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Winemaking or vinification is the production of
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
, starting with the selection of the
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
, its
fermentation into alcohol
fermentation into alcohol
, and the bottling of the finished liquid. The
history of wine Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with evidence of ancient wine production in Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at ...
-making stretches over millennia. The science of wine and winemaking is known as
oenology Oenology (enology; ) is the science and study of wine and winemaking. It is distinct from viticulture, which is concerned with the cultivation and harvest of grapes A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous w ...
. A
winemaker A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid. ...

winemaker
may also be called a vintner. The growing of grapes is
viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin word for ''vine'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, rang ...

viticulture
and there are many varieties of grapes. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production (without carbonation) and
sparkling wine production upChampagne bottles in racks in underground cellars Sparkling wine production is the method of winemaking used to produce sparkling wine. The oldest known production of sparkling wine took place in 1531 with the ''ancestral method''. Pressure ...
(with carbonation – natural or injected).
Red wine Red wine is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing h ...

Red wine
,
white wine White wine is a wine that is Fermentation in winemaking, fermented without skin contact. The wine color, colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold (color), gold. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured Juic ...

white wine
, and
rosé A rosé (from French, ''rosé'' ) is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. Th ...
are the other main categories. Although most wine is made from
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s, it may also be made from other plants. (See
fruit wine Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an ...
.) Other similar light alcoholic drinks (as opposed to
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continual ...

beer
or
spirits Spirit may refer to: *Spirit (animating force) In folk belief, spirit is the vitalism , vital principle or animating force within all life , living things. As recently as 1628 and 1633 respectively, both William Harvey and René Descartes st ...

spirits
) include
mead Mead () is an alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (fl ...

mead
, made by fermenting honey and water, and
kumis ''Kumis'' (also spelled ''kumiss'' or ''koumiss'' or ''kumys'', see other transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, ba ...

kumis
, made of fermented mare's milk.


Process

There are five basic stages to the wine making process which begins with harvesting or picking. After the harvest, the grapes are taken into a winery and prepared for primary
ferment Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making.
Red wine Red wine is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing h ...

Red wine
is made from the
must Image:Mosto.jpg, 300px, Grapes being pressed to create must Must (from the Latin ''vinum mustum'', "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit. The solid portion of the ...

must
(pulp) of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color.
White wine White wine is a wine that is Fermentation in winemaking, fermented without skin contact. The wine color, colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold (color), gold. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured Juic ...

White wine
is made by
fermenting Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...

fermenting
juice Juice is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external ...

juice
which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed and play no further role. Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes; this is done by extracting their juice with minimal contact with the grapes' skins.
Rosé A rosé (from French, ''rosé'' ) is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. Th ...
wines are either made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color (maceration or saignée), or (less commonly) by blending red wine with white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the
tannins Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Pol ...
contained in the skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur naturally as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, the
yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ...

yeast
converts most of the
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
s in the grape juice into
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
(alcohol) and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine. The press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemaker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining
sugars Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Compound sugars, also called disaccharides o ...
are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion. This is a bacterial process which converts "crisp, green apple"
malic acid Malic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules a ...
to "soft, creamy"
lactic acid Lactic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, conta ...

