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Wine is an
alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, o ...
typically made from
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
s.
Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom (biology), kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and at least 1,500 species are currently recognized. They are esti ...
consumes the
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carbohydrate () ...

sugar
in the
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
s and converts it to
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), o ...

ethanol
and
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules consist of a carbon atom covalent bond, covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in At ...

carbon dioxide
, releasing
heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than Work (thermodynamics), thermodynamic work or Mass transfer, transfer of matter. The various mechanisms of energy transfer that define he ...

heat
in the process. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are major factors in different styles of wine. These differences result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The mo ...

fermentation
, the grape's growing environment (
terroir , and influence of the nearby Moselle (river), Mosel river distinguish the ''terroir'' of this German wine region. (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including ...

terroir
), and the wine production process. Many countries enact legal
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well. Restrictions other than geographical boundaries, such as what ...
s intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes involve fermentation of other crops including
rice wine Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an impor ...
and other
fruit wine Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an ...
s such as
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax blo ...

plum
,
cherry A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus ''Prunus'', and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). Commercial cherries are obtained from cultivars of several species, such as the sweet ''Prunus avium'' and the sour ''Prunus cerasus''. The ...
,
pomegranate The pomegranate (''Punica granatum'') is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...

pomegranate
,
currant
currant
and
elderberry ''Sambucus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
. Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine is from ancient
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
( BC),
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...

Georgia
(6000 BC),Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
made 'world's oldest wine'">
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle Ea ...
(5000 BC), and
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
(4000 BC). New World wine has some connection to alcoholic beverages made by the
indigenous peoples of the Americas The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who no ...
, but is mainly connected to later Spanish traditions in
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
. Later, as Old World wine further developed viticulture techniques,
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
would encompass three of the largest wine-producing regions. Today, the five countries with the largest wine-producing regions are in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
,
the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...
, and
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
. Wine has long played an important role in religion.
Red wine Red wine is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing h ...

Red wine
was associated with
blood Blood is a body fluid Body fluids, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear s ...
by the
ancient Egyptians Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word t ...
and was used by both the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
cult of Dionysus The Cult of Dionysus was strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and Silenus, sileni, and its characteristic symbols were the Bull (mythology), bull, the Serpent (symbolism), serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine. The Dionysia and Le ...
and the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
in their
Bacchanalia The Bacchanalia (or Bacchanal / Carnival) were Roman festivals of Bacchus based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia. They seem to have been popular and well-organised throughout the central and southern Italian peninsula. They w ...
;
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
also incorporates it in the
Kiddush Kiddush (; he, קידוש ), literally, "sanctification", is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat Shabbat ( or ; he, שַׁבָּת , "rest" or "cessation"), Shabbos (, Ashkenazi Hebrew and yi, שבת), or t ...
, and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
in the
Eucharist The Eucharist (; also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper among other names) is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites o ...

Eucharist
.
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
, and
Israeli Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, '), is a ...
wine cultures are still connected to these ancient roots. Similarly the largest wine regions in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
, and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
have heritages in connection to
sacramental wine Sacramental wine, Communion wine, or altar wine is wine obtained from grapes and intended for use in celebration of the Eucharist (also referred to as the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion, among other names). It is usually consumed after sacrame ...
, likewise, viticulture traditions in the
Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
started within New Spain as
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
friars and monks first produced wines in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuque ...
and
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...
.


History

The earliest known traces of wine are from
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
( BC),Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
made 'world's oldest wine'" />
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
(
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle Ea ...
) ( BC), and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographic ...

Sicily
( BC). Wine reached the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...
,
Thrace File:Thraciae-veteris-typvs.jpg, Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and hi ...
and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
. Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. The earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was relatively later, likely having taken place in the
Southern Caucasus Transcaucasia, also known as the South Caucasus, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise ...
(which encompasses
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...
, Georgia and
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...
), or the
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
n region between Eastern Turkey, and northern
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
. The earliest evidence of a grape and rice mixed based fermented drink was found in ancient
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
( BC),
Prehistoric China – The Wonders That Were Jiahu The World’s Earliest Fermented Beverage. Professor Patrick McGovern the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
earliest evidence of wine in
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
from 6000 BC,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
from 5000 BC, and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographic ...

