Syrian and Arabian Deserts, and empties into the Persian ...

Tigris
and
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). Originating in the Armenian Highlan ...
watersheds of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
(
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
,
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
, and eastern
Syria Syria ( ar|سُورِيَا|''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar|ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ|al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in West ...
), and most of what is known as the [[Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the [[Persian Gulf have vast reserves of [[crude oil, with monarchs of the [[Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports. Because of the arid climate and heavy reliance on the fossil fuel industry, the Middle East is both [[Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa|a heavy contributor to climate change and [[Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa|a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it.


Terminology

The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British [[India Office. However, it became more widely known when [[United States|American naval strategist [[Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the [[British Empire|British and [[Russian Empires were vying for influence in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Russian-ruled, later Soviet ...

Central Asia
, a rivalry which would become known as [[The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the [[Persian Gulf. He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's [[Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards [[British Raj|British India. Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the ''[[National Review (London)|National Review'', a British journal. Mahan's article was reprinted in ''[[The Times'' and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir [[Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of ''Middle East'' to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of [[India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, ''The Times'' removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until [[World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around
Turkey Turkey ( tr|Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Arme ...

Turkey
and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "
Near East The Near East (Arabic: شرق أدنى, Hebrew: המזרח הקרוב, Aramaic: ܡܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, Persian: خاور نزدیک, Turkish: Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental region comprising Western A ...
", while the "
Far East The Far East is a geographical region that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East. South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons. The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical disco ...
" centered on [[China, and the Middle East then meant the area from
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
to [[Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East. In the late 1930s, the British established the [[Middle East Command, which was based in [[Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the [[Middle East Institute founded in [[Washington, D.C. in 1946, among other usage. The corresponding adjective is ''Middle Eastern'' and the derived noun is ''Middle Easterner''. While non-Eurocentric terms such "Southwest Asia" or "Swasia" has been sparsedly used, the inclusion of an African country, Egypt, in the definition questions the usefulness of using such terms.


Criticism and usage

The description ''Middle'' has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the [[World War I|First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the [[Balkans and the [[Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, the [[Caucasus,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west ...
, Central Asia, and [[Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of [[East Asia (e.g. [[China, [[Japan, [[Korea, etc.) With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the [[Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including [[archaeology and [[ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term ''Middle East'', which is not used by these disciplines (see [[Ancient Near East). The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the [[Federal government of the United States|United States government was in the 1957 [[Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the [[Suez Crisis. Secretary of State [[John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including [[Libya on the west and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
on the east,
Syria Syria ( ar|سُورِيَا|''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar|ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ|al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in West ...
and
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the
Sudan Sudan (; ar|السودان|as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar|جمهورية السودان|link=no|Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, ...
and [[Ethiopia." In 1958, the [[United States Department of State|State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
,
Syria Syria ( ar|سُورِيَا|''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar|ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ|al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in West ...
, [[Israel, [[Lebanon, [[Jordan,
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
,
Saudi Arabia (Shahada) | national_anthem = "" "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" | image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg | capital = Riyadh | coordinates = | largest_city = Riyadh | official_languages = Arabic | languages_type = Spoken l ...
,
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
, [[Bahrain, and [[Qatar. The [[Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. It instructs:
Use ''Middle East'' unless ''Near East'' is used by a source in a story. ''Mideast'' is also acceptable, but ''Middle East'' is preferred.
The term ''Middle East'' has also been criticised as [[Eurocentric ("based on a British Western perception") by Hanafi (1998).