lactic acid
softening the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of weeks or months; this practice imparts oak aromas and some tannin to the wine. The wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for
Beaujolais nouveau Beaujolais nouveau ( , ) is a red wine made from Gamay grapes produced in the Beaujolais region of France. It is the most popular ''vin de primeur'', Fermentation (wine), fermented for just a few weeks before being released for sale on the thi ...
wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid,
tannin Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of , ic s that bind to and s and various other organic compounds including s and s. The term ''tannin'' (from ''tanner'', from ''tannāre'', from ''tannum'', ) refers to the use of oak and other bark ...
or sugar. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production; quality is dictated by the attributes of the starting material and not necessarily the steps taken during vinification. Variations on the above procedure exist. With
sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hun ...
s such as
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...
and Methodé Champenoise (sparkling wine that is fermented in the style of champagne but is not from the Champagne region of France) an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles. Additionally, bottles then spend 6 months on a riddling rack before being disgorged to remove any sediment that has accrued. Other sparkling wines, such as prosecco, are fermented using force-carbonation- a faster process that involves using machinery to manually add CO2 and create bubbles. Sweet wines or off-dry wines are made by arresting fermentation before all sugar has been converted into ethanol and allowing some
residual sugar upA half bottle of Sauternes from Château d'Yquem, which produces one of the world's most famous and expensive sweet wines The subjective sweetness of a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, ferm ...
to remain. This can be done by chilling the wine and adding sulphur and other allowable additives to inhibit yeast activity or sterile filtering the wine to remove all yeast and bacteria. In the case of sweet wines, initial sugar concentrations are increased by harvesting late (
late harvest wine Late may refer to: * LATE, an acronym which could stand for: ** Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE) is a term that describes a prevalent condition with impaired memory a ...
), freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar (
ice wine Ice wine (or icewine; german: Eiswein) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine. The sugars and other dissolved solids do not freeze, but the water does, allowing for a more concentrated grap ...
), allowing or encouraging ''Botrytis cinerea'' fungus to dehydrate the grapes or allowing the grapes to raisin either on the vine or on racks or straw mats. Often in these high sugar wines, the fermentation stops naturally as the high concentration of sugar and rising concentration of ethanol retard the yeast activity. Similarly in fortified wines, such as
port wine Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto Porto or Oporto () is the List of cities in Portugal, second-largest city in Portugal, the capital of the Porto District, and one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas. Porto city proper, whic ...

port wine
, high
proof Proof may refer to: * Proof (truth), argument or sufficient evidence for the truth of a proposition * Alcohol proof, a measure of an alcoholic drink's strength Formal sciences * Formal proof, a construct in proof theory * Mathematical proof, a co ...
neutral grape spirit (
brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process co ...

brandy
) is added to arrest the ferment and adjust the alcohol content when the desired sugar level has been reached. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done, a technique known in Germany as
süssreserve upA half bottle of Sauternes from Château d'Yquem, which produces one of the world's most famous and expensive sweet wines The subjective sweetness of a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast ...
. The process produces
wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
,
pomace Pomace ( ), or marc (; from French ''marc'' ), is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing (wine), pressing for juice or oil. It contains the skins, pulp, seeds, and stems of the fruit. Grape pomace has traditionally b ...
, and lees that require collection, treatment, and disposal or beneficial use. Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines, are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and then adds acids, amino acids, sugars, and organic compounds.


The grapes

The quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Grape quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, and pruning method. The combination of these effects is often referred to as the grape's ''
terroir , and influence of the nearby Moselle (river), Mosel river distinguish the ''terroir'' of this German wine region. (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including ...

terroir
''. Given the sensitivity of grapes to weather patterns, winemaking is affected by climate change. Grapes are usually harvested from the
vineyard A vineyard ( , also ) is a plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sug ...

vineyard
from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, and mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere. In some cool areas in the southern hemisphere, for example Tasmania, harvesting extends into May. The most common species of wine grape is
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek ...

Vitis vinifera
, which includes nearly all varieties of European origin.


Harvesting and destemming

Harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of a ...

Harvest
is the picking of the grapes and in many ways the first step in wine production. Grapes are either harvested mechanically or by hand. The decision to harvest grapes is typically made by the winemaker and informed by the level of sugar (called °Brix),
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
(TA or
Titratable AcidityIn chemistry, Titratable acid generally refers to any acid that can lose proton(s) in an acid–base reaction. The term is used slightly differently in other fields. For example, in renal physiology, Titratable acid is a term to describe acids such ...
as expressed by
tartaric acid Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt (chemistry), salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, dev ...

tartaric acid
equivalents) and
pH
pH
of the grapes. Other considerations include phenological ripeness, berry flavor, tannin development (seed color and taste). Overall disposition of the grapevine and weather forecasts are taken into account. Mechanical harvesters are large tractors that straddle grapevine trellises and, using firm plastic or rubber rods, strike the fruiting zone of the grapevine to dislodge the grapes from the
rachis feather In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological me ...

