Sunni · Bektashi · Sufism
Roman Catholicism · Italo-Albanian
Catholic Church ·
Albanian Orthodox · Protestantism
1 502,546 Albanian citizens, an additional 43,751
260,000 Arbëreshë people
Albanians are not recognized as a minority in Turkey. However
approximately 500,000 people are reported to profess an Albanian
identity. Of those with full or partial Albanian ancestry and others
who have adopted Turkish language, culture and identity their number
is estimated at 1,300,000–5,000,000 many whom do not speak
3 Native speakers of Albanian
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Albanians (Albanian: Shqiptarët,
pronounced [ʃcipəˈtaːɾət]) are a European ethnic group that
is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo[a], western Macedonia,
southern Serbia, southeastern
Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who
share a common ancestry, culture and language. The term is moreover
legally used to refer to the citizens of the Republic of Albania.
The majority of
Albanians live in
Albania and Kosovo, as well as in
Greece, Italy, Montenegro,
Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia. The
Albanian diaspora was formed during the
Middle Ages due to economic
factors, sociopolitical circumstances of discrimination and violence
Albanians in the Balkans. The largest and influential
communities of the
Albanian diaspora are present in Australia,
Argentina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Germany, Egypt,
Switzerland and the United States.
Albanians produced many prominent figures such as Skanderbeg, leader
of the medieval Albanian resistance to the Ottoman conquest, and
others during the
Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening seeking
self-determination. During the 17th and 18th century,
large numbers converted to Islam, often to escape higher taxes levied
Christian subjects as well as a plethora of other reasons including
ecclesiastical decay, coercion by Ottoman authorities in times of
war and the privileged legal and social position of
Muslims. As Muslims, some
Albanians attained important
political and military positions within the
Ottoman Empire and
culturally contributed to the wider
its independence in 1912, and from 1945 to 1992
Albanians lived under
a communist government.
Yugoslavia underwent periods
of discrimination and eventual self-determination that concluded with
the breakup of that state in the early 1990s culminating with
Albanians living in new countries and Kosovo. Outside the southwestern
Albanians have traditionally been located, Albanian
populations through the course of history have formed new communities
contributing to the cultural, economic, social and political life of
their host populations and countries while also at times assimilating
Between the 11th and 18th centuries, sizeable numbers of Albanians
migrated from the area of contemporary
Albania to escape either
various sociopolitical difficulties or the Ottoman
conquest. One population which became the Arvanites
settled down in southern
Greece who starting from the 16th century
though mainly during the 19th century onwards assimilated and today
self identify as Greeks. Another population,
who became the Arbëreshë, settled in southern Italy and form the
oldest continuous Albanian diaspora, producing influential and many
prominent figures. Smaller populations dating to migrations during the
18th century are located on Croatia's Dalmatian coast and scattered
communities across southern Ukraine.
2.3 Americas, Africa, and Oceania
3.1 Early middle ages
3.2 High and Late Middle Ages
6 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Further information: Names of the
Albanians and Albania, Albania
(toponym), and Shqiptar
Albanians (Albanian: Shqiptarët) and their country Albania
(Albanian: Shqipëria) have been identified by many ethnonyms. The
most common native ethnonym is "Shqiptar", plural "Shqiptarë"; the
name "Albanians" (
Byzantine Greek: Albanoi/Arbanitai/Arbanites; Latin:
Albanenses/Arbanenses) was used in medieval documents, that gradually
entered European languages from which other similar derivative names
From these ethnonyms, names for
Albanians were also derived in other
languages, that were or still are in use. In English
"Albanians"; Italian "Albanesi"; German "Albaner"; Greek "Arvanites",
"Alvanitis" (Αλβανίτης) plural: "Alvanites"
(Αλβανίτες), "Alvanos" (Αλβανός) plural: "Alvanoi"
(Αλβανοί); Turkish "Arnaut", "Arnavut"; South Slavic languages
"Arbanasi" (Арбанаси), "Albanci" (Албанци); Aromanian
"Arbineş" and so on.
The term for a people located in the area of
Albania is first
encountered in the works of
Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates. He
referred to them as "Albanoi" having taken part in a revolt against
Byzantine Empire in 1043 and to the "Arbanitai" as subjects of the
Duke of Dyrrachium (modern Durrës). These references have been
disputed as to whether they refer to
Albanians in an ethnic
sense. A later reference to
Albanians from the same Attaliates
regarding the participation of
Albanians in a rebellion around 1078 is
undisputed. In later
Byzantine usage, the terms "Arbanitai" and
"Albanoi" with a range of variants were used interchangeably, while
sometimes the same groups were also called by the classicising name
Illyrians. The first reference to the Albanian language
dates to the latter 13th century (around 1285).
The ethnonym Albanian has been hypothesized to be connected to and
stem from the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe mentioned by
Ptolemy with their centre at the city of Albanopolis.
Linguists believe that the alb part in the root word originates from
an Indo-European term for a type of mountainous topography, from which
other words such as alps are derived. Through the root word alban
and its rhotacized equivalents arban, albar, and arbar, the term in
Albanian became rendered as Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë for the people and
Arbënia/Arbëria for the country. The
Albanian language was
referred to as Arbnisht and Arbërisht. While the exonym Albania
for the general region inhabited by the
Albanians does have
connotations to Classical Antiquity, the
Albanian language employs a
different ethnonym, with modern
Albanians referring to themselves as
Shqip(ë)tarë and to their country as Shqipëria. Two etymologies
have been proposed for this ethnonym: one, derived from the etymology
from the Albanian word for eagle (shqipe, var., shqiponjë). In
Albanian folk etymology, this word denotes a bird totem, dating from
the times of
Skanderbeg as displayed on the Albanian flag. The
other is within scholarship that connects it to the verb 'to speak'
(me shqiptue) from the
Latin "excipere". In this instance the
Albanian endonym like Slav and others would originally have been a
term connoting "those who speak [intelligibly, the same
language]". The new ethnonyms Shqip(ë)tarë and Shqipëria
emerged and replaced the older ethnonyms Arbëneshë/Arbëreshë and
Arbënia/Arbëria between the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
That era brought about religious and other sociopolitical changes.
As such a new and generalised response by
Albanians based on ethnic
and linguistic consciousness to this new and different Ottoman world
emerging around them was a change in ethnonym.
Main article: Albanian diaspora
See also: Arbëreshë and Arbanasi
Albanians in Italy, Germany, Switzerland,
Croatia, Sweden, Ukraine, Romania, and the United Kingdom
Albanians in Europe.
Albanians in neighboring countries.
Approximately 7 million
Albanians are to be found within the
Balkan Peninsula with about half this number residing in
the other divided between Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, the Republic of
Greece and to a much smaller extent Bosnia, Bulgaria,
Romania and Slovenia. An estimated 2.2 million Albanians
live in the territory of Former Yugoslavia, the greater part, which is
close to two million, in Kosovo[a]. Rights to use the Albanian
language in education and government were given and guaranteed by the
1974 Constitution of
SFRY and were widely utilized in Macedonia and in
Montenegro before the Dissolution of Yugoslavia.
Italy has a historical Albanian minority of 260,000 which are
scattered across Southern
Italy known as Arbëreshë. They had
Italy between the 15th and 16th century, displaced by the
changes brought about by the expansion of the
Ottoman Empire in the
Balkans. The Arbëreshë were offered refuge by the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily (both under Aragonese rule) and given their own
villages and protection. The Arbëreshë speak Arbërisht, an old
variant of Albanian spoken in southern Albania, known as Tosk
Albanian. The Arbëreshë are scattered throughout southern
Sicily, and in small numbers also in other parts of Italy. They are in
great numbers in North and
Latin America, especially in the USA,
Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Canada. The Arbëreshë
constitute one of the largest minorities in Italy. The majority of
Italy arrived in 1991 and have since surpassed the older
populations of Arbëreshë. After the breakdown of the communist
Albania in 1990,
Italy had been the main immigration target
Albanians leaving their country. This was because
Italy had been a
symbol of the West for many
Albanians during the communist period,
because of its geographic proximity.
There are small Albanian populations dating to migrations from the
18th century. One group known as the
Arbanas are located on Croatia's
Dalmatian coast and fled Ottoman repression. The second known as
the Албанці (Albantsi) are located in scattered communities
Ukraine and descend from Albanian warriors who fought
Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish wars and allowed
to settle in the Russian Empire. The actual number of the Albanian
Romania is unofficially estimated at around 10,000
persons. Most members of the community live in Bucharest, while the
rest mainly live in larger urban centers such as Timișoara, Iași,
Constanța and Cluj-Napoca. Most families in
Romania are Orthodox and
trace their origins to the area around Korçë.
Approximately 1 million are dispersed throughout the rest of Europe.
These are mainly refugees from
Kosovo that migrated during the Kosovo
war. During the
Kosovo war in 1999, many
asylum in the Federal Republic of Germany. By the end of 1999, the
Germany was about 480,000, about 100,000
had returned voluntarily after the war in their homeland or been
forcibly removed. The cities with the largest population of Germans of
Albanian descent are the metropolitan regions of Berlin, Hamburg,
Munich and Stuttgart. In
Berlin in 1999, there were about 25,000
Albanians; the number dropped because of remigration and Germany's
general population decline. In Sweden,
Albanians number approximately
54,000. As of 2011 there are approximately 100,000
Albanians living in
the United Kingdom.
