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Albanian Resistance During World War II
LANÇ Legality Movement Balli Kombëtar
Balli Kombëtar
(up to 1944) Supported by:  Soviet Union  United Kingdom   Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(1939–1943)  
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Montpellier
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Montpellier
Montpellier
(pronounced [mɔ̃pəlje, -pɛ-] ( listen);[1][2] Occitan: Montpelhièr [mumpeˈʎɛ]) is a city in southern France. It is the capital of the Hérault department. Montpellier
Montpellier
is the 7th-largest city of France, and is also the fastest-growing city in the country over the past 25 years. In 2014, 589,610 people live in the urban area and 275,318 in the city itself
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Anschluss
Anschluss
Anschluss
(German: [ˈʔanʃlʊs] ( listen) 'joining') refers to the annexation of Austria
Austria
into
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Shefqet Verlaci
Shefqet bej Vërlaci[1] (Albanian pronunciation: [ʃɛfcɛt vəɾlat͡si]; 15 December 1877, Elbasan, Manastir Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 21 July 1946, Zürich, Switzerland) was an Albanian politician. Biography[edit] In 1922, Verlaci was the biggest landowner of Albania. He was the leader of the Progressive Party, the biggest conservative party in Albania, which firmly opposed any agrarian reform reducing the landowners' property. The Progressive Party included some North Albanian clan chiefs and prominent Muslim landowners as its members. In late 1922, Ahmed Zogu became engaged to Verlaci's daughter, winning Verlaci's support and the position of Prime Minister. In early 1924, Zogu was forced to cede his position of Prime Minister to Verlaci,[2] because of a financial scandal and an attempt of assassination in which Zogu was injured. The date of Verlaci taking the position of prime minister is 5 March 1924 (some sources cite other dates in February or March)
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Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
Mustafa Merlika-Kruja (March 15, 1887, Akçahisar, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Krujë, Albania) – December 27, 1958, Niagara Falls, New York)[1] was one of the signatories of Albanian Declaration of Independence.[2] He served as Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation from December 4, 1941 to January 19, 1943.Contents1 Early life 2 Ottoman and Albanian politics (1910–1924) 3 Exile 4 World War II 5 Work 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] He was born Mustafa Asim Merlika, son of Mehmed. His family was Bektashi. His father was a local administrator of the lands of Essad Pasha, who from his side sponsored the education of Mustafa
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Eqrem Libohova
Eqrem Libohova (24 February 1882, Gjirokastër – 1948, Rome) was an Albanian politician and Axis collaborator. He served as the Prime Minister of Albania on two occasions during the Italian occupation of Albania. Political career[edit] Early in his political career, Libohova served as the Albanian Minister to Rome. In 1924, while serving in this role, Libohova helped negotiate the creation of the Bank of Albania. He was joined by his brother, Myfid.[1] In 1931, Libohova was minister to the court of Zog of Albania. On 26 January 1931, he joined King Zog on a trip to Italy. On 20 February, after attending a showing of Pagliacci at the Vienna State Opera, Libohova was injured in an assassination attempt against the King. Zog, Libohova, and their chauffeur returned fire on the attempted assassins, Aziz Çami and Ndok Gjeloshi
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Maliq Bushati
Maliq Bushati (8 February 1880 in Shkodër, Scutari Vilayet – 15 February 1946[1]), was an Albanian Axis collaborator, Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation, from 13 February to 12 May 1943.[2] Along with Lef Nosi and father Anton Harapi he was sentenced to death by communist Albania. References[edit]^ "Bushati, Maliq Bey (08.02.1880-15.02.1946)", in A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History, Robert Elsie, ed. (I.B.Tauris, 2012) p60 ^ Fischer, Bernd Jürgen. Albania at war, 1939–1945
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Protectorate
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of
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Puppet State
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.[1] It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests.[2] A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of independence like a name, flag, anthem, constitution, law codes and motto but in reality is an organ of another state which created or sponsored the government.[3] Puppet states are not recognized as legitimate under international law.[4]Contents1 Etymology of the term 2 19th century 3 World War I3.1 Republics of Soviet Russia/Soviet Union3.1.1 Non-realized republics of Soviet Russia4 Imperial Japan4.1 Nominally sovereign states 4.2 Unrealized drafts for dependent states5 Nazi Germany
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Communist
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Kingdom Of Italy (1861-1946)
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Alfredo Guzzoni
Alfredo Guzzoni
Alfredo Guzzoni
(12 April 1877 – 15 April 1965) was an Italian military officer who served in both World War I
World War I
and World War II.Contents1 Early life 2 Italian Army 3 Armistice and prosecution 4 See also 5 External linksEarly life[edit] Guzzoni was a native of Mantua, Italy. Italian Army[edit] Guzzoni joined the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito Italiano) and fought in World War I. After the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Guzzoni was appointed Governor of Eritrea
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Alberto Pariani
Alberto Pariani (27 November 1876, Milan – 1 March 1955) was an Italian general.[1][2][3][4] He fought during World War I, and ended the war as a commander of the 6th Alpini Regiment. From 1925 to 1926 he was Operations Chief of the Army General Staff. From 1927 to 1933 he served as a military attaché to Albania and simultaneously as head of the Italian Military Mission in the country. He was promoted to full General in 1933 and named commander of the 11th Division Brennero until 1934. From 1934 to 1936 he was Deputy Chief of the General Staff, and from 1936 to 1939 he was Chief of the General Staff and Under-Secretary of War. In 1939 he retired, but in 1943 he was recalled as a general commander of the Italian forces operating in Albania and as a General Governor of Albania (replacing Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino)
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Zog Of Albania
Zog I, King of the Albanians[1][2] (Albanian: Nalt Madhnija e Tij Zogu I, Mbreti i Shqiptareve, IPA: [ˈzɔɡu]; 8 October 1895 – 9 April 1961), born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939
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Fan Noli
Theofan Stilian Noli, known as Fan Noli (6 January 1882 – 13 March 1965) was an Albanian writer, scholar, diplomat, politician, historian, orator and founder of the Orthodox Church of Albania, who served as Prime Minister and regent of Albania
Albania
in 1924 during the June Revolution. Fan Noli is venerated in Albania
Albania
as a champion of literature, history, theology, diplomacy, journalism, music and national unity
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