rachis
. Mechanical harvesters have the advantage of being able to cover a large area of vineyard land in a relatively short period of time, and with a minimum investment of manpower per harvested ton. A disadvantage of mechanical harvesting is the indiscriminate inclusion of foreign non-grape material in the product, especially leaf stems and leaves, but also, depending on the trellis system and grapevine canopy management, may include moldy grapes, canes, metal debris, rocks and even small animals and bird nests. Some winemakers remove leaves and loose debris from the grapevine before mechanical harvesting to avoid such material being included in the harvested fruit. In the United States mechanical harvesting is seldom used for premium winemaking because of the indiscriminate picking and increased
oxidation Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

oxidation
of the grape juice. In other countries (such as Australia and New Zealand), mechanical harvesting of premium winegrapes is more common because of general labor shortages. Manual harvesting is the hand-picking of grape clusters from the
grapevines ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(bi ...

grapevines
. In the United States, some grapes are picked into one- or two-ton bins for transport back to the winery. Manual harvesting has the advantage of using knowledgeable labor to not only pick the ripe clusters but also to leave behind the clusters that are not ripe or contain bunch rot or other defects. This can be an effective first line of defense to prevent inferior quality fruit from contaminating a lot or tank of wine. Destemming is the process of separating stems from the grapes. Depending on the winemaking procedure, this process may be undertaken before crushing with the purpose of lowering the development of
tannins Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Pol ...
and vegetal flavors in the resulting wine. Single berry harvesting, as is done with some German
TrockenbeerenausleseImage:Botrytisgrape.JPG, 125px, Botrytised grape cluster ''Trockenbeerenauslese'' (literal meaning: "dried berries selection") is a German language wine term for a medium to full body dessert wine. ''Trockenbeerenauslese'' is the highest in sugar co ...
, avoids this step altogether with the grapes being individually selected.


Crushing and primary (alcoholic) fermentation

Crushing is the process when gently squeezing the berries and breaking the skins to start to liberate the contents of the berries. Destemming is the process of removing the grapes from the rachis (the stem which holds the grapes). In traditional and smaller-scale wine making, the harvested grapes are sometimes crushed by trampling them barefoot or by the use of inexpensive small scale crushers. These can also destem at the same time. However, in larger wineries, a mechanical crusher/destemmer is used. The decision about destemming is different for red and white wine making. Generally when making white wine the fruit is only crushed, the stems are then placed in the press with the berries. The presence of stems in the mix facilitates pressing by allowing juice to flow past flattened skins. These accumulate at the edge of the press. For red winemaking, stems of the grapes are usually removed before fermentation since the stems have a relatively high tannin content; in addition to tannin they can also give the wine a vegetal aroma (due to extraction of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine which has an aroma reminiscent of green
bell pepper The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper, or capsicum ) is the fruit of plants in the Grossum cultivar group of the species ''Capsicum annuum''. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, ...

bell pepper
s). On occasion, the winemaker may decide to leave them in if the grapes themselves contain less tannin than desired. This is more acceptable if the stems have 'ripened' and started to turn brown. If increased skin extraction is desired, a winemaker might choose to crush the grapes after destemming. Removal of stems first means no stem tannin can be extracted. In these cases the grapes pass between two rollers which squeeze the grapes enough to separate the skin and pulp, but not so much as to cause excessive shearing or tearing of the skin tissues. In some cases, notably with "delicate" red varietals such as
Pinot noir Pinot noir () is a red wine grape variety of the species ''Vitis vinifera''. The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes. The name is derived from the French language, French words for ''pine'' and ''black.' ...
or
Syrah Syrah (), also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine. In 1999, Syrah was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France (wine), France, Dureza ...

Syrah
, all or part of the grapes might be left uncrushed (called "whole berry") to encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial
carbonic maceration Carbonic maceration is a winemaking technique, often associated with the French wine region of Beaujolais, in which whole grapes A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant gen ...
. Most red wines derive their color from grape skins (the exception being varieties or hybrids of non-vinifera vines which contain juice pigmented with the dark Malvidin 3,5-diglucoside
anthocyanin Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Ancient Greek, Greek: (''anthos'') "flower" and / ''kyaneos/kyanous'' "dark blue") are solubility, water-soluble vacuole, vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. F ...