Albanians in Kosovo
Ethnographic map of
Balkans (detail), Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache,
The presence of
Kosovo as well as in the adjacent regions
of Toplica and Morava is recorded since the Middle Ages. As the
Serbs expelled many
Albanians from the wider Toplica and Morava
regions in Southern Serbia, which the 1878 Congress of
given to the Principality of Serbia, many of them settled in
Kosovo. In Kosovo, they and their descendants are known as
Muhaxher (meaning the exiled, from the Arabic muhajir).
During the First Balkan War,
Serbia and Montenegro, after expelling
the Ottoman forces in present-day
Albania and Kosovo, committed
numerous war crimes against the Albanians, which were reported by the
European, American and Serbian opposition press. Further during
Kosovo War, Serbian paramilitary forces committed war crimes in
Kosovo, although the Serbian government claims that the army was only
going after suspected Albanian terrorists. This triggered a 78-day
NATO campaign in 1999. Nowadays,
Kosovo constitute the
majority with 1,616,869 million.
Kosovo are very closely related to Albanians
in Albania. Traditions and customs differ even from town to town in
Kosovo itself. The spoken dialect is Gheg, typical of northern
Albanians. The language of state institutions, education, books, media
and newspapers is the standard dialect of Albanian, which is closer to
Tosk dialect. The most widespread religion among
Kosovo is Islam, mostly Sunni, and Roman Catholicism.
Albanians in Greece
An estimated 275,000–600,000
Albanians live in Greece, forming the
largest immigrant community in the country. They are economic
migrants whose migration began in 1991, following the collapse of the
Socialist People's Republic of Albania.
Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace are a group
Tosks who migrated to southern and central Greece
between the 13th and 16th centuries. They are Greek Orthodox
Christians, and though they traditionally speak a dialect of Tosk
Albanian known as Arvanitika, they have fully assimilated into the
Greek nation and do not identify as Albanians. Arvanitika
is in a state of attrition due to language shift towards Greek and
large-scale internal migration to the cities and subsequent
intermingling of the population during the 20th century.
Cham Albanians were a group that formerly inhabited a region of
Epirus known as Chameria, nowadays
Thesprotia in northwestern Greece.
Cham Albanians converted to
Islam during the Ottoman era. Muslim
Chams were expelled from
Greece during World War II, by an
anti-communist resistance group, as a result of their participation in
a communist resistance group and the collaboration with the Axis
occupation, while Orthodox Chams have largely assimilated into the
Albanians in Turkey, Egypt, and Syria
Albanian diaspora in
Turkey was formed during the Ottoman era
through economic migration and early years of the Turkish republic
through migration due to sociopolitical discrimination and violence
Albanians in Balkan countries. According to a 2008
report prepared for the National Security Council of
academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia, there
were approximately 1,300,000 people of Albanian descent living in
Turkey. According to that study, more than 500,000 Albanian
descendants still recognize their ancestry and or their language,
culture and traditions. There are also other estimates regarding
the Albanian population in
Turkey that range from being 3–4 million
people up to a total of 5 million in number, although most of
these are Turkish citizens of either full or partial Albanian ancestry
being no longer fluent in Albanian (cf. German Americans). This
was due to various degrees of either linguistic and or cultural
assimilation occurring amongst the
Albanian diaspora in Turkey.
Nonetheless, a sizable proportion of the Albanian community in Turkey,
such as that of Istanbul, has maintained its distinct Albanian
Albanians are active in the civic life of Turkey.
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Mehmet Akif Ersoy
Ali Sami Yen
Egypt there are 18,000 Albanians, mostly
Tosk speakers. Many are
descendants of the
Janissaries of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who
became Wāli, and self-declared
Egypt and Sudan. In
addition to the dynasty that he established, a large part of the
former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin.
Albanian Sunnis, Bektashis and
Orthodox Christians were all
represented in this diaspora, whose members at some point included
Renaissance figures (Rilindasit), including Thimi Mitko, Spiro
Dine, Andon Zako Çajupi, Milo Duçi,
Fan Noli and others who lived in
Egypt for a time. With the ascension of
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser in
Egypt and rise of Arab nationalism, the last remnants of Albanian
community there were forced to leave.
Albanians have been present
in Arab countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, and for
about five centuries as a legacy of Ottoman Turkish rule.
Americas, Africa, and Oceania
Main articles: Albanian Americans, Albanian Canadians, and Albanian
According to the 2010 American Community Survey, there are 193,813
Albanian Americans (American citizens of full or partial Albanian
New Zealand there are a total of 22,000
Albanians are also known to reside in China, India, Iran,
Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Singapore, but the numbers are
Further information: Origin of the Albanians
Early middle ages
What is possibly the earliest written reference to the
that to be found in an old Bulgarian text compiled around the
beginning of the 11th century. It was discovered in a Serbian
manuscript dated 1628 and was first published in 1934 by Radoslav
Grujic. This fragment of a legend from the time of Tsar Samuel
endeavours, in a catechismal 'question and answer' form, to explain
the origins of peoples and languages. It divides the world into
seventy-two languages and three religious categories: Orthodox,
half-believers (i.e. non-Orthodox Christians) and non-believers. The
Albanians find their place among the nations of half-believers. If the
dating of Grujic is accepted, which is based primarily upon the
contents of the text as a whole, this would be the earliest written
document referring to the
Albanians as a people or language group.
It can be seen that there are various languages on earth. Of them,
there are five Orthodox languages: Bulgarian, Greek, Syrian, Iberian
(Georgian) and Russian. Three of these have Orthodox alphabets: Greek,
Bulgarian and Iberian. There are twelve languages of half-believers:
Alamanians, Franks, Magyars (Hungarians), Indians, Jacobites,
Armenians, Saxons, Lechs (Poles), Arbanasi (Albanians), Croatians,
The first undisputed mention of
Albanians in the historical record is
Byzantine source for the first time in 1079–1080, in a
work titled History by
Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, who
referred to the
Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against
Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of
Dyrrachium. It is disputed, however, whether the "Albanoi" of the
events of 1043 refers to
Albanians in an ethnic sense or whether
"Albanoi" is a reference to
Sicily under an archaic name
(there was also a tribe in
Italy by the name of "Albanoi").
However a later reference to
Albanians from the same Attaleiates,
regarding the participation of
Albanians in a rebellion around 1078,
is undisputed. At this point, they are already fully
Albanian mythology and folklore are part of
the Paleo-Balkan pagan mythology, in particular showing Greek
From the late 11th century the
Albanians were called Arbën/Arbër and
their country as Arbanon, a mountainous area to the west of Lake
Ochrida and the upper valley of the river Shkumbin. It was in
1190, when the rulers of
Arbanon (local Albanian noble called Progon
and his sons Dhimitër and Gjin) created their principality with its
capital at Krujë. After the fall of Progon Dynasty in 1216, the
principality came under
Grigor Kamona and Gulam of Albania. Finally
the Principality was dissolved in 1255. Around 1230 the two main
centers of Albanian settlements, one around Devoll river in what is
now central Albania, and the other around the region which was
known with the name Arbanon.
In 1271 Charles of Anjou created the Kingdom of Albania, after he
captured a part of the Despotate of Epirus. A major attempt to
advance further in direction of
Constantinople failed at the Siege of
Berat (1280–1281). A
Byzantine counteroffensive soon ensued, which
drove the Angevins out of the interior by 1281. The Sicilian Vespers
further weakened the position of Charles, and the Kingdom was soon
reduced by the Epirotes to a small area around Durrës. The kingdom
however held out until 1368, when the city was captured by Karl
Thopia. The presence of the kingdom reinforced the influence of
Catholicism and the conversion to its rite, not only in the region of
Durrës but in other parts of the country. A new wave of Catholic
dioceses, churches and monasteries were founded, a number of different
religious orders began spreading into the country, and papal
missionaries also reached the territories of the Kingdom of Albania.
Those who were not
Catholic in Central and North
Albania converted and
a great number of Albanian clerics and monks were present in the
In the 14th century a number of
Albanian principalities were created.
These included Principality of Kastrioti, Principality of Dukagjini,
Princedom of Albania, and Principality of Gjirokastër. At the
beginning of the 15th century these principalities became stronger,
especially because of the fall of the Serbian Empire. Some of these
principalities were united in 1444 under the military alliance called
League of Lezha.
The Principality of
Arbanon in 1210 as part of the Despotate of
Albania — 1272-1365.
Charles of Naples
Charles of Naples established it
after he conquered a part from the Despotate of Epirus.
Population movements, 14th century.
Borders of the Principality of
Albania 1914-1925, recognized by the
Treaty of Bucharest.
High and Late Middle Ages
After serving the
Ottoman Empire for 20 years
Skanderbeg deserted and
began a rebellion that halted Ottoman advance into
Europe for 25
Ali Pasha of Tepelena
Ali Pasha of Tepelena was notably one of the most
Muslim Albanian rulers, he ruled over the Pashalik
of Yanina, and even attempted to rival the
Dey of Algiers
Dey of Algiers in the seas.