Sicily
from 4000 BC. The earliest known wineries from 4100 BC is the
Areni-1 winery The Areni-1 winery is a 6100-year-old winery that was discovered in 2007 in the Areni-1 cave complex in the village of Areni in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia by a team of Armenian and Irish archaeologists. The excavations were carried ou ...
in
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...
.
A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bot ...

rice
to produce mixed fermented drinks in ancient China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of
Jiahu Jiahu () was the site of a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 ...

Jiahu
,
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisio ...

Henan
, contained traces of
tartaric acid Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt (chemistry), salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, deve ...

tartaric acid
and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as , cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of
rice wine Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an impor ...
, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Fa ...

Vitis vinifera
'', which was introduced 6000 years later. The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the
Phoenicians Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...

Phoenicians
who spread outward from a base of
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'' ...
s along the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...

Mediterranean
coast centered around modern day
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to Lebanon–Syria border, the north and east and Israel to Blue Line ...

Lebanon
(as well as including small parts of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
/
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
and coastal
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in ...

Syria
). The wines of
Byblos Byblos ( ar, جبيل ''Jubayl'', locally ''Jbeil''; gr, Βύβλος; phn, 𐤂𐤁𐤋 (GBL) , (probably ''Gubal'') is a city in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon Lebanon (), officially known as the Lebanese Republic,''Republic ...
were exported to Egypt during the
Old Kingdom In ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization ...
and then throughout the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...

Mediterranean
. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by
Robert Ballard Robert Duane Ballard (born June 30, 1942) is a retired American Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island who is most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shi ...
, whose cargo of wine was still intact. As the first great traders in wine (''cherem''), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to
retsina Retsina ( el, Ρετσίνα) is a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
. Although the Nuragic culture in Sardinia already had a custom of consuming wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians. The earliest remains of
Apadana Palace Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iran ...

Apadana Palace
in
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa, کوه‌های زاگرس; ku, چ ...

Persepolis
dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of ...

Achaemenid Empire
subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them
Armenians Armenians ( hy, հայեր, '' hayer'' ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes An ...
bringing their famous
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different v ...

wine
. Literary references to wine are abundant in
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The ''Iliad'' is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year s ...

Homer
(8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions),
Alkman Alcman (; grc-gre, Ἀλκμάν ''Alkmán''; fl.  7th century BC) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC ...
(7th century BC), and others. In
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric ...
, six of 36 wine
amphora An amphora (; grc, ἀμφορεύς, ''amphoreús''; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storage ...
s were found in the tomb of King
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, wikt:twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn), Egyptological pronunciation Tutankhamen () ( 1342c. 1325 BC), commonly referred to as King Tut, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who was the last of his royal family t ...

Tutankhamun
bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief
vintner A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. They are generally employed by winery, wineries or :Wine companies, wine companies, where their work includes: *Cooperating with viticulture, viticulturists *Monitoring the maturity of grapes ...
. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism Atenism, the Aten religion, the Amarna religion, or the "Amarna heresy" was a religion and the religious changes associated with the ancient Egyptian Eigh ...

Aten
. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC. The first known mention of
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
-based wines in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
is from the late 4th-century BC writings of
Chanakya Chanakya (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is bas ...
, the chief minister of Emperor
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory ...
. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as ''madhu''.J. Robinson (ed) ''The Oxford Companion to Wine'' Third Edition, pp. 355–356 Oxford University Press 2006 The
ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic c ...
planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production. The Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In
medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
, the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide . As the world's old ...