anthocyanin
) and therefore contact between the juice and skins is essential for color extraction. Red wines are produced by destemming and crushing the grapes into a tank and leaving the skins in contact with the juice throughout the fermentation ( maceration). It is possible to produce white (colorless) wines from red grapes by the fastidious pressing of uncrushed fruit. This minimizes contact between grape juice and skins (as in the making of ''
Blanc de noirs Champagne (, ) is a French sparkling wine. The term ''Champagne'' can be used as a generic term for sparkling wine, but in the EU and some countries it is illegal to label any product ''Champagne'' unless it came from the Champagne wine region of ...
'' sparkling wine, which is derived from Pinot noir, a red vinifera grape). Most white wines are processed without destemming or crushing and are transferred from picking bins directly to the press. This is to avoid any extraction of tannin from either the skins or grapeseeds, as well as maintaining proper juice flow through a matrix of grape clusters rather than loose berries. In some circumstances winemakers choose to crush white grapes for a short period of skin contact, usually for three to 24 hours. This serves to extract flavor and tannin from the skins (the tannin being extracted to encourage protein precipitation without excessive
Bentonite Bentonite () is an absorbent swelling clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, ...

Bentonite
addition) as well as
potassium Potassium is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, b ...

potassium
ions, which participate in bitartrate precipitation (
cream of tartar Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4H5O6, is a byproduct of winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, ferme ...
). It also results in an increase in the pH of the juice which may be desirable for overly acidic grapes. This was a practice more common in the 1970s than today, though still practiced by some Sauvignon blanc and Chardonnay producers in California. In the case of rosé wines, the fruit is crushed and the dark skins are left in contact with the juice just long enough to extract the color that the winemaker desires. The must is then pressed, and fermentation continues as if the winemaker was making a white wine. Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. The primary, or alcoholic fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is often added to the must. One of the main problems with the use of wild ferments is the failure for the fermentation to go to completion, that is some sugar remains unfermented. This can make the wine sweet when a dry wine is desired. Frequently wild ferments lead to the production of unpleasant acetic acid (vinegar) production as a by product. During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation. For red wines, the temperature is typically 22 to 25 °C, and for white wines 15 to 18 °C. For every gram of sugar that is converted, about half a gram of alcohol is produced, so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration, the must should contain about 24% sugars. The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured density, the
must weight Must weight is a measure of the amount of sugar in grape juice (must) and, hence, indicates the amount of ethanol, alcohol that could be produced if it is all fermentation (wine), fermented to alcohol, rather than left as residual sugar.
, with the help of a specialized type of
hydrometer A hydrometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight orange ...

hydrometer
called a
saccharometer
saccharometer
. If the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage, sugar can be added (
chaptalization , chaptalization is often used to boost the alcohol level of Riesling grapes that have not fully ripened on the vine. Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol by volume, alcohol content ...
). In commercial winemaking, chaptalization is subject to local regulations. Alcohol of more than 12% can be achieved by using yeast that can withstand high alcohol. Some yeasts can produce 18% alcohol in the wine however extra sugar is added to produce a high alcohol content. During or after the alcoholic fermentation, a secondary, or
malolactic fermentation Malolactic conversion (also known as malolactic fermentation or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which Tart (flavor), tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid. Malolactic fermentation is ...

malolactic fermentation
can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria (lactobacter) convert
malic acid Malic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules a ...
into the milder
lactic acid Lactic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, conta ...

lactic acid
. This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria.


Pressing

Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes or pomace in order to separate juice or wine from grapes and grape skins. Pressing is not always a necessary act in winemaking; if grapes are crushed there is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated (called free-run juice) that can be used for vinification. Typically this free-run juice is of a higher quality than the press juice. Pressed juice is typically lesser in quality due to the release and increase of total phenolic compounds, as well as browning index and the C6-alcohol levels. These compounds are responsible for the herb-like taste perceived in wine with pressed grapes. However, most wineries do use presses in order to increase their production (gallons) per ton, as pressed juice can represent between 15%-30% of the total juice volume from the grape. Presses act by positioning the grape skins or whole grape clusters between a rigid surface and a movable surface and slowly decrease the volume between the two surfaces. Modern presses dictate the duration and pressure at each press cycle, usually ramping from 0
Bar Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the len ...
to 2.0 Bar. Sometimes winemakers choose pressures which separate the streams of pressed juice, called making "press cuts." As the pressure increases the amount of tannin extracted from the skins into the juice increases, often rendering the pressed juice excessively tannic or harsh. Because of the location of grape juice constituents in the berry (water and acid are found primarily in the
mesocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
or pulp, whereas tannins are found primarily in the
exocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is ...
, or
skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have differ ...