At the dawn of the establishment of the
Ottoman Empire in Southeast
Europe, the geopolitical landscape was marked by scattered kingdoms of
small principalities. The Ottomans erected their garrisons throughout
Albania by 1415 and established formal jurisdiction over most
Albania by 1431. However, in 1443 a great and longstanding
revolt broke under the lead of the Albanian national hero Gjergj
Kastrioti Skanderbeg, which lasted until 1479, many times defeating
major Ottoman armies led by sultans
Murad II and Mehmed II. Skanderbeg
united initially the Albanian princes and later established a
centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories,
becoming Lord of Albania. He also tried relentlessly but rather
unsuccessfully to create a European coalition against the Ottomans. He
frustrated every attempt by the Turks to regain Albania, which they
envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of
Italy and western
Europe. His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time won
the esteem of
Europe as well as some support in the form of money and
military aid from Naples, the papacy, Venice, and Ragusa. Finally
after decades of resistance, Ottomans captured
Shkodër in 1479 and
Durrës in 1501. Skanderbeg's long struggle to keep
became highly significant to the Albanian people, as it strengthened
their solidarity, made them more conscious of their national identity,
and served later as a great source of inspiration in their struggle
for national unity, freedom, and independence. The invasion
triggered a several waves of migration of
Albanians from Albania,
Peloponnese to the south of Italy, constituting an
Albanians were recruited all over
Europe as a
light cavalry known as stratioti. The stratioti were pioneers of light
cavalry tactics during this era. In the early 16th century heavy
cavalry in the European armies was principally remodeled after
Albanian stradioti of the Venetian army, Hungarian hussars and German
mercenary cavalry units (Schwarzreitern). By the 16th century,
Ottoman rule over Southeast
Europe was largely secure. The Ottomans
proceeded in stages, first appointing a qadi along with governors and
then military retainers in the cities.
Timar holders, not necessarily
converts to Islam, would occasionally rebel, the most famous case of
which is Skanderbeg. His figure would be used later in the 19th
century as a central component of Albanian national identity. Ottoman
control over the Albanian territories was secured in 1571 when Ulcinj,
presently in Montenegro, was captured.
Albanian men in the 16th century – Codice de trajes 1547
The most significant impact on the
Albanians was the gradual
Islamization process of a large majority of the population, although
such a process only became widespread in the 17th century. Mainly
Catholics converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians
Muslim mainly in the following century. Initially confined to
the main city centres of
Elbasan and Shkodër, by this time the
countryside was also embracing the new religion. In Elbasan
Muslims made up just over half the population in 1569–70 whereas in
Shkodër this was almost 90% and in
Berat closer to 60%. In the 17th
Catholic conversion to
Islam increased, even in the
countryside. The motives for conversion according to scholars were
diverse, depending on the context. The lack of source-material does
not help when investigating such issues. Reasons in various
different contexts included the incentive to escape high taxes levied
Christian subjects, ecclesiastical decay, coercion by Ottoman
authorities in times of war, and the privileged position
Muslims had over
Christians in the Empire.
Areas such as Albania, Western Macedonia, Southern Serbia, Kosovo,
parts of northern
Greece and southern
Montenegro in Ottoman sources
were referred to as Arnavudluk or Albania. The Ottoman
period that followed in
Albania after the end of Skanderbeg's
resistance was characterized by other changes. Many
prominent positions in the Ottoman government such as: Iljaz Hoxha,
Hamza Kastrioti, Koca Davud Pasha, Zağanos Pasha, Köprülü Mehmed
Pasha (head of the Köprülü family of Grand Viziers), the Bushati
family, Sulejman Pasha, Edhem Pasha, Nezim Frakulla, Haxhi Shekreti,
Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Ali Pasha of Gucia,
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt and Ali
Pasha of Tepelena who rose to become one of the most powerful Muslim
Albanian rulers in western Rumelia. During the Ottoman era Albanians
involved in imperial service could also be found across the empire in
Algeria and across the
Maghreb as vital military and
Further information: Albanian National Awakening
Flag used during the National
Renaissance by Albanian rebels.
In the 1870s, the Sublime Porte's reforms aimed at checking the
Ottoman Empire's disintegration had clearly failed. The image of the
"Turkish yoke" had become fixed in the nationalist mythologies and
psyches of the people in the Balkan peninsula, and their march toward
independence quickened. Because of the higher degree of Islamic
Albanians internal social divisions, and the fear that
they would lose their Albanian-inhabited territories to the emerging
Balkan states, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece, were the last
of the peoples in the
Balkans to desire division from the
The national awakening as a coherent political movement began after
the Treaty of San Stefano, according to which Albanian-inhabited
territories were to be ceded to other states of the Balkans, and
focused on preventing that partition. The Treaty of San
Stefano was the impetus for the nation-building movement, which was
based more on fear of partition than national identity. Even
Albania became independent on 28 November 1912, national
identity was fragmented and possible non-existent in much of the new
country. The state of disunity and fragmentation would remain
until the communist period following second World War, when the
communist nation-building project would achieve greater success in
nation-building and reach more people than any previous regime, thus
creating Albanian national communist identity.
Further information: Culture of Albania
Albanian language and Albanian dialects
The various dialects of the
Albanian language in Southern Europe.
Albanian language is an
Indo-European language and occupies an
independent branch within the family tree. Although it is an isolate
language within the Indo-European tree, while no other language has
been conclusively linked to its branch.
The language is the official language of
Kosovo and is
spoken fluently by the majority of the countries populations. Albanian
is as well a recognised minority language in Croatia, Greece, Italy,
Romania and Serbia. It is the second most
spoken language in
Arvanitika and Çam), Macedonia and the
third most spoken language in
Italy (Arbëreshë). In
consideration to the large Albanian diaspora, the total number of
Albanian speakers is much higher than the native speakers in Southern
A traditional view, based mainly on the territory, where the languages
were spoken, links the origin of Albanian with Illyrian. Not enough
Illyrian archaeological evidence is left behind, to come to a definite
conclusion. Another theory links the Albanian as originating from the
Thracian language. This theory takes exception to the territory, since
the language was spoken in an area distinct from Albania, and no
significant population movements have been recorded in the period when
the shift from one language to the other is supposed to have
Albanian can be divided into two cultural and linguistic groups
including the northern
Ghegs and the southern Tosks. The
geographic border between both based on dialect is the Shkumbin River.
Gheg is mostly spoken, along with the
Montenegro and NorthwesternMacedonia.
Tosk speaker include the
Greece (Arvanites, Çam), Southwestern Macedonia and
Italy (Arbëreshë). The diversity between
Ghegs and Tosks
can be substantial, both sides identify strongly with the common
national and ethnic culture.
See also: Religion in Albania
The King's Mosque of Sultan Mehmet Fatih in Pristina, Kosovo
Ardenica Monastery, an Orthodox Monastery near the city of
The majority of
Albanians are nominally Muslims (mainly Sunni, with a
smaller Shia, Sufi and
Bektashi component), and a minority are
Catholic and Orthodox).
Albanians first appear in the historical record in Byzantine
sources of the late 11th century. At this point, they were
already fully Christianized. All
Albanians were Orthodox Christians
until the middle of the 13th century when the
Ghegs were converted to
Catholicism as a mean to resist the Slavs. Christianity
was later overtaken by Islam, which kept the scepter of the major
religion during the period of Ottoman Turkish rule from the 15th
century until 1912. Eastern Orthodox
Christianity and Roman
Catholicism continued to be practiced with less frequency.
During the 20th century the monarchy and later the totalitarian state
followed a systematic secularization of the nation and the national
culture. This policy was chiefly applied within the borders of the
current Albanian state. It produced a secular majority in the
population. All forms of Christianity,
Islam and other religious
practices were prohibited except for old non-institutional pagan
practices in the rural areas, which were seen as identifying with the
national culture. The current Albanian state has revived some pagan
festivals, such as the Spring festival (Albanian: Dita e Verës) held
yearly on 14 March in the city of Elbasan. It is a national
The Arabati Baba Teḱe, a traditionally
Bektashi Sufi tekke in
According to 2011 census, 58.79% of
Albania adheres to Islam, making
it the largest religion in the country. The majority of Albanian
Muslims are Secular
Sunni with a significant
Bektashi Shia minority.
Christianity is practiced by 16.99% of the population, making it the
second largest religion in the country. The remaining population is
either irreligious or belongs to other religious groups. Before
World War II, there was given a distribution of 70% Muslims, 20%
Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholics. Today, Gallup Global
Reports 2010 shows that religion plays a role in the lives of only 39%
of Albanians, and ranks
Albania the thirteenth least religious country
in the world. The results of the 2011 census, however, have been
criticized as questionable on a number of grounds, and have been said
to drastically underrepresent the number of Orthodox,
irreligious Albanians, with problems including whole communities
reporting that they had not been contacted, workers filling out
questions without even asking the respondents and a drastic difference
between the final results and the preliminary results with regard to
religion (which showed over 70% declining to answer the question about
The Communist regime that took control of
Albania after World War II
persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and
entirely banned religion to the point where
Albania was officially
declared to be the world's first atheist state. Religious freedom has
Albania since the regime's change in 1992. Albanian Muslim
populations (mainly secular and of the
Sunni branch) are found
throughout the country whereas
Christians as well as
Bektashis are concentrated in the south; Roman
Catholics are found
primarily in the north of the country.
For part of its history,
Albania has also had a Jewish community.
Members of the Jewish community were saved by a group of Albanians
during the Nazi occupation. Many left for Israel c. 1990–1992
when the borders were opened after the fall of the communist regime,
but about 200 Jews still live in Albania.
Albanians in Kosovo
Albanians in Macedonia
Albanians in Montenegro
Albanians in Croatia
Albanians in Italy
Prefer not to answer
Believers without denomination
Not relevant/not stated
Mother Teresa won the Nobel peace prize in 1979
for her efforts to help the poor.