Roman Catholic Church
supported wine because the clergy required it for the
Mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a measure (mathematics), measure of the body's ''inertia'', the resistance to acceleration (change of velocity) when a net force is applied. An object's mass ...
.
Monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Monk
s in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
made wine for years, aging it in caves. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted '' bastardo'' wine. Later, the descendants of the sacramental wine were refined for a more palatable taste. This gave rise to modern
viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin word for ''vine'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, rang ...

viticulture
in
French wine File:Chateau Pichon-Longueville Baron 01.jpg, Château Pichon Longueville Baron in Pauillac corresponds well to the traditional image of a prestigious French château, but in reality, French wineries come in all sizes and shapes. French wine is ...
,
Italian wine Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the List of wine-producing countries, world's largest producer of wine, with an area of under vineyard cultivation, and con ...
,
Spanish wine Spanish wine () includes red, white, and sparkling wines produced throughout the country. Located on the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibériq ...
, and these wine grape traditions were brought into New World wine. For example, Mission grapes were brought by Franciscan monks to
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuque ...

New Mexico
in 1628 beginning the
New Mexico wine New Mexico has a long history of wine production, within American wine, especially along the Rio Grande, from its capital Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque with its Albuquerque metropolitan area, surr ...
heritage, these grapes were also brought to
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...
which started the
California wine California wine supplies a vast majority of the American wine production. Along with New Mexico wine, these American wine regions are longtime examples of viticulture within New World wine. Almost three quarters the size of France, the productio ...
industry. Thanks to Spanish wine culture, these two regions eventually evolved into the oldest and largest producers, respectively, of
wine of the United States Wine has been produced in the United States since the 1500s, with the first widespread production beginning in New Mexico wine, New Mexico in 1628. Today, wine production is undertaken in all fifty states, with California wine, California producing ...
. Viking sagas earlier mentioned a fantastic land filled with wild grapes and high-quality wine called precisely
Vinland Vinland, Vineland or Winland ( non, Vínland) was an area of coastal North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the no ...
. Prior to the Spanish establishing their American wine grape traditions in California and New Mexico, both France and Britain had unsuccessfully attempted to establish grapevines in
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Georg ...
and
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States, between the East Coast of the United St ...
respectively.T. Stevenson, ''The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia'' Fourth Edition, p. 568, Dorling Kindersly, 2005


Etymology

The English word "wine" comes from the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
''*winam'', an early borrowing from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
''vinum'',
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
''ღვინო'', "wine" or "(grape)
vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...

vine
", itself derived from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( s ...
stem *''win-o-'' (cf. hy, գինի, '' gini''; Ancient Greek: ''oinos''; Aeolic Greek: ''woinos''; Hittite language, Hittite: ''wiyana''; Lycian language, Lycian: ''oino''). The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek ''me-tu-wo ne-wo'' (*), meaning "in (the month)" or "(festival) of the new wine", and ''wo-no-wa-ti-si'', meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine, i.e. . The ultimate Indo-European origin of the word is the subject of some continued debate. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Indo-European languages (e.g. Armenian '' gini'', Latin ''vinum'', Ancient Greek οἶνος, Russian language, Russian вино ), Kartvelian languages, Kartvelian (e.g.
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
wikt:ღვინო, ღვინო ), and Semitic languages, Semitic (''*wayn''; Hebrew יין ), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families. The Georgian word goes back to Proto-Kartvelian *''ɣwino''-, which is either a borrowing from Proto-Indo-EuropeanThe Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics
p. 505+
Arbeitman, Yoël (2000), ''The Asia Minor Connexion: Studies on the Pre-Greek Languages in Memory of Charles Carter'', Peeters Publishers.Siewierska, Anna (1998), ''Constituent Order in the Languages of Europe'', Berlin: Walter de Gruyter or the lexeme was specifically borrowed from Proto-Armenian *''ɣʷeinyo''-, whence Armenian ''gini''. An alternate hypothesis by Fähnrich supposes *''ɣwino''-, a native Kartvelian word derived from the verbal root *''ɣun''- ('to bend'). See wikt:Appendix:Proto-Kartvelian/ɣwino-, *''ɣwino''- for more. All these theories place the origin of the word in the same geographical location, South Caucasus, that has been established based on archeological and biomolecular studies as the origin of viticulture.