Translations

There are terms similar to ''Near East'' and ''Middle East'' in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. In [[German language|German the term ''[[:de:Naher Osten|Naher Osten'' (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term ''Mittlerer Osten'' is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in [[Russian language|Russian [[:ru:Ближний Восток|Ближний Восток or ''Blizhniy Vostok'', [[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian [[:bg:Близък Изток|Близкия Изток, [[Polish language|Polish ''[[:pl:Bliski Wschód|Bliski Wschód'' or [[Croatian language|Croatian ''[[:hr:Bliski istok|Bliski istok'' (meaning ''Near East'' in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the [[French language|French [[:fr:Moyen-Orient|Moyen-Orient, [[Swedish language|Swedish [[:sv:Mellanöstern|Mellanöstern, [[Spanish language|Spanish [[:es:Oriente Medio|Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the [[Italian language|Italian [[:it:Medio Oriente|Medio Oriente.In Italian, the expression "Vicino Oriente" (Near East) was also widely used to refer to Turkey, and ''Estremo Oriente'' (Far East or Extreme East) to refer to all of Asia east of Middle East Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of ''Middle East'' (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ''ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ'') has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprising the same meaning as the term "Middle East" in North American and Western European usage. The designation, ''[[Mashriq'', also from the Arabic root for ''East'', also denotes a variously defined region around the [[Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the ''
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar|المغرب , "the west"), also known as Northwest Africa, the Arab Maghreb ( ), and historically as "The Barbary coast", is the western part of North Africa and the Arab World. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania ...
'', the western part). Even though the term originated in the West, apart from Arabic, other languages of countries of the Middle East also use a translation of it. The [[Persian language|Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (''Khāvar-e miyāneh''), the Hebrew is המזרח התיכון (''hamizrach hatikhon'') and the Turkish is Orta Doğu.


Territories and regions


Territories and regions usually considered within the Middle East

Traditionally included within the Middle East are
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
(Persia), [[Asia Minor,
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
, the [[Levant, the [[Arabian Peninsula, and
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
. In modern-day-country terms they are these: :a. [[Jerusalem is the [[Jerusalem Law|proclaimed capital of Israel, which is [[Positions on Jerusalem|disputed and the actual location of the [[Knesset, [[Israeli Supreme Court, and other governmental institutions of Israel. [[Ramallah is the actual location of the government of Palestine, whereas the proclaimed capital of Palestine is [[East Jerusalem, which is [[Positions on Jerusalem|disputed. :b. Controlled by the [[Houthis due to the [[Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)|ongoing war. Seat of government moved to Aden.


Other definitions of the Middle East

Various concepts are often being paralleled to Middle East, most notably Near East, [[Fertile Crescent and the Levant. Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning. Due to it primarily being Arabic speaking, the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar|المغرب , "the west"), also known as Northwest Africa, the Arab Maghreb ( ), and historically as "The Barbary coast", is the western part of North Africa and the Arab World. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania ...
region of North Africa is sometimes included. The countries of the [[South Caucasus—[[Armenia, [[Azerbaijan, and [[Georgia (country)|Georgia—are occasionally included in definitions of the Middle East. The
Greater Middle East The Greater Middle East, is a political term, introduced in March 2004 in a paper by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace as part of the U.S. administration's preparatory work for the G8 summit of June 2004, denoting a vaguely defined ...
was a [[Political geography|political term coined by the [[George W. Bush administration|second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century, to denote various countries, pertaining to the [[Muslim world, specifically
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr|Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Arme ...

Turkey
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west ...
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
. Various [[Central Asian countries are sometimes also included.