A modest amount of literature written by early
Albanians was about
religious themes. The earliest known use of written Albanian is a
baptismal formula (1462) written by the Archbishop of
Angelus. In 1555, a
Gjon Buzuku from the
Shestan region published the earliest known book written in Albanian
Meshari (The Missal) regarding
Catholic prayers and rites
containing archaic medieval language, lexemes and expressions obsolete
in contemporary Albanian. Other
Christian clergy such as Luca
Matranga in the Arbëresh diaspora published (1592) in the Tosk
dialect while other notable authors were from northern Albanian lands
and included Pjetër Budi, Frang Bardhi, and Pjetër Bogdani.
With the conversion to
Islam of many Albanians,
Muslim poetic and
other literary traditions were adopted giving rise to authors such as
Bejtexhinj (Albanian poets) and included individuals like Nezim
Frakulla, Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Muhamet Kyçyku, and brothers Shahin and
Dalip Frashëri. They compiled
Albanian literature infused with
expressions, language and themes stemming from the Middle East and
their local socio-cultural environment.
Albanian literature was
composed in the Arbëresh diaspora by individuals such as Giulio
Variboba, Nicola Chetta, Giuseppe Schirò, Giuseppe Serembe, Girolamo
de Rada and others relating to religious, secular, poetic and
eventually patriotic themes like Skanderbeg. From the 19th
century Rilindja (Albanian national awakening), a corpus of Albanian
literature with patriotic and other themes emerged calling for
Albanian unity, self-determination and celebrating Albanian culture,
language, legends and other figures of sociopoltical, cultural and
historic importance. Figures who left their mark during this
period were the poet brothers Naim and Sami Frashëri, Pashko Vasa,
Luigj Gurakuqi and others.
Albanian independence (1912) until the advent of the Second World War
marked a transition from patriotic and political Rilindja related
literature to more distinctive, expressive and matured forms of
Albanian literature, prose and poetry focusing upon additional themes
of contemporary life. Andon Zako Çajupi, Ndre Mjeda, Faik
Fan Noli who translated many foreign works into Albanian,
Gjergj Fishta who composed the epic the Highland Lute, Ernest Koliqi,
Lasgush Poradeci and others. Albania,
post World War Two emerged as a communist state and Socialist realism
became part of the literary scene. Authors and poets emerged such
as Sejfulla Malëshova,
Dritero Agolli and
Ismail Kadare who has
become an internationally acclaimed novelist and others who challenged
the regime through various sociopolitical and historic themes in their
Martin Camaj wrote in the diaspora while in neighbouring
Yugoslavia, the emergence of Albanian cultural expression resulted in
sociopolitical and poetic literature by notable authors like Adem
Demaçi, Rexhep Qosja, Jusuf Buxhovi. The Albanian literary scene
at the beginning of the 21st century remains vibrant producing new
novelists, authors, poets and other writers.
Albanian folk music displays a variety of influences. Albanian folk
music traditions differ by region, with major stylistic differences
between the traditional music of the
Ghegs in the north and
the south. Modern popular music has developed around the centers of
Shkodër and Tirana. Since the 1920s, some composers such as
Fan S. Noli
Fan S. Noli have also produced works of Albanian classical music.
An Arnaut in Cairo, Egypt
Catholic woman from Shkodra, Albania
Man and woman from Elbasan, Albania
Shkodra man in traditional dress
Albanian Woman, end of the 19th century
A traditional male folk group from Skrapar, Albania
Albanians in Macedonia
Albanian shepherds of Macedonia
Albanian folk dance from Civita, Calabria, Italy
Culture of Albania
Geography of Albania
History of Albania
List of Albanians
^ The totals are obtained as the sum of the referenced populations
(lowest and highest figures) below in the infobox.
^ a b c
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the
Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia
continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two
governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the
Kosovo has received formal recognition as an
independent state from 113 out of 193
United Nations member states.
Missing or empty title= (help)
^ Ragionieri 2008, p. 46.
^ a b c Deliso 2007, p. 38.
^ "Türkiyedeki Kürtlerin Sayısı!" (in Turkish). Milliyet. 2008.
Turkey celebrate their cultural heritage".
Todayszaman.com. 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 31
October 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h Saunders 2011, p. 98. "In addition to the
recent emigrants, there are older diasporic communities around the
world. There are upwards of 5 million ethnic
Albanians in the Turkish
Republic; however, the vast majority of this population is assimilated
and no longer possesses fluency in the language, though a vibrant
Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in
Istanbul to this
Egypt also lays claim to some 18,000 Albanians, supposedly
lingering remnants of Mohammad Ali's army."
^ Cuneyt Yenigun. "GCC Model: Conflict Management for the "Greater
Albania"" (PDF). Süleyman Demirel University:Faculty of Arts and
Sciences Journal of Social Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
^ "2002 Macedonian Census" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on
22 September 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ Managing Migration: The Promise of Cooperation. By Philip L. Martin,
Susan Forbes Martin, Patrick Weil
^ "Announcement of the demographic and social characteristics of the
Resident Population of
Greece according to the 2011 Population –
Housing Census" [Graph 7 Resident population with foreign citizenship]
(PDF). Greek National Statistics Agency. 23 August 2013. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
^ Groenendijk 2006, p. 416. "approximately 200,000 of these
immigrants have been granted the status of homogeneis".
^ "Official Results of Monenegrin Census 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 24
^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census".
Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian
Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
^ "Date demografice" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 11
August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
^ "Slovenia: Languages (Immigrant Languages)".
^ a b "Kosovari in Italia".
^ a b Albanian, Arbëreshë – A language of
Italy – Ethnic
population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976).
^ "Cittadini non comunitari regolarmente presenti". istat.it. Archived
from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
^ Hans-Peter Bartels: Deutscher Bundestag – 16. Wahlperiode – 166.
Sitzung. Berlin, Donnerstag, den 5. Juni 2008 Archived 3 January 2013
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Die Albaner in der Schweiz: Geschichtliches – Albaner in der
Schweiz seit 1431" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July
2011. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ "Im Namen aller Albaner eine Moschee?". Infowilplus.ch. 2007-05-25.
Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ "Total Population of
Albanians in the Sweden".
^ Bennetto, Jason (2002-11-25). "Total Population of
Albanians in the
United Kingdom". London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September
^ "Statistik Austria". Statistik.at. Archived from the original on 13
November 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
^ "Étrangers – Immigrés: Publications et statistiques pour la
France ou les régions" (in French). Insee.fr. Retrieved 4 November
^ "National statistics of Denmark". Dst.dk. Archived from the original
on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ "Demographics of Finland". [permanent dead link]
^ "Population par nationalité, sexe, groupe et classe d'âges au 1er
janvier 2010" (in French). Archived from the original on 22 December
2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
^ "Anderlecht, Molenbeek, Schaarbeek: repères du crime à Bruxelles".
cafebabel.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
^ Olson, James S., An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and
Soviet Empires. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994) p. 28–29
^ a b "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more
ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November
^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses
(3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the
Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories,
Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National
Household Survey". Archived from the original on 20 December
^ "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia"
(Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of
Statistics. Retrieved 2 June 2008. Total responses: 25,451,383
for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16
September 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
^ Ethnobotany in the New Europe: People, Health and Wild Plant
Resources, vol. 14, Manuel Pardo de Santayana, Andrea Pieroni,
Rajindra K. Puri, Berghahn Books, 2010, ISBN 1845458141, p. 18.
^ Gëzim Krasniqi. "Citizenship in an emigrant nation-state: the case
of Albania" (PDF). University of Edinburgh. pp. 9–14. Retrieved
7 August 2012.
^ a b Geniş & Maynard 2009, pp. 553–555. "Taking a
chronological perspective, the ethnic
Albanians currently living in
Turkey today could be categorized into three groups: Ottoman
Albanians, Balkan Albanians, and twentieth century Albanians. The
first category comprises descendants of
Albanians who relocated to the
Marmara and Aegean regions as part of the Ottoman Empire's
administrative structure. Official Ottoman documents record the
Albanians living in and around
Iznik (Nicaea), and Izmir (Smyrna). For example, between the fifteenth
and eighteenth centuries Albanian boys were brought to
housed in Topkapı Palace as part of the devşirme system (an early
Ottoman practice of human tribute required of
Christian citizens) to
serve as civil servants and Janissaries. In the 1600s Albanian
seasonal workers were employed by these Albanian
Janissaries in and
Istanbul and Iznik, and in 1860 Kayserili Ahmet, the governor
of Izmir, employed
Albanians to fight the raiding Zeybeks. Today, the
descendants of Ottoman
Albanians do not form a community per se, but
at least some still identify as ethnically Albanian. However, it is
unknown how many, if any, of these Ottoman
Albanians retain Albanian
language skills. The second category of ethnic
Albanians living in
Turkey is composed of people who are the descendants of
refugees from the
Balkans who because of war were forced to migrate
inwards towards Eastern Thrace and
Anatolia in the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries as the
Ottoman Empire dissolved. These
Albanians are the largest group of ethnic
Albanians living in
Turkey today, and can be subcategorized into those who ended up in
actual Albanian-speaking communities and those who were relocated into
villages where they were the only Albanian-speaking migrants. Not
surprisingly, the language is retained by some of the descendants from
those of the former, but not those of the latter. The third category
Turkey comprises recent or twentieth century
migrants from the Balkans. These recent migrants can be subcategorized
into those who came from
Kosovo in the 1950s–1970s, those who came
Kosovo in 1999, and those who came from the Republic of Albania
after 1992. All of these in the third category know a variety of
modern Albanian and are mostly located in the western parts of Turkey
in large metropolitan areas. Our research focuses on the history of
migration and community formation of the
Albanians located in the
Samsun Province in the Black Sea region around 1912–1913 who would
fall into the second category discussed above (see Figure 1). Turkish
census data between 1927 and 1965 recorded the presence of Albanian
speakers in Samsun Province, and the fieldwork we have been conducting
in Samsun since September 2005 has revealed that there is still a
significant number of
Albanians living in the city and its surrounding
region. According to the community leaders we interviewed, there are
about 30,000–40,000 ethnic Albanian Turkish citizens in Samsun
Province. The community was largely rural, located in the villages and
engaged in agricultural activities until the 1970s. After this time,
gradual migration to urban areas, particularly smaller towns and
nearby cities has been observed. Long-distance rural-to-urban
migration also began in later years mostly due to increasing demand
for education and better jobs. Those who migrated to areas outside of
Samsun Province generally preferred the cities located in the west of
Turkey, particularly metropolitan areas such as Istanbul, Izmir and
Bursa mainly because of the job opportunities as well as the large
Albanian communities already residing in these cities. Today, the size
of the Albanian community in Samsun Province is considered to be much
smaller and gradually shrinking because of outward migration. Our
observation is that the
Albanians in Samsun seem to be fully
integrated into Turkish society, and engaged in agriculture and small
trading businesses. As education becomes accessible to the wider
society and modernization accelerates transportation and hence
communication of urban values, younger generations have also started
to acquire professional occupations. Whilst a significant number of
people still speak Albanian fluently as the language in the family,
they have a perfect command of the
Turkish language and cannot be
distinguished from the rest of the population in terms of occupation,
education, dress and traditions. In this article, we are interested in
the history of this Albanian community in Samsun. Given the lack of
any research on the Albanian presence in Turkey, our questions are
simple and exploratory. When and where did these people come from? How
and why did they choose Samsun as a site of resettlement? How did the
socio- cultural characteristics of this community change over time? It
is generally believed that the
Albanians in Samsun Province are the
descendants of the migrants and refugees from
Kosovo who arrived in
Turkey during the wars of 1912–13. Based on our research in Samsun
Province, we argue that this information is partial and misleading.
