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Adityawarman
ADITYAWARMAN was a king of Malayapura , a state in central Sumatra
Sumatra
. He was the cousin of Jayanegara
Jayanegara
, king of Majapahit
Majapahit
in 1309–1328, and the grandson of Tribhuwanaraja , king of Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
. Adityawarman
Adityawarman
was awarded the Senior Minister of Majapahit (wreddamantri) and used this authority to launch Majapahit
Majapahit
military expansion plans and conquered east coast region in Sumatra. Adityawarman
Adityawarman
then founded the royal dynasty of Minangkabau in Pagarruyung and presided over the central Sumatra
Sumatra
region to take control of the gold trade between 1347 and 1375
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Kertanegara
KERTANEGARA OF SINGASARI (full name SRI MAHARAJADIRAJA SRI KERTANEGARA WIKRAMA DHARMATUNGGADEWA), KRITANAGARA, or SIVABUDDHA, (died 1292), was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java
Java
, reigning from 1268 to 1292. Under his rule Javanese trade and power developed considerably, reaching the far corners of the Indonesian archipelago . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Conquests * 3 Conflict with the Mongols * 4 Rebellion of Jayakatwang * 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Bibliography * 8 External links BACKGROUNDKertanegara was the fifth ruler of Singasari and was the son of the previous king, Wisnuwardhana (r. 1248–1268). He effectively held power from 1254 and officially succeeded his father when the latter died in 1268
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Matrilineal
MATRILINEALITY is the tracing of descent through the female line. It may also correlate with a societal system in which each person is identified with their MATRILINE – their mother's lineage – and which can involve the inheritance of property and/or titles. A matriline is a line of descent from a female ancestor to a descendant (of either sex ) in which the individuals in all intervening generations are mothers – in other words, a "mother line". In a MATRILINEAL descent system , an individual is considered to belong to the same descent group as her or his mother. This matrilineal descent pattern is in contrast to the more common pattern of patrilineal descent from which a family name is usually derived. The matriline of historical nobility was also called her or his ENATIC or UTERINE ancestry, corresponding to the patrilineal or "agnatic" ancestry
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Manjusri
MAñJUśRī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
. In Tibetan Buddhism , he is also a yidam . His name means "Gentle Glory" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta, literally "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less literally, "Prince Mañjuśrī". CONTENTS * 1 In Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 Iconography * 4 Mantras * 5 In Buddhist cultures * 5.1 In China * 5.2 In Tibet * 5.3 In Nepal
Nepal
* 5.4 In Japan * 5.5 In Indonesia * 6 Gallery * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links IN MAHāYāNA BUDDHISM Manjushri statue
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Bodhisattva
In Buddhism
Buddhism
, BODHISATTVA is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
, which is a spontaneous wish and a compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood
Buddhahood
for the benefit of all sentient beings . Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art . CONTENTS * 1 Origins and outlines * 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 In Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3.1 Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
ideal * 3.2 Ten grounds * 3.3 School doctrines * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINS AND OUTLINESIn early Indian Buddhism, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in his former life
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George Coedes
GEORGE CœDèS (French: ; 10 August 1886 – 2 October 1969) was a 20th-century French scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Decorations * 3 References * 4 Works * 5 Further reading * 6 See also BIOGRAPHYCœdès was born in Paris to a family of supposed Hungarian -Jewish emigres. In fact, the family was known as having settled in the region of Strasbourg (France) before 1740. His ancestors worked for the royal Treasury. His grandfather, Louis Eugène Cœdès was a painter, pupil of Léon Coignet . His father Hyppolite worked as a banker. Cœdès became director of the National Library of Thailand in 1918, and in 1929 became director of L\'École française d\'Extrême-Orient , where he remained until 1946. Thereafter he lived in Paris until he died in 1969. In 1935 he married Neang Yao
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Bhairava
Saiddhantika * Siddhantism Non - Saiddhantika * Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* Vama * Dakshina
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesian ) Flag National emblem MOTTO:
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Sumatera
SUMATRA (Indonesian : Sumatera) is a large island in western Indonesia that is part of the Sunda Islands . It is the largest island that is entirely in Indonesia (after Borneo and New Guinea , are shared between Indonesia and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands). Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue , Nias and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula , which is an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor ; short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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George Coedès
GEORGE CœDèS (French: ; 10 August 1886 – 2 October 1969) was a 20th-century French scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Decorations * 3 References * 4 Works * 5 Further reading * 6 See also BIOGRAPHYCœdès was born in Paris
Paris
to a family of supposed Hungarian -Jewish emigres. In fact, the family was known as having settled in the region of Strasbourg (France) before 1740. His ancestors worked for the royal Treasury. His grandfather, Louis Eugène Cœdès was a painter, pupil of Léon Coignet . His father Hyppolite worked as a banker. Cœdès became director of the National Library of Thailand in 1918, and in 1929 became director of L\'École française d\'Extrême-Orient , where he remained until 1946. Thereafter he lived in Paris
Paris
until he died in 1969. In 1935 he married Neang Yao
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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