History

The Middle East lies at the juncture of [[Eurasia and [[Africa and of the [[Mediterranean Sea and the [[Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and [[Spirituality|spiritual center of religions such as
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion followers. Its adherents, known as Christians, make up a majority of the populati ...
,
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
,
Judaism Judaism ( he|יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Judah", via Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, ...
, [[Manichaeism, [[Yezidi, [[Druze, [[Yarsan and [[Mandeanism, and in Iran, [[Mithraism, [[Zoroastrianism, [[Manicheanism, and the [[Baháʼí Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. The region is one of the regions were agriculture was independently discovered, and from the Middle East it was spread, during the Neolithic, to different regions of the world such as Europe, the Indus Valley and Eastern Africa. Prior to the formation of civilizations, advanced cultures formed all over the Middle East during the [[Stone Age. The search for agricultural lands by agriculturalists, and pastoral lands by herdsmen meant different migrations took place within the region and shaped its ethnic and demographic makeup. The Middle East is widely and most famously known as the [[Cradle of civilization. The world's earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia ([[Sumer, [[Akkadian Empire|Akkad, [[Assyria and [[Babylonia), [[ancient Egypt and [[Kish civilization|Kish in the Levant, all originated in the Fertile Crescent and [[Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. These were followed by the [[Hittites|Hittite, [[Greeks|Greek, [[Hurrians|Hurrian and [[Urartian civilisations of [[Asia Minor; [[Elam, [[History of Iran|Persia and [[Medes|Median civilizations in
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, as well as the civilizations of the [[History of the Levant|Levant (such as [[Ebla, [[Mari, Syria|Mari, [[Tell Brak|Nagar, [[Ugarit, [[Canaan, [[Aramea, [[Mitanni, [[Phoenicia and [[Israel) and the [[Arabian Peninsula ([[Majan (civilization)|Magan, [[Sheba, [[Iram of the Pillars|Ubar). The Near East was first largely unified under the [[Neo Assyrian Empire, then the [[Achaemenid Empire followed later by the [[Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the [[History of Iran|Iranian empires (namely the [[Arsacid Empire|Parthian and [[Sassanid Empires), the [[Roman Empire and [[Byzantine Empire. The region served as the intellectual and economic center of the Roman Empire and played an exceptionally important role due to its periphery on the [[Sassanid Empire. Thus, the [[Ancient Rome|Romans stationed up to five or six of their legions in the region for the sole purpose of defending it from Sassanid and Bedouin raids and invasions. From the 4th century CE onwards, the Middle East became the center of the two main powers at the time, the [[Byzantine empire and the [[Sassanid Empire. However, it would be the later [[Caliphate|Islamic Caliphates of the [[Middle Ages, or [[Islamic Golden Age which began with the Islamic conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
ic [[Arab ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The 4 caliphates that dominated the Middle East for more than 600 years were the [[Rashidun Caliphate, the [[Umayyad caliphate, the [[Abbasid caliphate and the [[Fatimid caliphate. Additionally, the [[Mongols would come to dominate the region, the [[Kingdom of Armenia (Antiquity)|Kingdom of Armenia would incorporate parts of the region to their domain, the [[Seljuk Empire|Seljuks would rule the region and spread Turko-Persian culture, and the [[Franks would found the [[Crusader states that would stand for roughly two centuries. Josiah Russell estimates the population of what he calls "Islamic territory" as roughly 12.5 million in 1000 – [[Anatolia 8 million, [[Syria (region)|Syria 2 million, and
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
1.5 million. From the 16th century onward, the Middle East came to be dominated, once again, by two main powers: the [[Ottoman Empire and the [[Safavid dynasty. The modern Middle East began after [[World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the [[Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and [[partitioning of the Ottoman Empire|partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably [[United Kingdom|Britain and [[France by the end of the 1960s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards. In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of [[crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the [[United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil. Estimated [[Oil reserves#Estimated reserves by country|oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel [[OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries. During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: [[NATO and the United States on one side, and the [[Soviet Union and [[Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as [[Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two-thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between [[Sunnis and [[Shiites.


Demographics


Ethnic groups

Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar|عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar|عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to th ...
constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by various [[Iranian peoples and then by [[Turkic people|Turkic speaking groups ([[Turkish people|Turkish, [[Azeris, and
Iraqi Turkmen The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled in the singular as Turkoman and Turcoman; tr|Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, Turkish-Iraqis, or the Iraqi-Turkish minority, ( ar|تركمان العراق; tr|Irak Türkleri) are Iraqis of Tur ...
). Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, [[Arameans in Syria|Arameans, Assyrians, [[Baloch peoples|Baloch, [[Berbers,
Copts The Copts ( cop|ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ|translit=niremenkhemi; ar|الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt. Most ethnic Copts are Coptic Orthodox Christia ...
, [[Druze,
Greek Cypriots Greek Cypriots ( el|Ελληνοκύπριοι, tr|Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community. According to the 2011 census, 659,115 respondents rec ...
,
Jews Jews ( he|יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish ...
,
Kurds Kurds ( ku|کورد ,Kurd|italic=yes|rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria ...
, [[Lurs, [[Mandaeans,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian. The ancient Persians w ...
, [[Samaritans, [[Shabak people|Shabaks, [[Tat people (Iran)|Tats, and [[Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include [[Albanians, [[Bosniaks, [[Circassians (including [[Kabardians), [[Crimean Tatars, [[Greeks, [[Levantines (Latin Christians)|Franco-Levantines, [[Levantines (Latin Christians)#Italian Levantines|Italo-Levantines, and [[Iraqi Turkmens. Among other migrant populations are [[Overseas Chinese|Chinese, [[Filipinos in Saudi Arabia|Filipinos, [[Indians in Saudi Arabia|Indians, [[Indonesians in Saudi Arabia|Indonesians, [[Pakistanis, [[Pashtuns, [[Romani people|Romani, and [[Afro-Arabs.


