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A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "
portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automob ...
") is a blend of wordsGarner's Modern American Usage
, p. 644.
in which parts of multiple words are combined into a new word, as in ''smog'', coined by blending ''smoke'' and ''fog'', or ''motel'', from ''motor'' and ''hotel''. In
linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...

linguistics
, a portmanteau is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word on this definition alw ...
s. A portmanteau word is similar to a '' contraction'', but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as ''do'' and ''not'' to make ''don't'', whereas a portmanteau is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a single concept. A portmanteau also differs from a
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, ''starfish'' is a compound, not a portmanteau, of ''star'' and ''fish'', as it includes both words in full. If it were called a ''stish'' or a ''starsh'', it would be a portmanteau.


Origin

The word ''portmanteau'' was introduced in this sense by
Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' and its sequel ''Through the Looking-Glass''. ...

Lewis Carroll
in the book ''
Through the Looking-Glass ''Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There'' (also known as ''Alice Through the Looking-Glass'' or simply ''Through the Looking-Glass'') is a novel published on 27 December 1871 (though indicated as 1872) by Lewis Carroll Charle ...

Through the Looking-Glass
'' (1871), where
Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty is a character in an English nursery rhyme A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Moth ...

Humpty Dumpty
explains to Alice the coinage of unusual words used in "
Jabberwocky "Jabberwocky" is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll about the killing of a creature named "the Jabberwock". It was included in his 1871 novel '' Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There'', the sequel to ''Alice's Adventures i ...

Jabberwocky
".Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) ''An Introduction to Language'', Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. . ''Slithy'' means "slimy and lithe" and ''mimsy'' means "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: In his introduction to his 1876 poem ''
The Hunting of the Snark ''The Hunting of the Snark (An Agony in 8 Fits)'' is a poem written by English writer Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of childr ...
'', Carroll again uses ''portmanteau'' when discussing lexical selection: In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a
suitcase A suitcase is a form of luggage. It is often a somewhat flat, rectangular-shaped bag with rounded square corners. Vinyl, leather or cloth suitcases may have a metal frame. Hardshell suitcases open on hinges like a door. History Aluminum e ...
that opened into two equal sections. According to the
OED Online The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historical ...
, a portmanteau is a "case or bag for carrying clothing and other belongings when travelling; (originally) one of a form suitable for carrying on horseback; (now esp.) one in the form of a stiff leather case hinged at the back to open into two equal parts". According to
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language'' (''AHD'') is an American English, American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. I ...
(AHD), the etymology of the word is the French , from , "to carry", and , "cloak" (from Old French , from Latin ). According to the
OED Online The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historical ...
, the etymology of the word is the "officer who carries the mantle of a person in a high position (1507 in Middle French), case or bag for carrying clothing (1547), clothes rack (1640)". In modern French, a is a
clothes valet Clothes valet, also called men's valet, valet stand and ''suit stand'', is an item of furniture on which clothes, particularly men's suits, may be hung. Typical features of valets include trouser hangers, jacket hangers, shoe bars, and a tray or ...
, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is ''frankenword'', an
autological word An autological word (also called homological word) is a word that expresses a property that it also possesses (e.g., "word" is a word, "noun" is a noun, "English" is English, " pentasyllabic" has five syllables). The opposite is a heterological w ...
exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "
Frankenstein ''Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' is an 1818 novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biograph ...

Frankenstein
" and "word".


Examples in English

Many
neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
s are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon. In ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat) A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protec ...
'' in 1896, the word
brunch Brunch is a combination of breakfast and lunch, and regularly has some form of alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) ...
(breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word". In 1964, the newly independent African republic of
Tanganyika Tanganyika may refer to: * Tanganyika (territory) Tanganyika was a territory located on the continent of Africa, and administered by the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1961. The UK initially administered the territory as an occupying power with ...
and
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or internal territory of a ...

Zanzibar
chose the portmanteau word
Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes regi ...

Tanzania
as its name. Similarly
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as contin ...

Eurasia
is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia. Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and
Mexicali Mexicali (; ) is the capital city of the Mexican state The United Mexican States ( es, Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 32 Federal Entities: 31 states and Mexico City, an autonomous entity. According to the Con ...

Mexicali
are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for r ...
. A scientific example is a ''
liger The liger is a hybrid offspring of a male lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of b ...

liger
,'' which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a ''
tigon A tigon () or tiglon () is the hybrid offspring of a male tiger The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest extant taxon, living Felidae, cat species and a member of the genus ''Panthera''. It is most recognisable for its dark vertic ...

tigon
'' is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger). Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells Software, computer software, consumer electroni ...

Microsoft
, a portmanteau of ''
microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations k ...
'' and ''software''; the cheese '''' combines a similar rind to ''
Camembert Camembert (, also , , ) is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century at Camembert, Orne, Camembert, Normandy, in northwest France. Production The first camembert was made from raw milk ...

Camembert
'' with the same mould used to make ''
Gorgonzola Gorgonzola (; ) is a veined blue cheese, originally from Italy, made from unskimmed cow's milk. It can be buttery or firm, crumbly and quite salty, with a "bite" from its blue veining. History Historically, gorgonzola has been produced for ce ...

Gorgonzola
''; passenger rail company '' Amtrak'', a portmanteau of ''
America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

America
'' and ''
track Track or Tracks may refer to: Routes or imprints * Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity * Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks across * Desire path, a line worn by people taking the shortes ...
''; ''
Velcro Velcro is a privately held company, founded by Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral in the 1950s, that is known for being the original manufacturer of hook-and-loop fasteners. History left, Velcro, invented by de Mestral Swiss elect ...