The interviews we conducted with the Albanian families and community
leaders in the region and the review of Ottoman history show that part
of the Albanian community in Samsun was founded through three stages
of successive migrations. The first migration involved the forced
Albanians from the Sancak of Nish in 1878; the
second migration occurred when these migrants’ children fled from
the massacres in
Kosovo in 1912–13 to Anatolia; and the third
migration took place between 1913 and 1924 from the scattered villages
Anatolia where they were originally placed to the Samsun
area in the Black Sea Region. Thus, the Albanian community founded in
the 1920s in Samsun was in many ways a reassembling of the demolished
Muslim Albanian community of Nish. This trajectory of the Albanian
community of Nish shows that the fate of this community was intimately
bound up with the fate of the
Ottoman Empire in the
Balkans and the
socio-cultural composition of modern
Turkey still carries on the
legacy of its historical ancestor."
^ a b c Norris 1993, pp. 209–210; 244–245.
^ a b Giakoumis 2010, pp. 86–87.
^ a b Koti 2010, pp. 16–17.
^ a b Ramet 1998, pp. 203–204.
^ a b Skendi 1956, pp. 321–323.
^ a b Vickers 2011, pp. 17–24.
^ a b Giakoumis 2010, pp. 87–88.
^ a b Myhill, John (2006). Language, religion and national identity in
Europe and the Middle East: A historical study. Amsterdam: John
Benjamins Publishing. p. 232. ISBN 9789027227119.
^ a b c d Clayer, Nathalie (2012), "Albania", in Krämer, Gudrun;
Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett, Encyclopaedia of Islam,
Three, Brill Online, (Subscription required (help))
^ Riehl 2010, p. 238. "Other interesting groups in the context of
European migration include the
Albanians who from the thirteenth
century immigrated to
Greece (i.e., the so-called "Arvanites", see
Sasse 1998) and to Southern
Italy (Calabria, Sicily, cf Breu 2005)."
^ a b c Nasse 1964, pp. 24–26.
^ a b Gogonas 2010, p. 3. "
Arvanites originate from Albanian
settlers who moved south at different times between the 14th and the
16th centuries from areas in what is today southern
reasons for this migration are not entirely clear and may be manifold.
In many instances the
Arvanites were invited by the
Latin rulers of the time. They were employed to resettle areas that
had been largely depopulated through wars, epidemics and other
reasons, and they were employed as soldiers. Some later movements are
also believed to have been motivated to evade Islamisation after the
Ottoman conquest. The main waves of the Arvanite migration into
Greece started around 1300, reached a peak some time during
the 14th century, and ended around 1600.
Arvanites first reached
Thessaly, then Attica and finally the
Peloponnese (Clogg. 2002).
Regarding the number of
Arvanites in Greece, the 1951 census (the last
Greece that included a question about language) gives a
figure of 23.000 Arvaiithka speakers. Sociohinguistic research in the
1970s in the villages of Attica and Biotia alone indicated a figure of
at least 30.000 speakers (Trudgill and Tzavaras 1977), while Lunden
(1993) suggests 50.000 for
Greece as a whole."
^ a b c Hall 1997, pp. 28–29. "The permeability of ethnic
boundaries is also demonstrated in many of the Greek villages of
Attiki and Viotia (ancient Attika and Boiotia), where
form a majority) These
Arvanites are descended from
Greece between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries
(though there was a subsequent wave of immigration in the second half
of the eighteenth century). Although still regarded as ethnically
distinct in the nineteenth century, their participation in the Greek
War of Independence and the Civil War has led to increasing
assimilation: in a survey conducted in the 1970s, 97 per crnt of
Arvanite informants despite regularly speaking in Arvanitika,
considered themselves to be Greek. A similar concern with being
identified as Greek is exhibited by the bilingual
Arvanites of the
^ a b Bintliff 2003, pp. 137–138. "First, we can explain the
astonishing persistence of Albanian village culture from the
fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries through the ethnic and
religious tolerance characteristic of Islamic empires and so lacking
Christian equivalents. Ottoman control rested upon allowing
local communities to keep their religion, language, local laws, and
representatives, provided that taxes were paid (the millet system).
There was no pressure for
Albanians to conform to each
other's language or other behavior. Clear signs of change are revealed
in the travel diaries of the German scholar Ludwig Ross (1851), when
he accompanied the Bavarian Otto, whom the Allies had foisted as king
upon the newly freed Greek nation in the aftermath of the War of
Independence in the 1830s. Ross praises the well-built Greek villages
Greece with their healthy, happy, dancing inhabitants, and
contrasts them specifically with the hovels and sickly inhabitants of
Albanian villages. In fact, recent scholarship has underlined how far
it was the West that built modem
Greece in its own fanciful image as
the land of a long-oppressed people who were the direct descendants of
Pericles. Thus from the late nineteenth century onward the children of
the inhabitants of the new "nation-state" were taught in Greek,
history confined itself to the episodes of pure Greekness, and the
tolerant Ottoman attitude to cultural diversity yielded to a
deliberate policy of total Hellenization of the populace—effective
enough to fool the casual observer. One is rather amazed at the
persistence today of such dual-speaking populations in much of the
Albanian colonization zone. However, apart from the provinciality of
this essentially agricultural province, a high rate of illiteracy
until well into this century has also helped to preserve
the Boeotian villagers (Meijs 1993)."; p. 140. "In contrast therefore
to the more openly problematic issue of Slav speakers in northern
Greece, Arvanitic speakers in central
Greece lack any signs of an
assertive ethnicity. I would like to suggest that they possess what we
might term a passive ethnicity. As a result of a number of historical
factors, much of the rural population in central
Albanian-speaking by the time of the creation of the modern Greek
state in the 1830s. Until this century, most of these people were
illiterate and unschooled, yet there existed sufficient knowledge of
Greek to communicate with officials and townspeople, itinerant
traders, and so on, to limit the need to transform rural language
usage. Life was extremely provincial, with just one major
carriage-road passing through the center of the large province of
Boeotia even in the 1930s (beyond which horseback and cart took over;
van Effenterre 1989). Even in the 1960s, Arvanitic village children
could be figures of fun for their Greek peers in the schools of Thebes
(One of the two regional towns) (K. Sarri, personal communication,
2000). It was not a matter of cultural resistance but simple
conservatism and provinciality, the extreme narrowness of rural life,
that allowed Arvanitic language and local historic memories to survive
so effectively to the very recent period."
^ Liakos 2012, p. 230. "The term "Arvanite" is the medieval
equivalent of "Albanian." it is retained today for the descendants of
the Albanian tribes that migrated to the Greek lands during a period
covering two centuries, from the thirteenth to the fifteenth."
^ a b Liotta 2001, p. 198. "Among Greeks, the term
"Alvanitis"—or "Arvanitis"—means a
Christian of Albanian ancestry,
one who speaks both Greek and Albanian, but possesses Greek
"consciousness." Numerous "Arvanites" live in
Greece today, although
the ability to speak both languages is shrinking as the differences
(due to technology and information access and vastly different
economic bases) between
Albania increase. The Greek
communities of Elefsis, Marousi, Koropi, Keratea, and Markopoulo (all
in the Attikan peninsula) once held significant Arvanite communities.
"Arvanitis" is not necessarily a pejorative term; a recent Pan
Hellenic socialist foreign minister spoke both Albanian and Greek (but
not English). A former Greek foreign minister, Theodoros Pangalos, was
an "Arvanite" from Elefsis."