Styles

Wine is made in many ways from different fruits, with grapes being the most common.


From grapes

The type of grape used and the amount of Maceration (wine), skin contact while the juice is being extracted determines the color and general style of the wine. The color has no relation to a wine's Sweetness of wine, sweetness—all may be made sweet or dry.


Red

Red wine gains its color and flavor (notably, Tannins (wine), tannins) from the grape skin, by allowing the grapes to Maceration (wine), soak in the extracted juice. Red wine is made from dark-colored grape varieties, red grape varieties. The actual Wine color, color of the wine can range from violet, typical of young wines, through red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice from most red grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyanins present in the skin of the grape. A notable exception is the family of rare ''teinturier'' varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice.


White

To make white wine, grapes are pressed quickly with the juice immediately drained away from the grape skins. The grapes used are typically Grape varieties, white grape varieties, though red grapes may be used if the winemaker is careful not to let the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. For example, pinot noir (a red grape) is commonly used in champagne. Sweetness of wine, Dry (low sugar) white wine is the most common, derived from the complete fermentation of the juice, however sweet white wines such as Moscato d'Asti are also made.


Rosé

A rosé wine gains wine color, color from red grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the Maceration (wine), skin contact method. The color can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and wine-making techniques. There are three primary ways to produce rosé wine: Skin contact (allowing dark grape skins to stain the wort), saignée (removing juice from the must early in fermentation and continuing fermentation of the juice separately), and Blending (alcohol production), blending of a red and white wine (uncommon and discouraged in most wine growing regions). Rosé wines have a wide range of sweetness (wine), sweetness levels from dryness (taste), dry Provençal (wine), Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes all over the world.J. Robinson (ed) ''"The Oxford Companion to Wine"'' Third Edition pg 593 Oxford University Press 2006 O. Clarke ''Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Wine'' pgs 15, 225, 320, 360 Time Warner Books, London 2003


Orange

Sometimes called amber wines, these are wines made with white grapes but with the skins allowed to Maceration (wine), soak during pressing, similar to red and rosé wine production. They are notably Tannic (wine), tannic, and usually made dry.


Sparkling

These are Effervescence, effervescent wines, made in any of the above styles (ie, orange, red, rosé, white). They must undergo Secondary fermentation (wine), secondary fermentation to create
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules consist of a carbon atom covalent bond, covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in At ...

carbon dioxide
, which creates the bubbles. Two common methods of accomplishing this are the traditional method, used for Cava (Spanish wine), Cava, Champagne, and more expensive sparkling wines, and the Charmat method, used for Prosecco, Asti wine, Asti, and less expensive wines. A hybrid ''transfer method'' is also used, yielding intermediate results, and simple addition of carbon dioxide is used in the cheapest of wines. The bottles used for sparkling wine must be thick to withstand the pressure of the gas behind the Cork (plug), cork, which can be up to .


Dessert

This refers to sweet wines that have a high level of Sweetness of wine, sugar remaining after
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The mo ...

fermentation
. There are various ways of increasing the amount of sugar in a wine, yielding products with different strengths and names. Ice wine, Icewine, Port wine, Port, Sauternes (wine), Sauternes, Tokaji, Tokaji Aszú, Trockenbeerenauslese, and Vin Santo are some examples.


From other fruits and foods


Fruit

Fruit wine, Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced, and combined with the word "wine" (for example, Apfelwein, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called
fruit wine Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an ...
or country wine (similar to French language, French term ''vin de pays''). Other than the grape variety (botany), varieties traditionally used for wine-making, most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, proper amount of acidity, yeast amounts needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three materials. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wines have generally been confined to the regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons.


Honey

Mead, also called honey wine, is created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. As long as the primary substance fermented is honey, the drink is considered mead. Mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia, and was known in Europe before grape wine.