skin
, and
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s), pressed juice or wine tends to be lower in acidity with a higher pH than the free-run juice. Before the advent of modern winemaking, most presses were
basket presses
basket presses
made of wood and operated manually. Basket presses are composed of a cylinder of wooden slats on top of a fixed plate, with a moveable plate that can be forced downward (usually by a central ratcheting threaded screw). The press operator would load the grapes or pomace into the wooden cylinder, put the top plate in place and lower it until juice flowed from the wooden slats. As the juice flow decreased, the plate was ratcheted down again. This process continued until the press operator determined that the quality of the pressed juice or wine was below standard, or all liquids had been pressed. Since the early 1990s, modern mechanical basket presses have been revived through higher-end producers seeking to replicate the gentle pressing of the historical basket presses. Because basket presses have a relatively compact design, the press cake offers a relatively longer pathway for the juice to travel before leaving the press. It is believed by advocates of basket presses that this relatively long pathway through the grape or pomace cake serves as a filter to solids that would otherwise affect the quality of the press juice. With red wines, the must is pressed after primary fermentation, which separates the skins and other solid matter from the liquid. With white wine, the liquid is separated from the must before fermentation . With rose, the skins may be kept in contact for a shorter period to give color to the wine, in that case the must may be pressed as well. After a period in which the wine stands or ages, the wine is separated from the dead yeast and any solids that remained (called lees), and transferred to a new container where any additional fermentation may take place.


Pigeage

Pigeage is a
French
French
term for the management of acidity and secondary pressing of grapes in
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...
tanks. To make certain types of wine, grapes are put through a crusher and then poured into open fermentation tanks. Once fermentation begins, the grape skins are pushed to the surface by carbon dioxide gases released in the fermentation process. This layer of skins and other solids is known as the cap. As the skins are the source of the
tannins Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Pol ...
, the cap needs to be mixed through the liquid each day, or "punched," which traditionally is done by stomping through the vat.


Cold stabilization

''Cold stabilization'' is a process used in winemaking to reduce
tartrate A tartrate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as ...

tartrate
crystals (generally
potassium bitartrate Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula potassium, KCarbon, C4hydrogen, H5oxygen, O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking, it is known as cream of tartar. It is processed from the potassium acid salt o ...

potassium bitartrate
) in wine. These tartrate crystals look like grains of clear sand, and are also known as "wine crystals" or "wine diamonds". They are formed by the union of tartaric acid and potassium, and may appear to be edimentin the wine, though they are not. During the cold stabilizing process after fermentation, the temperature of the wine is dropped to close to freezing for 1–2 weeks. This will cause the crystals to separate from the wine and stick to the sides of the holding vessel. When the wine is drained from the vessels, the tartrates are left behind. They may also form in wine bottles that have been stored under very cold conditions.


Secondary (malolactic) fermentation and bulk aging

During the secondary fermentation and
aging process Ageing or aging (see American and British English spelling differences#Dropped "e", spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to humans, many other animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, peren ...
, which takes three to six months, the fermentation continues very slowly. The wine is kept under an
airlock An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In ...
to protect the wine from oxidation.
Protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

Protein
s from the grape are broken down and the remaining yeast cells and other fine particles from the grapes are allowed to settle.
Potassium bitartrate Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula potassium, KCarbon, C4hydrogen, H5oxygen, O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking, it is known as cream of tartar. It is processed from the potassium acid salt o ...

Potassium bitartrate
will also precipitate, a process which can be enhanced by
cold stabilization In winemaking, clarification and stabilization are the processes by which insoluble matter Suspension (chemistry), suspended in the wine is removed before bottling. This matter may include dead yeast (wine), yeast cells (lees (wine), lees), bacteriu ...
to prevent the appearance of (harmless) tartrate crystals after bottling. The result of these processes is that the originally cloudy wine becomes clear. The wine can be
racked Vox Media, Inc. is an American mass media company based in Washington, D.C., and New York City. The company was established in November 2011 by Jim Bankoff and Trei Brundrett to encompass ''SB Nation'' (a sports blog network founded in 2005 by T ...