^ Pappas. para. 28. "While the bulk of stradioti rank and file were of
Albanian origin from Greece, by the middle of the 16th century there
is evidence that many had become Hellenized or even Italianized...
Hellenization was perhaps well on its way prior to service abroad,
since Albanian stradioti had settled in Greek lands for two
generations prior to their emigration to Italy. Since many served
under Greek commanders and served together with Greek stradioti, the
process continued. Another factor in this assimilative process was the
stradioti's and their families' active involvement and affiliation
with the Greek Orthodox or Uniate Church communities in Naples, Venice
and elsewhere. Hellenization thus occurred as a result of common
service and church affiliation."
^ a b Veremis & Kolipoulos 2003, pp. 24–25. "For the time
Greeks of free
Greece could indulge in defining their
brethren of unredeemed Greece, primarily the Slav Macedonians and
secondarily the Orthodox
Albanians and the Vlachs. Primary school
students were taught, in the 1880s, that ‘
Greeks [are] our kinsmen,
of common descent, speaking the language we speak and professing the
religion we profess’." But this definition, it seems, was reserved
for small children who could not possibly understand the intricate
arguments of their parents on the question of Greek identity. What was
essential to understand at that tender age was that modern Greeks
descended from the ancient Greeks. Grown up children, however, must
have been no less confused than adults on the criteria for defining
modern Greek identity. Did the
Greeks constitute a ‘race’ apart
from the Albanians, the
Slavs and the Vlachs? Yes and no. High school
students were told that the ‘other races’, i.e. the Slavs, the
Albanians and the Vlachs, ‘having been Hellenized with the years in
terms of mores and customs, are now being assimilated into the
Greeks’. On the
Slavs of Macedonia there seems to have been no
consensus. Were they Bulgars, Slavicized
Greeks or early Slavs? They
‘were’ Bulgars until the 1870s and Slavicized Greeks, or
Slavs subsequently, according to the needs of the dominant
theory. There was no consensus, either, on the Vlachs. Were they
Latinized Greek mountaineers of late immigrants from Vlachia? As in
the case of the
Slavs of Macedonia, Vlach descent shifted from the
Balkans to the Danube, until the Romanians claimed the Vlachs
for their brethren; which made the latter irrevocably indigenous to
the southern Balkan mountains. The
Albanians or ‘Arvanites’, were
readily ‘adopted’ as brethren of common descent for at least three
reasons. Firstly, the
Albanians had been living in southern Greece, as
far south as the Peloponnese, in considerable numbers. Secondly,
Albanians had fought with distinction and in considerable
numbers in the War of Independence. Thirdly, credible Albanian claims
for the establishment of an Albanian nation state materialized too
Late for Greek national theorists to abandon well-entrenched
positions. Commenting on a geography textbook for primary schools in
1901, a state committee found it inadequate and misleading. One of its
principal shortcomings concerned the Albanians, who were described as
‘close kinsmen of the Greeks’. ‘These are unacceptable from the
point of view of our national claims and as far as historical truth is
concerned’, commented the committee. ‘it must have been maintained
that they are of common descent with the
Greeks (Pelasgians), that
they speak a language akin to that of the
Greeks and that they
participated in all struggles for national liberation of the common
^ a b Barančić 2008, p. 551. "Možemo reći da svi na neki
način pripadamo nekoj vrsti etničke kategorije, a često i više
nego jednoj. Kao primjer navodim slučaj zadarskih Arbanasa. Da bismo
shvatili Arbanase i problem njihova etnojezičnog (etničkog i
jezičnog) identiteta, potrebno je ići u povijest njihova doseljenja
koje seže u početak 18. st., tj. točnije: razdoblje od prve seobe
1726., razdoblje druge seobe od 1733., pa sve do 1754. godine koja se
smatra završnom godinom njihova doseljenja. Svi su se doselili iz tri
sela s područja Skadarskog jezera – Briske, Šestana i Livara.
Bježeći od Turaka, kuge i ostalih nevolja, generalni providur Nicola
Erizzo II dozvolio im je da se nasele u područje današnjih Arbanasa
i Zemunika. Jedan dio stanovništva u Zemuniku se asimilirao s
ondašnjim stanovništvom zaboravivši svoj jezik. To su npr.
današnji Prenđe, Šestani, Ćurkovići, Paleke itd. Drugi dio
stanovništva je nastojao zadržati svoj etnički i jezični identitet
tijekom ovih 280 godina. Dana 10. svibnja 2006. godine obilježena je
280. obljetnica njihova dolaska u predgrađe grada Zadra. Nije bilo
lako, osobito u samom početku, jer nisu imali svoju crkvu, škole
itd., pa je jedini način održavanja njihova identiteta i jezika bio
usmenim putem. We can say that all in some way belong to a kind of
ethnic category, and often more than one. As an example, I cite the
case of Zadar Arbanasi. To understand the problem of the
their ethnolinguistic (ethnic and linguistic) identity, it is
necessary to go into the history of their immigration that goes back
to the beginning of the 18th century., etc more precisely: the period
from the first migration of 1726, the period of the second migration
of 1733, and until 1754, which is considered to be the final year of
their immigration. All they moved from three villages from the area of
Lake Scutari – Briska, Šestan and Livara. Fleeing from the
Ottomans, plague and other troubles, the general provider Nicola
Erizzo II allowed them to settle in the area of today's Arbanasa and
Zemunik. One part of the population in Zemunik became assimilated with
the local population, forgetting their language. These are for
example, today's Prenda, Šestani, Ćurkovići, Paleke etc. The second
part of the population tried to maintain their ethnic and linguistic
identity during these 280 years. On May 10, 2006 marked the 280th
anniversary of their arrival in the suburb of Zadar. It was not easy,
especially in the beginning, because they did not have their own
church, school, etc., and is the only way to maintain their identity
and language was verbally."
^ a b Novik 2015, pp. 261–262. "Historical Facts. Four villages
with Albanian population are located in the Ukraine: Karakurt
(Zhovtnevoe) set up in 1811 (Odessa region), Tyushki (Georgievka),
Dzhandran (Gammovka) and Taz (Devninskoe) set up in 1862 (Zaporizh’a
region). Before migrating to the territory of the Russian empire,
Albanians had moved from the south-east of the present day Albania
Bulgaria (Varna region) because of the Osmanli invasion
(Державин, 1914, 1926, 1933, 1948, pp. 156–169). Three
hundred years later they had moved from
Bulgaria to the Russian empire
on account of Turkish-Russian opposition in the Balkan Peninsula.
Albanians also live in Moldova, Odessa and St. Petersburg.
Present Day Situation. Nowadays, in the
Ukraine and Russia there are
an estimated 5000 ethnic Albanians. They live mainly in villages
situated in the Odessa and Zaporizh’a regions. The language and many
elements of traditional culture are still preserved and maintained in
four Albanian villages (Будина, 2000, pp. 239–255;
Иванова, 2000, pp. 40–53). From the ethnolinguistic and
linguistic point of view these Albanian villages are of particular
interest and value since they are excellent examples of a "melting
pot" (Иванова, 1995, 1999). Bulgarians and Gagauzes live side
by side with
Albanians in Karakurt; Russians and Ukrainians share the
same space with
Albanians in the Azov Sea region. It is worth
mentioning that in these multi-lingual environments, the Albanian
patois retains original Balkan features."
^ a b Elsie 2005, pp. 3–4. "Their traditional designation,
based on a root *alban- and its rhotacized variants *arban-, *albar-,
and *arbar-, appears from the eleventh century onwards in Byzantine
chronicles (Albanoi, Arbanitai, Arbanites), and from the fourteenth
century onwards in
Latin and other Western documents (Albanenses,
^ a b c d e f g h Lloshi 1999, p. 277. "The
Albanians of today
call themselves shqiptarë, their country Shqipëri, and their
language shqipe. These terms came into use between the end of the 17th
and beginning of the 18th centuries. Foreigners call them albanesi
(Italian), Albaner (German),
Albanians (English), Alvanos (Greek), and
Arbanasi (old Serbian), the country Albania, Albanie, Albanien,
Alvania, and Albanija, and the language Albanese, Albanisch, Albanian,
Alvaniki, and Arbanashki respectively. All these words are derived
from the name
Albanoi of an Illyrian tribe and their center
Albanopolis, noted by the astronomer of Alexandria, Ptolemy, in the
2nd century AD. Alban could he a plural of alb- arb-, denoting the
inhabitants of the plains (ÇABEJ 1976). The name passed over the
boundaries of the Illyrian tribe in central Albania, and was
generalised for all the Albanians. They called themselves arbënesh,
arbëresh, the country Arbëni, Arbëri, and the language arbëneshe,
arbëreshe. In the foreign languages, the
Middle Ages denominations of
these names survived, but for the
Albanians they were substituted by
shqiptarë, Shqipëri and shqipe. The primary root is the adverb
shqip, meaning "clearly, intelligibly". There is a very close semantic
parallel to this in the German noun Deutsche, "the Germans" and "the
German language" (Lloshi 1984) Shqip spread out from the north to the
south, and Shqipni/Shqipëri is probably a collective noun, following
the common pattern of Arbëni, Arbëri. The change happened after the
Ottoman conquest because of the conflict in the whole line of the
political, social, economic, religious, and cultural spheres with a
totally alien world of the Oriental type. A new and more generalised
ethnic and linguistic consciousness of all these people responded to
^ a b Demiraj 2010, p. 534. "The ethnic name shqiptar has always
been discussed together with the ethnic complex: (tosk) arbëresh,
arbëror, arbër — (gheg) arbënesh, arbënu(e)r, arbën; i.e.