Migration

"Migration has always provided an important vent for labor market pressures in the Middle East. For the period between the 1970s and 1990s, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in particular provided a rich source of employment for workers from Egypt, Yemen and the countries of the Levant, while Europe had attracted young workers from North African countries due both to proximity and the legacy of colonial ties between France and the majority of North African states." According to the [[International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation migrants from [[Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009 Arab countries received a total of US$35.1 billion in [[remittance in-flows and remittances sent to [[Jordan,
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
and [[Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries. In
Somalia Somalia,; ar|الصومال|aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
, the [[Somali Civil War has greatly increased the size of the [[Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left for Middle Eastern countries as well as [[Europe and [[North America. Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as
Turkey Turkey ( tr|Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Arme ...

Turkey
, [[Israel and
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
are also subject to important migration dynamics. A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks. Large numbers of [[Kurdish people|Kurds, [[Jewish people|Jews, Assyrians, [[Greek people|Greeks and [[Armenian people|Armenians as well as many [[Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. In Iran, many religious minorities such as [[Christians, [[Baháʼí Faith|Baháʼís and [[Zoroastrians have left since the [[Iranian Revolution|Islamic Revolution of 1979.


Religions

The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to [[Major religious groups|religions, many of which originated there.
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as
Judaism Judaism ( he|יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Judah", via Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, ...
and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion followers. Its adherents, known as Christians, make up a majority of the populati ...
, are also well represented. Christians represent 40.5% of Lebanon, where the [[President of Lebanon|Lebanese president, half of the cabinet, and half of the parliament follow one of the various Lebanese Christian rites. There are also important minority religions like the [[Baháʼí Faith, [[Yarsanism, [[Yazidism, [[Zoroastrianism, [[Mandaeism, [[Druze, and [[Shabak people#Religious beliefs|Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to [[ancient Mesopotamian religion|Mesopotamian religions, [[ancient Canaanite religion|Canaanite religions, [[Manichaeism, [[Mithraic mysteries|Mithraism and various [[monotheist [[gnostic sects.


Languages

The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are [[Arabic dialects|Arabic, [[Persian language|Persian, [[Turkish language|Turkish, [[Kurdish languages|Kurdish, and [[Hebrew languages|Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the [[Afro-Asiatic languages|Afro-Asiatic [[language family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the [[Indo-European languages|Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to [[Turkic languages|Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East. Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with [[Modern Standard Arabic|Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the [[Semitic languages|Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Several [[Modern South Arabian languages such as [[Mehri language|Mehri and [[Soqotri language|Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman. Another Semitic language such as [[Aramaic language|Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and [[Mandaeans. There is also an [[Berber languages|Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as [[Siwa language|Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language. [[Persian language|Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
and some border areas in neighbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the [[Indo-Iranian languages|Indo-Iranian branch of the family of [[Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include [[Achomi language|Achomi, [[Daylami language|Daylami, [[Kurdish languages|Kurdish dialects, [[Semnani language|Semmani, [[Luri language|Lurish, amongst many others. The third-most widely spoken language, [[Turkish language|Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the [[Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, [[Azerbaijani language|Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran. [[Hebrew languages|Hebrew is one of the two official languages of [[Israel, the other being Arabic. Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel's population, the other 20% using Arabic. [[English language|English is one of the official languages of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. It is also commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the [[middle class|middle and [[upper classes, in countries such as
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
, [[Jordan,
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, [[Kurdistan,
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
, [[Qatar, [[Bahrain, [[United Arab Emirates and
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
. It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. [[French language|French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in [[Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
and
Syria Syria ( ar|سُورِيَا|''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar|ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ|al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in West ...
. [[Maltese language|Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the [[Maltese in Egypt|Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt. [[Armenian language|Armenian and [[Modern Greek|Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. [[Georgian language|Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. [[Russian language|Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of [[Aliyah from the Commonwealth of Independent States in the 1990s|emigration in the late 1990s. Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in [[Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. [[Northwest Caucasian languages|Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The largest [[Romanian language|Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in [[Israel, where Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.According to the 1993 ''Statistical Abstract of Israel'' there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, at a population of 5,548,523 (census 1995). [[Bengali language|Bengali, [[Hindi and [[Urdu are widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20–25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50–55% of the population is South Asian), and Qatar, which have large numbers of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
i, [[Bangladeshi and [[Indian immigrants.