racked
during this process to remove the lees. The secondary fermentation usually takes place in large
stainless steel Stainless steel is a group of ferrous alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistr ...
vessels with a volume of several cubic meters, oak barrels or glass demijohns (also referred to as carboys), depending on the goals of the winemakers. Unoaked wine is fermented in a barrel made of stainless steel or other material having no influence on the final taste of the wine. Depending on the desired taste, it could be fermented mainly in stainless steel to be briefly put in oak, or have the complete fermentation done in stainless steel. Oak could be added as chips used with a non-wooden barrel instead of a fully wooden barrel. This process is mainly used in cheaper wine. Amateur winemakers often use glass carboys in the production of their wine; these vessels (sometimes called ''demijohns'') have a capacity of . The kind of vessel used depends on the amount of wine that is being made, the grapes being used, and the intentions of the winemaker.


Malolactic fermentation

Malolactic fermentation Malolactic conversion (also known as malolactic fermentation or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which Tart (flavor), tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid. Malolactic fermentation is ...

Malolactic fermentation
occurs when
lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillales are an order of gram-positive, GC-content, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, Aerotolerant anaerobe, nonrespiring, either rod-shaped (bacillus (shape), bacilli) or spherical (cocci) bacteria that share common metab ...
metabolize
malic acid Malic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules a ...
and produce
lactic acid Lactic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, conta ...

lactic acid
and carbon dioxide. This is carried out either as an intentional procedure in which specially cultivated strains of such bacteria are introduced into the maturing wine, or it can happen by chance if uncultivated lactic acid bacteria are present. Malolactic fermentation can improve the taste of wine that has high levels of malic acid, because malic acid, in higher concentration, generally causes an unpleasant harsh and bitter taste sensation, whereas lactic acid is more gentle and less sour. Lactic acid is an acid found in dairy products. Malolactic fermentation usually results in a reduction in the amount of total acidity of the wine. This is because malic acid has two acid radicals (-COOH) while lactic acid has only one. However, the pH should be monitored and not allowed to rise above a pH of 3.55 for whites or a pH of 3.80 for reds. pH can be reduced roughly at a rate of 0.1 units per 1 gram/litre of tartaric acid addition. The use of lactic acid bacteria is the reason why some chardonnays can taste "buttery" due to the production of
diacetyl Diacetyl (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Science Cou ...
by the bacteria. Most red wines go through complete malolactic fermentation, both to lessen the acid of the wine and to remove the possibility that malolactic fermentation will occur in the bottle. White wines vary in the use of malolactic fermentation during their making. Lighter aromatic wines such as Riesling, generally do not go through malolactic fermentation. The fuller white wines, such as barrel-fermented chardonnay, are more commonly put through malolactic fermentation. Sometimes a partial fermentation, for example, somewhere less than 50% might be employed.


Laboratory tests

Whether the wine is aging in tanks or barrels, tests are run periodically in a
laboratory A laboratory (; ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testabl ...