Starch

Other drinks called "wine", such as barley wine and
rice wine Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by Ethanol fermentation, fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an impor ...
(e.g. sake, huangjiu and Cheongju (beverage), cheongju), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Some UK supermarkets have been criticized for selling "wine based" drinks, which only contain 75% wine, but which are still marketed as wine. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine requires that a "wine-based drink" must contain a minimum of 75% wine, but producers do not have to divulge the nature of the remaining 25%.


Grape varieties

Wine is usually made from one or more Variety (biology), varieties of the European species ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Fa ...

Vitis vinifera
'', such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not necessarily inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of wine-making. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from Hybrid (grapes), hybrids, created by the genetic crossing (vine), genetic crossing of two species. ''Vitis labrusca, V. labrusca'' (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), ''Vitis aestivalis, V. aestivalis'', ''Vitis rupestris, V. rupestris'', ''Vitis rotundifolia, V. rotundifolia'' and ''Vitis riparia, V. riparia'' are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine. Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European ''Vitis vinifera'' vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina and the Canary Islands — the only places not yet exposed to the insect. In the context of wine production, ''
terroir , and influence of the nearby Moselle (river), Mosel river distinguish the ''terroir'' of this German wine region. (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including ...

terroir
'' is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma (wine), aroma and taste influences of their unique ''terroir''. However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones. About 700 grapes go into one bottle of wine, approximately 2.6 pounds.


Classification

Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux wine, Bordeaux, Rioja (wine), Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot noir and Merlot). Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include Napa Valley AVA, Napa Valley, Santa Clara Valley, Sonoma Valley AVA, Sonoma Valley, Anderson Valley, and Mendocino County in California; Willamette Valley (wine), Willamette Valley and Rogue Valley AVA, Rogue Valley in Oregon (wine), Oregon; Columbia Valley (wine), Columbia Valley in Washington (wine), Washington; Barossa Valley (wine), Barossa Valley in South Australia (wine), South Australia; Hunter Valley (wine), Hunter Valley in New South Wales (wine), New South Wales; Luján de Cuyo in Argentina (wine), Argentina; Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Bay Region, Hawke's Bay and Marlborough Region, Marlborough in New Zealand (wine), New Zealand; Central Valley in Chile (wine), Chile; and in Canadian wine, Canada, the Okanagan Valley (wine), Okanagan Valley of British Columbia wine, British Columbia, and the Niagara Peninsula and Essex County, Ontario, Essex County regions of Ontario wine, Ontario are the three largest producers. Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.


European classifications

France has various
appellation An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well. Restrictions other than geographical boundaries, such as what ...
systems based on the concept of ''terroir'', with classifications ranging from ''Vin de Table'' ("table wine") at the bottom, through ''Vin de Pays'' and ''Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure'' (AOVDQS), up to ''Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée'' (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine. Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification systems. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality.


Beyond Europe

New World wines—those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by ''terroir'' or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality. According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic drink that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them. There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, inverted sugar syrup, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions. Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0.2 percent weight by volume calculated as potassium sulphate. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of
tartaric acid Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt (chemistry), salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, deve ...

tartaric acid
in the finished wine shall not be less than 0.15 percent weight by volume. Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or 350 parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide. Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice. Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 percent alcohol by volume. Prior to final filtration may be treated with a strongly acid cation exchange resin in the sodium ion form, or a weakly basic anion exchange resin in the hydroxyl ion form.


Vintages

In the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA; e.g., Sonoma Valley), 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year.Title 27 of the United States Code, Code of Federal Regulations]
§ 4.27
If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Some vintage wines (e.g. Brunello di Montalcino, Brunello), are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine-makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study suggests that for the average wine drinker, the vintage year may not be as significant for perceived quality as had been thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.