Economy

Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar and UAE). Overall, , according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. According to the [[World Bank's ''World Development Indicators'' database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($794,228), Saudi Arabia ($467,601) and Iran ($385,143) in terms of [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|Nominal GDP.The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. ''GDP (Nominal) 2008.''
Data for 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). Turkey ($1,028,897), Iran ($839,438) and Saudi Arabia ($589,531) had the largest economies in terms of [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|GDP-PPP.The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. ''GDP (PPP) 2008.''
Data for 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100). The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain. With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater numbers of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies. Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region's total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the [[International Labour Organization, was 13.2%, and among youth is as high as 25%, up to 37% in [[Morocco and 73% in
Syria Syria ( ar|سُورِيَا|''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar|ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ|al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in West ...
.


Climate change


Gallery

File:Abu dhabi skylines 2014.jpg|[[Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates File:View of Abdali.jpeg|[[Amman – Jordan File:YDA-Center-03.jpg|[[Ankara – Turkey File:فندق بغداد روتانا.jpg|[[Baghdad – Iraq File:Beirut Corniche from University Tower.jpg|[[Beirut – Lebanon File:Flickr - archer10 (Dennis) - Egypt-2A-007.jpg|[[Cairo – Egypt File:Damascus from Qasiyon.JPG|[[Damascus – Syria File:Doha skyline in the morning (12544910974).jpg|[[Doha – Qatar File:Dubai skyline 2015 (crop).jpg|[[Dubai – United Arab Emirates File:Levent, Istanbul at night.jpg|[[Istanbul – Turkey File:Jerusalem Dome of the rock BW 14.JPG|[[Jerusalem – Israel File:Kuwait City cropped.jpg|[[Kuwait City – Kuwait File:Manama, Bahrain Decembre 2014.jpg|[[Manama – Bahrain File:MAKKAH - panoramio.jpg|[[Mecca – Saudi Arabia File:The gate to Muscat (8727196402).jpg|[[Muscat, Oman|Muscat – Oman File:Nicosia skyline July 2018.jpg|[[Nicosia – Cyprus File:Ramallahskyline.jpg|[[Ramallah – Palestine File:Sanaa HDR (16482367935).jpg|[[Sana'a – Yemen File:North of Tehran Skyline view.jpg|[[Tehran – Iran File:Panorama of Tel Aviv.jpg|[[Tel Aviv – Israel


See also

* [[Etiquette in the Middle East * [[Hilly Flanks * [[Maayan (magazine)|''Maayan'' (magazine) * [[MENASA * [[Mental health in the Middle East * [[Middle Eastern cuisine * [[Middle Eastern music * [[Middle East Studies Association of North America * [[Orientalism * * [[Timeline of Middle Eastern history


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * Cleveland, William L., and Martin Bunton. ''A History Of The Modern Middle East'' (6th ed. 201
4th ed. online
* Cressey, George B. (1960). ''Crossroads: Land and Life in Southwest Asia''. Chicago, IL: J.B. Lippincott Co. xiv, 593 pp. ill. with maps and b&w photos. * Fischbach, ed. Michael R. ''Biographical encyclopedia of the modern Middle East and North Africa'' (Gale Group, 2008). * Freedman, Robert O. (1991). ''The Middle East from the Iran-Contra Affair to the Intifada'', in series, ''Contemporary Issues in the Middle East''. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. x, 441 pp. pbk. * * Halpern, Manfred. ''Politics of Social Change: In the Middle East and North Africa'' (Princeton University Press, 2015). * Ismael, Jacqueline S., Tareq Y. Ismael, and Glenn Perry. ''Government and politics of the contemporary Middle East: Continuity and change'' (Routledge, 2015). * Lynch, Marc, ed. ''The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East (Columbia University Press, 2014). p. 352. * * Reich, Bernard. ''Political leaders of the contemporary Middle East and North Africa: a biographical dictionary'' (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990).


External links



– [[Council on Foreign Relations: "A Resource for Nonpartisan Research and Analysis"
"Middle East – Interactive Crisis Guide"
– [[Council on Foreign Relations: "A Resource for Nonpartisan Research and Analysis"
Middle East Department
[[University of Chicago Library *
Middle East Business Intelligence since 1957
': "The leading information source on business in the Middle East" – MEED.com
Carboun
– advocacy for sustainability and environmental conservation in the Middle East *
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