laboratory
to check the status of the wine. Common tests include
Brix Degrees Brix (symbol °Bx) is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are jo ...
,
pH
pH
, titratable
acidity An acid is a molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In phys ...
,
residual sugar upA half bottle of Sauternes from Château d'Yquem, which produces one of the world's most famous and expensive sweet wines The subjective sweetness of a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, ferm ...
, free or available sulfur, total sulfur,
volatile acidityA wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethano ...
and percent alcohol. Additional tests include those for the crystallization of cream of tartar (
potassium hydrogen tartrate Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4H5 O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking it is known as cream of tartar. It is processed from the potassium acid salt of tartaric acid (a carboxylic acid ...
) and the precipitation of heat unstable protein; this last test is limited to white wines. These tests may be performed throughout the making of the wine as well as prior to bottling. In response to the results of these tests, a winemaker can decide on appropriate remedial action, for example the addition of more sulfur dioxide. Sensory tests will also be performed and again in response to these a winemaker may take remedial action such as the addition of a protein to soften the taste of the wine. Brix (°Bx) is one measure of the soluble solids in the grape juice and represents not only the sugars but also includes many other soluble substances such as salts, acids and tannins, sometimes called total dissolved solids (TDS). Because sugar is the dominant compound in grape juice, these units are effectively a measure of sugar level. The level of sugar in the grapes determines the final alcohol content of the wine as well as indirect index of grape maturity. °Bx is measured in grams per hundred grams of solution, so 20 °Bx means that 100 grams of juice contains 20gm of dissolved compounds. There are other common measures of sugar content of grapes, specific gravity, Oechsle scale, Oechsle (Germany) and Baumé scale, Baumé (France). °Bx is usually measured with a refractometer while the other methods use a hydrometer which measures specific gravity. Generally, hydrometers are a cheaper alternative. In the French Baumé (Be° or Bé° for short) one Be° corresponds approximately to one percent alcohol. One Be° is equal to 1.8 °Bx, that is 1.8 grams of sugar per one hundred grams. Therefore, to achieve one percent alcohol the winemaker adds sugar at a rate of 1.8 grams per 100 ml (18 grams per liter) – a practice known as
chaptalization , chaptalization is often used to boost the alcohol level of Riesling grapes that have not fully ripened on the vine. Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol by volume, alcohol content ...
, which is illegal in some countries and in California. Volatile acidity test verifies if there is any steam distillable acids in the wine. Mainly present is acetic acid (the dominant component of vinegar), but lactic acid, lactic, butyric acid, butyric, propionic acid, propionic, and formic acid can also be found. Usually the test checks for these acids in a cash still, but there are other methods available such as HPLC, gas chromatography and enzymatic methods. The amount of volatile acidity found in sound grapes is negligible, because it is a by-product of microbial metabolism. Because acetic acid bacteria require oxygen to grow, eliminating any air in wine containers as well as addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) will limit their growth. Rejecting moldy grapes also prevents possible problems associated with acetic acid bacteria. Use of sulfur dioxide and inoculation with a low-V.A. producing strain of ''Saccharomyces'' may deter acetic acid producing yeast. A relatively new method for removal of volatile acidity from a wine is reverse osmosis. Blending may also help – a wine with high V.A. can be filtered (to remove the microbe responsible) and blended with a low V.A. wine, so that the acetic acid level is below the sensory threshold. Sulphur dioxide can be readily measured with relatively simple laboratory equipment. There are several methods available; a typical test involves acidification of a sample with phosphoric acid, distillation of the liberated SO2, and capture by hydrogen peroxide solution. The SO2 and peroxide react to form sulphuric acid, which is then titrated with NaOH to an end point with an indicator, and the volume of NaOH required is used to calculate the SO2 level. This method has inaccuracies associated with red wine, inefficient condensers, and excessive aspiration rate, although the results are reproducible, having an accuracy with just a 2.5–5% error, which is sufficient to control the level of sulphur dioxide in wine.


Blending and fining

Different batches of wine can be mixed before bottling in order to achieve the desired taste. The winemaker can correct perceived inadequacies by mixing wines from different grapes and batches that were produced under different conditions. These adjustments can be as simple as adjusting acid or tannin levels, to as complex as blending different varieties or vintages to achieve a consistent taste. Fining agents are used during winemaking to remove tannins (wine), tannins, reduce astringency and remove microscopic particles that could cloud the wines. The winemakers decide on which fining agents are used and these may vary from product to product and even batch to batch (usually depending on the grapes of that particular year). Gelatin [gelatine] has been used in winemaking for centuries and is recognized as a traditional method for wine fining, or clarifying (wine), clarifying. It is also the most commonly used agent to reduce the tannin content. Generally no gelatin remains in the wine because it reacts with the wine components, as it clarifies, and forms a sediment which is removed by filtration prior to bottling. Besides gelatin, other fining agents for wine are often derived from animal products, such as micronized potassium caseinate (casein is milk protein), egg whites, egg albumin, bone char, bull's blood, isinglass (Sturgeon bladder), Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP (a synthetic compound), lysozyme, and Powdered milk, skim milk powder. Although not common, finely ground eggshell is also sometimes used. Some aromatized wines contain honey or egg-yolk extract. Non-Animal product, animal-based filtering agents are also often used, such as bentonite (a volcanic clay-based filter), diatomaceous earth, cellulose pads, paper filters and membrane filters (thin films of plastic polymer material having uniformly sized holes).