Tasting

Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanter, Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all. When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules (e.g. esters and terpenes) that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself. Horizontal tasting, Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards. "Banana" flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as "medicinal" or "Band-Aid" (4-Ethylphenol, 4-ethylphenol), "spicy" or "smoky" (4-ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Some varieties can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon AOC, Chinon and Beaujolais. The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines. White wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" (). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served ''chambré'' ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining room—often around —but rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot noir should be brought to the table for serving at and will reach its full bouquet at . Cabernet Sauvignon, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at and allowed to warm on the table to for best aroma.


Collecting

Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of United States dollar, dollars per bottle, though the broader term "fine wine" covers those typically retailing in excess of US$30–50. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise. Particular selections such as "Verticals", which span multiple vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, may be highly valued. The most notable was a Château d'Yquem#Since 1968, Château d'Yquem 135-year vertical containing every vintage from 1860 to 2003 sold for $1.5 million. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux wine, Bordeaux and Burgundy wine, Burgundy; cult wines from
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
and elsewhere; and Port wine, vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: # A proven track record of holding well over time # A drinking-window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long # A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines # Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector. Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.


Production

* May include official, semi-official or estimated data. Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel north.


Exporting countries

* May include official, semi-official or estimated data. ] The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in 2007.


Consumption

Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization. The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older. About 40% of individuals above the legal drinking age consider themselves "wine drinkers", which is higher than all other alcoholic beverages combined (34%) and those who do not drink at all (26%).


Culinary uses

Wine is a popular and important drink that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner. At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food–wine pairings. Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses (at a wine and cheese party). Wines are also used as a theme for organizing various events such as festivals around the world; the city of Kuopio in North Savonia, Finland is known for its annual Kuopio Wine Festivals (''Kuopion viinijuhlat''). Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a drink, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stock (food), stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich Basic taste#Savouriness, savory or sweet dishes. Wine sauce is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient. Natural wines may exhibit a broad range of alcohol content, from below 9% to above 16% Alcohol by volume, ABV, with most wines being in the 12.5–14.5% range. Fortified wines (usually with brandy) may contain 20% alcohol or more.


Religious significance


Ancient religions

The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common. Libations often included wine, and the Dionysian Mysteries, religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.


Judaism

Wine is an integral part of halakha, Jewish laws and traditions. The ''
Kiddush Kiddush (; he, קידוש ), literally, "sanctification", is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat Shabbat ( or ; he, שַׁבָּת , "rest" or "cessation"), Shabbos (, Ashkenazi Hebrew and yi, שבת), or t ...
'' is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle (Judaism), Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the Christian beliefs of the blood libel. "It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the blood libel—accusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzot—became the false pretext for numerous pogroms. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are Halacha, halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them."


Christianity

In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, wine is used in a sacred rite called the
Eucharist The Eucharist (; also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper among other names) is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites o ...

Eucharist
, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among Christian denomination, denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) pasteurization, pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodism, Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree. There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary drink, with Catholics and some mainline Protestants allowing wine drinking in moderation, and some conservative Protestant groups opposing consumption of alcohol altogether. The earliest viticulture tradition in the Southwestern United States starts with
sacramental wine Sacramental wine, Communion wine, or altar wine is wine obtained from grapes and intended for use in celebration of the Eucharist (also referred to as the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion, among other names). It is usually consumed after sacrame ...
, beginning in the 1600s, with Christian friars and monks producing
New Mexico wine New Mexico has a long history of wine production, within American wine, especially along the Rio Grande, from its capital Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque with its Albuquerque metropolitan area, surr ...
.


Islam

Alcoholic drinks, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Sharia, Islamic law. In many Muslim countries, possession or consumption of alcoholic drinks carry legal penalties.
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
had previously had Viticulture in Iran, a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Iranian Revolution, Islamic Revolution in 1979. In Greater Persia, ''Persian wine, mey'' (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects – one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey (the other being Sunni Islam) – use wine in their religious services. Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the date is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi ''madhab'', for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden.


