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Army Ballistic Missile Agency
The Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
(ABMA) was formed to develop the US Army's first large ballistic missile. The agency was established at Redstone Arsenal
Redstone Arsenal
on 1 February 1956, and commanded by Major General John B. Medaris with Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
as technical director. The Redstone missile was the first major project assigned to ABMA. The Redstone was a direct descendant of the V-2
V-2
missile developed by the von Braun team in Germany during World War II
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United States Government
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Congressional districts
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Ares I
Ares
Ares
I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA
NASA
as part of the Constellation program.[2] The name "Ares" refers to the Greek deity Ares, who is identified with the Roman god Mars.[3] Ares
Ares
I was originally known as the "Crew Launch Vehicle" (CLV).[4] NASA
NASA
planned to use Ares
Ares
I to launch Orion, the spacecraft intended for NASA
NASA
human spaceflight missions after the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
was retired in 2011. Ares
Ares
I was to complement the larger, unmanned Ares
Ares
V, which was the cargo launch vehicle for Constellation
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Constellation Program
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009. The major goals of the program were "completion of the International Space
Space
Station" and a "return to the Moon
Moon
no later than 2020" with a crewed flight to the planet Mars
Mars
as the ultimate goal
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Gravity Probe B
Gravity Probe B (GP-B) was a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta II rocket.[4] The spaceflight phase lasted until 2005;[5] its aim was to measure spacetime curvature near Earth, and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth. This provided a test of general relativity, gravitomagnetism and related models. The principal investigator was Francis Everitt. Initial results confirmed the expected geodetic effect to an accuracy of about 1%. The expected frame-dragging effect was similar in magnitude to the current noise level (the noise being dominated by initially unmodeled effects due to nonuniform coatings on the gyroscopes). Work continued to model and account for these sources of error, thus permitting extraction of the frame-dragging signal
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Chandra X-ray Observatory
The Chandra X-ray
X-ray
Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray
X-ray
Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93
STS-93
by NASA
NASA
on July 23, 1999. Chandra is sensitive to X-ray
X-ray
sources 100 times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope, enabled by the high angular resolution of its mirrors. Since the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
absorbs the vast majority of X-rays, they are not detectable from Earth-based telescopes; therefore space-based telescopes are required to make these observations
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International Space Station
The International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth
Earth
orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, the last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and the station is expected to be used until 2028. Development and assembly of the station continues, with components scheduled for launch in 2018 and 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth
Earth
orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.[8][9] The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components
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Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System
Space Transportation System
(STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[10] The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida
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Ballistic Missile
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are only guided during relatively brief periods of flight—most of their trajectory is unpowered, being governed by gravity and air resistance if in the atmosphere. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while longer-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), are launched on a sub-orbital flight trajectory and spend most of their flight out of the atmosphere These weapons are in a distinct category from cruise missiles, which are aerodynamically guided in powered flight.Contents1 History 2 Flight 3 Advantages 4 Missile
Missile
types 5 Throw-weight5.1 Depressed trajectory6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit]Replica of V-2The earliest use of rockets as a weapon dates to the 13th Century (see History of rockets)
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Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin
Glenn L. Martin
Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the US and allies, especially during World War II
World War II
and the Cold War. During the 1950s and 60s, the Martin Company moved from the aircraft industry into the guided missile, space exploration, and space utilization industries. In 1961, the Martin Company merged with American-Marietta Corporation, a large sand and gravel mining company, forming Martin Marietta Corporation
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Project Mercury
3 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
1 Mercury-Redstone 1 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
3Partial failures 1: Big Joe 1Launch site(s)
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Ares V
The Ares
Ares
V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA
NASA
Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
after its retirement in 2011. Ares
Ares
V was also planned to carry supplies for a human presence on Mars.[3] Ares
Ares
V and the smaller Ares I
Ares I
were named after Ares, the Greek god of war. The Ares
Ares
V was to launch the Earth Departure Stage
Earth Departure Stage
and Altair lunar lander for NASA's return to the Moon, which was planned for 2019.[4] It would also have served as the principal launcher for missions beyond the Earth- Moon
Moon
system, including the program's ultimate goal, a manned mission to Mars
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Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit
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United States Department Of Defense
742,000 (civilian) 1,300,000 (active duty military) 826,000 (National Guard and reserve): 2.87 million total[1] (2016)Annual budget US$530.1 billion (2010)[2] US$549.1 billion (2011)[3] US$553.0 billion (est. 2012) US$496.1 billion (2015)[4] US$534.3 billion (base FY2016)[4]Department executivesJim Mattis, Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, Deputy SecretaryChild agenciesU.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy U.S. Department of the Air ForceWebsite www.defense.govThe Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of DefenseThe Department of Defense (DoD,[5] USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces
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