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Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor
Aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHR) are a type of nuclear reactor in which soluble nuclear salts (usually uranium sulfate or uranium nitrate) are dissolved in water. The fuel is mixed with the coolant and the moderator, thus the name "homogeneous" ("of the same physical state") The water can be either heavy water or ordinary (light) water, both of which need to be very pure. Their self-controlling features and ability to handle very large increases in reactivity make them unique among reactors, and possibly safest. At Santa Susana, California, Atomics International
Atomics International
performed a series of tests titled The Kinetic Energy Experiments. In the late 1940s, control rods were loaded on springs and then flung out of the reactor in milliseconds
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Radiopharmaceutical
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves, which is different from contrast media which absorb or alter external electromagnetism or ultrasound. Radiopharmacology
Radiopharmacology
is the branch of pharmacology that specializes in these agents. The main group of these compounds are the radiotracers used to diagnose dysfunction in body tissues
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Critical Mass (nuclear)
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The critical mass of a fissionable material depends upon its nuclear properties (specifically, the nuclear fission cross-section), its density, its shape, its enrichment, its purity, its temperature, and its surroundings
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Acid
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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Kurchatov Institute
The Kurchatov Institute
Kurchatov Institute
(Russian: Hациональный исследовательский центр "Курчатовский Институт" (since 2010) i.e. (Russia's) National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт" — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
it was known as I. V. Kurchatov Institute
Kurchatov Institute
of Atomic Energy (Russian: Институт Атомной Энергии им. И.В. Курчатова), abbreviated KIAE (Russian: КИАЭ). The Kurchatov Institute
Kurchatov Institute
is located at 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow
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Nuclear Reaction
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process. Thus, a nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another. If a nucleus interacts with another nucleus or particle and they then separate without changing the nature of any nuclide, the process is simply referred to as a type of nuclear scattering, rather than a nuclear reaction. In principle, a reaction can involve more than two particles colliding, but because the probability of three or more nuclei to meet at the same time at the same place is much less than for two nuclei, such an event is exceptionally rare (see triple alpha process for an example very close to a three-body nuclear reaction)
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Uranyl Sulfate
Uranyl
Uranyl
sulfate (UO2SO4), a sulfate of uranium, is an odorless lemon-yellow sand-like solid in its pure crystalline form. It is prepared by dissolving UO3 in H2SO4. It has found use as a negative stain in microscopy and tracer in biology. The Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor
Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor
experiment, constructed in 1951, circulated a fuel composed of 565 grams of U-235 enriched to 14.7% in the form of uranyl sulfate. The acid process of milling uranium ores involves precipitating uranyl sulfate from the pregnant leaching solution to produce the semi-refined product referred to as yellowcake.[1] Radioactivity
Radioactivity
was discovered using potassium uranyl sulfate, K2UO2(SO4)2. References[edit]^ "Metallurgy". MQes Uranium
Uranium
Inc
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
(Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States
United States
Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II
World War II
for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project. It is located a short distance northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico
New Mexico
in the southwestern United States. Los Alamos was selected as the top secret location for bomb design in late 1942, and officially commissioned the next year. At the time it was known as Project Y, one of a series of laboratories located across the United States
United States
given letter names to maintain their secrecy. Los Alamos was the centre for design and overall coordination, while the other labs, today known as Oak Ridge and Argonne, concentrated on the production of uranium and plutonium bomb fuels
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Radioactive
Radioactive
Radioactive
decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. Radioactive
Radioactive
decay is a stochastic (i.e. random) process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay,[1][2][3] regardless of how long the atom has existed
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Uranyl Nitrate
Uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) is a water soluble yellow uranium salt. The yellow-green[5] crystals of dioxouranium nitrate hexahydrate are triboluminescent. Uranyl nitrate can be prepared by reaction of uranium salts with nitric acid. It is soluble in water, ethanol, acetone, and ether, but not in benzene, toluene, or chloroform.Contents1 Uses 2 Health and environmental issues 3 External links 4 ReferencesUses[edit] During the first half of the 19th century, many photosensitive metal salts had been identified as candidates for photographic processes, among them uranyl nitrate. The prints thus produced were alternately referred to as uranium prints, urbanities, or more commonly uranotypes. The first uranium printing processes were invented by a Scotsman, J. Charles Burnett, between 1855 and 1857, and used this compound as the sensitive salt
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
The Netherlands
(/ˈnɛðərləndz/ ( listen); Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( listen)), also known informally as Holland, is a country in Western Europe
Europe
with a population of seventeen million
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Uranyl Fluoride
Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2), a compound of uranium, is an intermediate in the conversion of uranium hexafluoride UF6 to an uranium oxide or metal form and is a direct product of the reaction of UF6 with moisture in the air. It is very soluble in water. Uranyl fluoride also is hygroscopic and changes in color from brilliant orange to yellow after reacting with water. Uranyl fluoride is reported to be stable in air to 300 °C, above which slow decomposition to U3O8 occurs. When heated to decomposition, UO2F2 emits toxic fluorine fumes. In accidental releases of UF6, UO2F2, as a solid particulate compound, may deposit on the ground. The overall chemical reaction of this event can be represented as:UF6 + 2 H2O → UO2F2 + 4 HF.These reactions can take place whether the uranium hexafluoride is a solid or a gas, but will take place almost instantaneously when the UF6 is in a gaseous state
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Edward Teller
Edward Teller
Edward Teller
(Hungarian: Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.[1] He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy (in particular the Jahn–Teller and Renner–Teller effects), and surface physics
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Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE. ORNL is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system by surface[1] and by annual budget.[citation needed] ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville
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