Health effects


Short-term

Wine contains ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating chemical in beer and distilled spirits. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of wine depend on the amount of it consumed, the span of time over which consumption takes place, the amount of alcohol in the wine, and the amount of food eaten, among other factors. Drinking enough to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03%-0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood, increased self-confidence and sociability, decreased anxiety, Alcohol flush reaction, flushing of the face, and impairment of judgment and fine motor coordination. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. A BAC from 0.18% to 0.30% causes profound confusion, impaired speech (e.g. slurred speech), staggering, dizziness and vomiting. A BAC from 0.25% to 0.40% causes stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, vomiting, and death may occur due to respiratory depression and pulmonary aspiration, inhalation of vomit during unconsciousness. A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes coma, life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. The operation of vehicles or machinery while drunk increases the risk of accident, and many countries have laws against drinking and driving. Wines can trigger positive emotions in a short period of time, such as feelings of relaxation and comfort. The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too.


Long-term

The main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine. A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption. A systematic analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study found that consumption of ethanol Alcohol and cancer, increases the risk of cancer and increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and that the level of ethanol consumption that minimizes disease is zero consumption. Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink daily in women and two drinks daily in men) is associated with a ''decreased'' risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death. Drinking more than this amount actually increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Some of these studies lumped former ethanol drinkers and life-long abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, hiding the health benefits of life-long abstention from ethanol. Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents. About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year. Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of ethanol, alcohol that results in problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States. No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism. The American Heart Association "cautions people NOT to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation." Population studies exhibit a J curve, J-curve correlation between wine consumption and rates of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated rate, while people who drink small amount (up to 20 g of alcohol per day, approximately of 12.7% ABV wine) have a lower rate than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes, although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols in wine, polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease. Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk . Grape skins naturally produce resveratrol in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during Fermentation (wine), fermentation. White wine generally contains lower levels of the chemical as it has minimal contact with grape skins during this process.


Forgery and manipulation

Incidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. "Wine scandals" that have received media attention include: * The 1985 diethylene glycol wine scandal, in which diethylene glycol was used as a sweetener in some Austrian wines. * Wine fraud#Hazardous materials, In 1986, methanol (a toxic type of alcohol) was used to alter certain wines manufactured in Italy. * In 2008, some Italian wines were found to include sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. * In 2010, some Chinese red wines were found to be adulterated, and as a consequence China's Hebei province has shut down nearly 30 wineries. * In 2018, million bottles of french wine was falsely sold as high quality Côtes-du-Rhône wine


Packaging

Most wines are sold in wine bottle, glass bottles and sealed with cork (material), corks (50% of which come from Portugal). An increasing number of wine producers have been using Alternative wine closure, alternative closures such as Screw cap (wine), screwcaps and synthetic plastic "corks". Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint, they have been blamed for such problems as excessive redox, reduction. Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called "box wines", or "cask wine". Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box, or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents. Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation. In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days. Cans are one of the fastest-growing forms of alternative wine packaging on the market. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal the benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly. However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act violations. A ''New York Times'' editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not. Some people are drawn to canned wine due to its portability and recyclable packaging. Some wine is sold in stainless steel kegs and is referred to as wine on tap.


Storage

Wine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is , others . Wine refrigerators offer a smaller alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, 16-bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the proper temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low (usually under 50%), below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation. While some types of alcohol are sometimes stored in the freezer, such as vodka, it is not possible to safely freeze wine in the bottle, as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes and the bottle will usually crack. Certain shapes of bottle may allow the cork to be pushed out by the ice, but if the bottle is frozen on its side, the wine in the narrower neck will invariably freeze first, preventing this.


Professions

There are a large number of occupations and professions that are part of the wine industry, ranging from the individuals who grow the grapes, prepare the wine, bottle it, sell it, assess it, market it and finally make recommendations to clients and serve the wine.


See also

* Outline of wine * Glossary of wine terms


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * *
online review
*


External links


''The Guardian'' & ''Observer'' Guide to Wine
{{Use dmy dates, date=May 2016 Wine, Alcoholic drinks Ceremonial food and drink Cooking Fermented drinks Grape