Preservatives

The most common preservative used in winemaking is sulfur dioxide (SO2), normally added in one of the following forms: liquid sulfur dioxide, sodium or potassium metabisulphite. Another useful preservative is potassium sorbate. Sulfur dioxide has two primary actions, firstly it is an anti microbial agent and secondly an anti oxidant. In the making of white wine it can be added prior to fermentation and immediately after alcoholic fermentation is complete. If added after alcoholic fermentation it will have the effect of preventing or stopping
malolactic fermentation Malolactic conversion (also known as malolactic fermentation or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which Tart (flavor), tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid. Malolactic fermentation is ...

malolactic fermentation
, bacterial spoilage and help protect against the damaging effects of oxygen. Additions of up to 100 mg per liter (of sulfur dioxide) can be added, but the available or free sulfur dioxide should be measured by the aspiration method and adjusted to 30 mg per liter. Available sulfur dioxide should be maintained at this level until bottling. For rose wines smaller additions should be made and the available level should be no more than 30 mg per liter. In the making of red wine, sulfur dioxide may be used at high levels (100 mg per liter) prior to ferment to assist in color stabilization. Otherwise, it is used at the end of malolactic ferment and performs the same functions as in white wine. However, small additions (say, ) should be used to avoid bleaching red pigments and the maintenance level should be about 20 mg/L. Furthermore, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) may be made to red wine after alcoholic ferment and before malolactic ferment to overcome minor oxidation and prevent the growth of acetic acid bacteria. Without the use of sulfur dioxide, wines can readily suffer bacterial spoilage no matter how hygienic the winemaking practice. Potassium sorbate is effective for the control of fungal growth, including
yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ...

yeast
, especially for sweet wines in bottle. However, one potential hazard is the metabolism of sorbate to geraniol which is a potent and unpleasant by-product. The production of geraniol occurs only if sorbic acid is present during malo-lactic fermentation. To avoid this, either the wine must be sterile bottled or contain enough sulfur dioxide to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Sterile bottling includes the use of filtration. Some winemakers practice natural wine making where no preservative is added. Once the wine is bottled and corked, the bottles are put into refrigeration with temperatures near .


Filtration

Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives, clarification and microbial stabilization. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage. The process of clarification is concerned with the removal of particles; those larger than for coarse polishing, particles larger than 1–4 micrometers for clarifying or polishing. Microbial stabilization requires a filtration of at least 0.65 micrometers for yeast retention and 0.45 µm for bacteria retention. However, filtration at this level may lighten a wine's color and body. Microbial stabilization does not imply Sterilization (microbiology), sterility, i.e. eliminating (removing) or killing (deactivating) of all forms of life and other biological agents. It simply means that a significant amount of yeast and bacteria has been removed to a harmless level for the wine stability. Clarification of the wine can take place naturally by putting the wine into refrigeration at . The wine takes about a month to settle and it is clear. No chemicals are needed.


Bottling

A final dose of sodium metabisulfite, sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the bottle. The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork (material), cork, although alternative wine closures such as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming increasingly popular. The final step is adding a capsule to the top of the bottle which is then heated for a tight seal.


Regulation

In the European Union, each member state is required by Article 146 of European Union Regulation, Regulation 1308/2013 - Establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) No 922/72, (EEC) No 234/79, (EC) No 1037/2001 and (EC) No 1234/2007 - to appoint one or more "competent national authorities" responsible for ensuring compliance with EU rules in the wine sector.
list
of these authorities is maintained by the EU.


Winemakers

Traditionally known as a ''vintner'', a
winemaker A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid. ...

winemaker
is a person engaged in making wine. They are generally employed by winery, wineries or :Wine companies, wine companies, although there are many independent winemakers who make wine at home for their own pleasure or small commercial operation. Additionally, winemaking is still carried in traditional ways by families producing wine for their own consumption. List of top 15 wine producing countries by volume. (Volume in thousands of hectoliters)


See also

* Winery * Acids in wine * Glossary of wine terms * Governo * History of wine * Homebrewing * List of wine-producing countries * Sugars in wine


References


"juice for fair skin"
Fruit Juices For Skin Whitening And Lightening


Further reading

* Thomas Pinney. ''The Makers of American Wine: A Record of Two Hundred Years.'' Berkeley. University of California Press, 2012. *James Simpson. ''Creating Wine: The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840-1914''. Princeton University Press, 2012.


External links

* * * {{Authority control Winemaking, Fermentation in food processing