[arbën/r(—)]. p.536. Among the neighbouring peoples and elsewhere
the denomination of the
Albanians is based upon the root arb/alb, cp.
Greek ’Αλβανός, ’Αρβανός "Albanian",
‘Αρβανίτης "Arbëresh of Greece", Serbian Albanac, Arbanas,
Bulg., Mac. албанец, Arom. arbinés (Papahagi 1963 135), Turk.
arnaut, Ital. albanese, German Albaner etc. This basis is in use among
the Arbëreshs of
Greece as well; cp. arvanit, more rarely
arbëror by the arbëreshs of Greece, as against arbëresh, arbëresh,
bri(e)sh (beside gjegj — Altimari 1994 (1992) 53 s.). (Italy)
(Kr. ?) árbanas, (Mandr.) allbanc, (Ukr.) allbanc(er) (Musliu
— Dauti 1996) etj. For the various forms and uses of this or that
variant see, inter alia, also Çabej SE II 6lss.; Demiraj 1999 175 ss.
^ a b c d e f Kamusella 2009, p. 241. "Prior to the emergence of
the modern self-ethnonym Shqiptarë in the mid-16th century (for the
first time it was recorded in 1555 by the
Catholic Gheg, Gjon Buzuku,
in his missal), North
Albanians (Ghegs) referred to themselves as
Arbën, and South
Albanians (Tosks) Arbër. Hence, the self-ethnonym
Arbëreshë of the present-day Italo-
Albanians (numbering about
100,000) in southern
Italy and Sicily, whose ancestors, in the wake of
the Ottoman wars, emigrated from their homeland in the 14th century.
These self-ethnonyms perhaps influenced the
Byzantine Greek Arvanites
for ‘Albanians,’ which was followed by similar ones in Bulgarian
and Serbian (Arbanasi), Ottoman (Arnaut), Romanian (Arbănas), and
Aromanian (Arbineş). It is clear that scholars and Albanians
themselves agree that they do not agree on any single etymology of the
ethnonym ‘Albanian.’ A similar predicament is faced by the
self-ethnonym Shqiptarë. The most popular scholarly explanation is
that it was formed by analogy to ‘Slavs’ (*Slovene), believed to
be derived from slovo (‘word’), and by extension, from *sluti
(‘to speak clearly.’) The last explanation semantically contrasts
with Slavic Niemiec (‘mute,’‘stammering,’‘babbling’), and
Greek ‘barbarian’ (from barbaros ‘those who stammer, babble’).
Hence, Shqiptarë could be derived from Albanian shqipoi (from Latin
excipere) for ‘to speak clearly, to understand.’ The Albanian
public favors the belief that their self-ethnonym stems from shqipe
(‘eagle’) found on the Albanian national flag."
^ Murati 1991, p. 71. "emri etnik a nacional e shqiptarëve,
përkundër trajtës së drejtë sllave Albanci, tash del të
shqiptohet si Šiptari e Šipci me një konotacion përbuzës negativ,
ashtu siç është përdorur në krye të herës te serbët edhe në
kohën e Jugosllavisë së Vjetër bashkë dhe me formën Šiftari e
Arnauti me po të njëtat konotacione pejorative. [ethnic name or the
national one of Albanians, despite the right Slavic term Albanci, now
appears to be pronounced as Šiptari of Šipci with a connotation that
is contemptuously negative, as it is used in the very beginning of the
Serbs era at the time of the old
Yugoslavia together and the form
Šiftari and Arnauti which have the same pejorative connotations.]"
^ Koukoudis 2003, p. 34. "The Vlachs call the Albanian-speaking
Orthodox Christians Arbinéši, and it was under this name that the
ancestors of the modern
Albanians first appeared in the Middle Ages."
^ a b c Madgearu & Gordon 2008, p. 25. "It is still disputed
by scholars that those
Albanoi from 1042 were
Normans from Sicily,
[Southern Italy], or if they are in fact the
Albanoi [a large clan of
that belongs to the many clans of Albanians] found in Albanian lands
during this time frame."
^ Pritsak 1991, pp. 52–53.
^ a b Madgearu & Gordon 2008, p. 25. "It was supposed that
Albanoi from 1042 were
Normans from Sicily, called by an archaic
Albanoi were an independent tribe from Southern Italy). The
following instance is indisputable. It comes from the same Attaliates,
who wrote that the
Albanians (Arbanitai) were involved in the 1078;
^ Mazaris 1975, pp. 76–79.
^ N. Gregoras (ed. Bonn) V, 6; XI, 6.
^ Finlay 1851, p. 37.
^ "Robert Elsie, ''The earliest reference to the existence of the
Albanian Language''". Scribd.com. 2007-05-28. Archived from the
original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ Vasiliev 1958, p. 613.
^ Jelavich 1983, p. 25.
^ Demiraj 1998, p. 481.
^ a b Mëniku & Campos 2012, p. 2. "Albanian is an
Indo-European language, but like modern Greek and Armenian, it does
not have any other closely related living language. Within the
Indo-European family, it forms a group of its own. In Albanian, the
language is called shqip.
Albania is called Shqipëri, and the
Albanians call themselves shqiptarë. Until the fifteenth century the
language was known as Arbërisht or Arbnisht, which is still the name
used for the language in
Italy and Greece. The
Greeks refer to all the
varieties of Albanian spoken in
Greece as Arvanitika. In the second
century AD, Ptolemy, the Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer and
geographer, used the name
Albanoi to refer to an Illyrian tribe that
used to live in what is now central Albania. During the Middle Ages
the population of that area was referred to as Arbanori or Albanon. It
is clear that the words Arbëresh, Arvanitika, and even Albanian and
Albania are all related to the older name of the language."
^ Malcolm 1998, p. 29. "Linguists believe that the ‘Alb-’
element comes from the Indo-European word for a type of mountainous
terrain, from which the word ‘Alps’ is also derived."
Enciklopedija Jugoslavije 2nd ed. Supplement. Zagreb:
JLZ. 1984. p. 1.
^ Civil resistance in
Kosovo By Howard Clark, pg. 12
^ "LE MIGRAZIONI DEGLI ARBERESHE". www.arbitalia.it. Retrieved
^ Shkodra, arbëreshët dhe lidhjet italo-shqiptare (in Albanian).
Universiteti i Shkodrës "Luigj Gurakuqi". 2013-01-01.
^ Anscombe 2006b, pp. 767–774, 785–788. "While the ethnic
roots of some settlements can be determined from the Ottoman records,
Serbian and Albanian historians have at times read too much into them
in their running dispute over the ethnic history of early Ottoman
Kosovo. Their attempts to use early Ottoman provincial surveys (tahrir
defterleri) to gauge the ethnic make—up of the population in the
fifteenth century have proved little. Leaving aside questions arising
from the dialects and pronunciation of the census scribes,
interpreters, and even priests who baptized those recorded, no natural
law binds ethnicity to name. Imitation, in which the customs, tastes,
and even names of those in the public eye are copied by the less
exalted, is a time—tested tradition and one followed in the Ottoman
Christian sipahis in early Ottoman
Albania took such
Turkic names as Timurtaş, for example, in a kind of cultural
conformity completed later by conversion to Islam. Such cultural
mimicry makes onomastics an inappropriate tool for anyone wishing to
use Ottoman records to prove claims so modern as to have been
irrelevant to the pre—modern state. The seventeenth—century
Ottoman notable arid author Evliya Çelebi, who wrote a massive
account of his travels around the empire and abroad, included in it
details of local society that normally would not appear in official
correspondence; for this reason his account of a visit to several
Kosovo in 1660 is extremely valuable. Evliya confirms that
western and at least parts of central
Kosovo were ‘Arnavud’. He
notes that the town of Vučitrn had few speakers of ‘Boşnakca’;
its inhabitants spoke Albanian or Turkish. He terms the highlands
Tetovo (in Macedonia), Peć, and Prizren the ‘mountains of
Arnavudluk’. Elsewhere, he states that ‘the mountains of Peć’
lay in Arnavudluk, from which issued one of the rivers converging at
Mitrovica, just north-west of which he sites Kosovo's border with
Bosna. This river, the Ibar, flows from a source in the mountains of
Montenegro north—north—west of Peć, in the region of Rozaje to
which the Këlmendi would later be moved. He names the other river
running by Mitrovica as the Kılab and says that it, too, had its
source in Aravudluk; by this he apparently meant the Lab, which today
is the name of the river descending from mountains north—east of
Mitrovica to join the Sitnica north of Priština. As Evliya travelled
south, he appears to have named the entire stretch of river he was
following the Kılab, not noting the change of name when he took the
right fork at the confluence of the Lab and Sitnica. Thus, Evliya
states that the tomb of Murad I, killed in the battle of
stood beside the Kılab, although it stands near the Sitnica outside
Priština. Despite the confusion of names, Evliya included in
Arnavudluk not only the western fringe of Kosovo, but also the central
mountains from which the Sitnica (‘Kılab’) and its first
tributaries descend. Given that a large Albanian population lived in
Kosovo, especially in the west and centre, both before and after the
Habsburg invasion of 1689–90, it remains possible, in theory, that
at that time in the Ottoman Empire, one people emigrated en masse and
another immigrated to take its place.
^ Jagodić 1998. para. 1–71.
^ Uka 2004d, p. 52. "Pra, këtu në vazhdim, pas dëbimit të
tyre me 1877–1878 do të shënohen vetëm disa patronime (mbiemra)
të shqiptarëve të Toplicës dhe viseve tjera shqiptare të
Sanxhakut të Nishit. Kjo do të thotë se, shqiptaret e dëbuar pas
shpërnguljes, marrin atributin muhaxhirë (refugjatë), në vend që
për mbiemër familjar të marrin emrin e gjyshit, fisit, ose ndonjë
tjetër, ato për mbiemër familjar marrin emrin e fshatit të
Sanxhakut të Nishit, nga janë dëbuar. [So here next, after their
expulsion 1877–1878 will be noted with only some patronymic
(surnames) of the
Albanians of Toplica and other Albanian areas of
Sanjak of Nis. This means that the
Albanians expelled after moving,
attained the appellation muhaxhirë (refugees), which instead for the
family surname to take the name of his grandfather, clan, or any
other, they for their family surname take the name of the village of
the Sanjak of Nis from where they were expelled from.]" ; pp.
^ Jagodić, Miloš (1998-12-01). "The Emigration of Muslims from the
New Serbian Regions 1877/1878". Balkanologie. 2 (2).
^ "1913 Leo Freundlich: Albania's Golgotha: Indictment of the
Exterminators of the Albanian People". www.albanianhistory.net.
Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January
2014. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
^ Vathi, Zana. Migrating and Settling in a Mobile World: Albanian
Migrants and Their Children in
Europe Springer, 2015
ISBN 978-3319130248 p. 22
^ Milliyet, Türkiyedeki Kürtlerin Sayısı. 2008-06-06.
^ a b c "
Turkey celebrate their cultural heritage
Archived 31 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.". Today's Zaman. 21
August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
^ Tabak, Hüsrev (03 March 2013). "Albanian awakening: The worm has
turned! Archived 17 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.". Today's Zaman.
Retrieved 17 July 2015.
^ Elsie 2010, pp. 125–126. "With the advent of Gamal Abdel
Nasser and the Arab nationalization of Egypt, not only the royal
family but also the entire Albanian community- some 4,000 families-
were forced to leave the country, thus bringing the chapter of
Albanians on the Nile to a swift close".
^ a b Elsie 2003, p. 3.
^ Bonnefoy 1993, p. 253.
^ Eliade & Adams 1987, p. 179.
^ Norris 1993, p. 35.
^ Nicol 1986, p. 160. "The geographical location of the
mysterious 'Arbanon' has at last no doubt been settled by the
researches of Alain Ducellier. In the 11th century at least it was the
name given to the mountainous area to the west of Lake Ohrid and the
upper valley of the river Shkumbin..."
^ Ducellier 1995, p. 780.
^ Ducellier 1995, pp. 780–781. "the
Albanians dominated the
central regions of what is now the Albanian republic, in the areas
which are drained by the Devollit river"
^ Ducellier 1995, pp. 780–781.
^ Prifti, Skënder (2002). Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër
vëllime (in Albanian). Botimet Toena. p. 207.
^ Lala, Eleva (2008). Lala, Etleva (2008), Regnum Albaniae, the Papal
Curia, and the Western Visions of a Borderline Nobility (PDF), Central
European University, Department of Medieval Studies (PDF). Budapest,
Hungary: Central European University, Department of Medieval Studies.
^ Lala, Etleva (2008). Regnum Albaiae, the Papal Curia and the Western
Visions of a Borderline Nobility (PDF). Budapes, Hungary: Central
European Department for Medieval Studies. p. 146.
^ Licursi, Emiddio Pietro (2011). Empire of Nations: The Consolidation
of Albanian and Turkish National Identities in theLate Ottoman Empire,
1878–1913. New York: Columbia University. p. 19.
^ a b "Albania :: The decline of Byzantium – Encyclopædia
Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
^ Barletius, Marinus. De obsidione Scodrensi. Venice: Bernardino de
Italy Online – Ethnic
Italy – The History of
Italy". initaly.com. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
^ Downing 1992, p. 66.
^ Anscombe 2006, pp. 88. "This Albanian participation in
brigandage is easier to track than for many other social groups in
Ottoman lands, because Albanian (Arnavud) was one of the relatively
few ethnic markers regularly added to the usual religious
(Muslim-Zimmi) tags used to identify people in state records. These
records show that the magnitude of banditry involving
through the 1770s and 1780s to reach crisis proportions in the 1790s
and 1800s."; p.107. "In light of the recent violent troubles in Kosovo
and Macedonia and the strong emotions tied to them, readers are urged
most emphatically not to draw either of two unwarranted conclusions
from this article: that
Albanians are somehow inherently inclined to
banditry, or that the extent of Ottoman "Albania" or Arnavudluk (which
included parts of present-day northern Greece, western Macedonia,
southern Montenegro, Kosovo, and southern Serbia) gives any historical
"justification" for the creation of a "Greater Albania" today."
^ Anscombe 2006b, p. 772. "In this case, however, Ottoman records
contain useful information about the ethnicities of the leading actors
in the story. In comparison with ‘Serbs’, who were not a
meaningful category to the Ottoman state, its records refer to
‘Albanians’ more frequently than to many other cultural or
linguistic groups. The term ‘Arnavud’ was used to denote persons
who spoke one of the dialects of Albanian, came from mountainous
country in the western
Balkans (referred to as ‘Arnavudluk’, and
including not only the area now forming the state of
Albania but also
neighbouring parts of Greece, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro),
organized society on the strength of blood ties (family, clan, tribe),
engaged predominantly in a mix of settled agriculture and livestock
herding, and were notable fighters — a group, in short, difficult to
control. Other peoples, such as Georgians, Ahkhaz, Circassians,
Tatars, Kurds, and Bedouin
Arabs who were frequently identified by
their ethnicity, shared similar cultural traits."
^ Kolovos 2007, p. 41. "Anscombe (ibid., 107 n. 3) notes that
Ottoman "Albania" or Arnavudluk... included parts of present-day
northern Greece, western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, Kosovo, and
southern Serbia"; see also El2. s.v. "Arnawutluk. 6. History" (H.
İnalcık) and Arsh, He Alvania. 31.33, 39–40. For the Byzantine
period. see Psimouli, Souli. 28."
^ Norris 1993, p. 196.
^ Raymond Zickel; Walter R. Iwaskiw, eds. (1994). "National Awakening
and the Birth of Albania". Retrieved 9 April 2008. [dead link]
^ Karl Kaser, Frank Kressing.
Albania – A country in transition
Aspects of changing identities in a south-east European country
Archived 13 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Baden-Baden:
Nomos-Verlag Extracts, 2002, p. 15
^ a b c d Tara Ashley O' Brien. Manufacturing Homogeneity in the
Modern Albanian Nation-Building Project. University of Budapest, 2008,
^ "Linguistic diversity among foreign citizens in Italy". Statistics
of Italy. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Hock & Joseph 1996, p. 54.
^ The Tribes of Albania,: History, Society and Culture (Robert Elsie
ed.). I.B.Tauris. 2015. p. 2. ISBN 9780857739322.
^ Robert Elsie. "Geographical location". albanianlanguage. The
Albanian language is divided into two basic dialect groups: Gheg in
the north of the country and
Tosk in the south. The
Shkumbin River in
central Albania, flowing past
Elbasan into the Adriatic, forms the
approximate boundary between the two dialect regions.
^ Comnena, Anna. The Alexiad,
^ Stavrianos 2000, p. 498. "Religious differences also existed
before the coming of the Turks. Originally, all
Albanians had belonged
to the Eastern Orthodox Church... Then the
Ghegs in the North adopted
in order to better resist the pressure of Orthodox Serbs."
^ Hugh Chisholm (1910). Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of
arts, sciences, literature and general information. Encyclopædia
Britannica. p. 485. Retrieved 18 July 2013. The Roman Catholic
Ghegs appear to liave abandoned the Eastern for the Western Church in
the middle of the 13th century
^ Ramet 1989, p. 381. "Prior to the Turkish conquest, the ghegs
(the chief tribal group in northern Albania) had found in Roman
Catholicism a means of resisting the Slavs, and though Albanian
Orthodoxy remained important among the tosks (the chief tribal group
in southern Albania), ..."
^ 2011 Albanian Census Archived 26 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "The World Factbook: Albania". Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved 21 June 2013.
^ "Gallup Global Reports". Gallup.com. Archived from the original on
14 October 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
^ "Official Declaration: The results of the 2011 Census regarding the
Orthodox Christians in
Albania are totally incorrect and
unacceptable". orthodoxalbania.org. Archived from the original on 14
July 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
^ "Final census findings lead to concerns over accuracy". Tirana
Times. 19 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October
^ Kisha Ortodokse: S’njohim censusin – Top Channel
^ AK- Nishanit: Hiqi ‘Urdhrin e Skënderbeut’ Janullatosit, dekoro
themeluesit e Kishës Autoqefale Shqiptare (LETRA) Gazeta Tema
^ Prifti: Në Shqipëri ka një axhendë anti-ortodokse Gazeta Tema
^ INTERVISTA/ Vangjel Dule: Autorët e censusit, manipulatorë të
realitetit. Rezoluta çame? historia nuk ribëhet Gazeta Tema
^ Censusi, shumë prej pyetjeve plotësoheshin nga vetë anketuesit
^ "Censusi permbys fete, 70 per qind refuzojne ose nuk e deklarojne
^ "Albania: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". State.gov.
14 September 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
^ Sarner 1997.
^ "Appartenenza e pratica religiosa tra i cittadini stranieri".
www.istat.it (in Italian). 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
^ Elsie 2005, p. 4.
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^ Elsie 2005, pp. 9–14.
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