Velcro
'', a portmanteau of the French (velvet) and (hook); ''
Verizon Verizon Communications Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an ent ...
'', a portmanteau of (Latin for truth) and ''horizon''; and
ComEd Commonwealth Edison, commonly known by syllabic abbreviation as ComEd, is the largest electric utility in Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the Li ...
(a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of ''Commonwealth'' and ''''. ''Jeoportmanteau!'' is a recurring category on the American television
quiz show A game show is a type of radio, television or stage show where contestants regularly compete for a reward. The history of game shows dates back to the invention of television as a medium. On most game shows, contestants either have to answer que ...
''
Jeopardy! ''Jeopardy!'' is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants are presented with general knowledge clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in the form ...
'' The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words ''Jeopardy'' and ''portmanteau.'' Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together
proper nouns A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Exampl ...
with common nouns, such as "
gerrymandering Gerrymandering ( or ) is a practice intended to establish an unfair political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating the boundaries of electoral districts, which is most commonly used in first-past-the-post electoral sy ...

gerrymandering
", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor
Elbridge Gerry Elbridge Thomas Gerry (; July 17, 1744 ( OS July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American politician and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States A vice is a practice, behaviour, ...
for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy
salamander Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard Lizards are a widespread group of Squamata, squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic isl ...
in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and
playmander The Playmander was a gerrymandering system, a pro-rural electoral malapportionment in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of A ...

playmander
.
Oxbridge File:Emmanuel_College_Front_Court,_Cambridge,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg, Emmanuel College, Cambridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau of University of Oxford, Oxford and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the two oldest, wealthiest, and most famous universities ...
is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Ki ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger t ...

Cambridge
. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage, usually made of leather and opening into two equal parts. Some were large, upright, and hinged at the back and ...
". Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a ''
spork A spork is a hybrid form of cutlery taking the form of a spoon-like shallow scoop with two to four fork-like Tine (structural), tines. Spork-like utensils, such as the terrapin fork or ice cream fork, have been manufactured since the late 19th c ...

spork
'' is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a ''
skort A skort is a pair of shorts with an overlapping fabric panel made to resemble a skirt covering the front and back, or a skirt with a pair of integral shorts hidden underneath. History The term "skort" (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portm ...
'' is an item of clothing that is part
skirt A skirt is the lower part of a dress or a separate outer garment that covers a person from the waist downwards. At its simplest, a skirt can be a draped garment made out of a single piece of fabric (such as pareos). However, most skirts are ...

skirt
, part
shorts Shorts are a garment worn over the human pelvis, pelvic area, circling the waist and splitting to cover the upper part of the legs, sometimes extending down to the knees but not covering the entire length of the leg. They are called "shorts" be ...

shorts
. On the other hand, ''
turducken Turducken is a dish consisting of a deboned chicken stuffed into a deboned duck Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), family Anatidae which also includes swans and goose, geese. Ducks are divided am ...
'', a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' in 2010. Similarly, the word ''refudiate'' was first used by
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the List of Governors of Alaska, ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until Resignation o ...

Sarah Palin
when she misspoke, conflating the words ''refute'' and ''repudiate''. Though initially the word was a gaffe, it was recognized as the ''New Oxford American Dictionary''s "Word of the Year" in 2010. The business lexicon is replete with newly formed portmanteau words like "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial). Company and product names may also use portmanteau words: examples include ''Timex'' (a portmanteau of ''Time'' eferring_to_Time_magazine.html" ;"title="Time_magazine.html" ;"title="eferring to Time magazine">eferring to Time magazine">Time_magazine.html" ;"title="eferring to Time magazine">eferring to Time magazineand Kleenex), Renault's ''Renault Twingo, Twingo'' (a combination of ''twist'', ''swing'' and ''tango''), and Garmin (portmanteau of company founders' first names Gary Burrell and Min Kao).


Name-meshing

Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce
epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, o ...
s such as "Billary" (referring to former United States president
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton (; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He previously served as governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from ...

Bill Clinton
and his wife, former United States Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state implements ...

Hillary Clinton
). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist
Benjamin Zimmer Benjamin Zimmer (born 1971) is an American linguist, lexicographer Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation th ...
states. By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaus to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...giv people an essence of who they are within the same name." This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "
supercouple are credited with defining the term ''supercouple''. A supercouple or super couple (also known as a power couple) is a popular or wealthy pairing that intrigues and fascinates the public in an intense or obsessive fashion. The term originated in ...
s". An early known example,
Bennifer are credited with defining the term ''supercouple''. A supercouple or super couple (also known as a power couple) is a popular or wealthy pairing that intrigues and fascinates the public in an intense or obsessive fashion. The term originated in ...
, referred to film stars
Ben Affleck Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt (born August 15, 1972) is an American actor, film director, producer, screenwriter, and philanthropist. His accolades include two Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards ...
and
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn "J.Lo" Lopez (born July 24, 1969) is an American singer, actress, and dancer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on ''In Living Color ''In Living Color'' is an American sketch comedy Sketch comedy comprises ...

Jennifer Lopez
. Other examples include Brangelina (
Brad Pitt William Bradley Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an American actor and film producer. He is the recipient of List of awards and nominations received by Brad Pitt, numerous accolades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Film Award, an ...
and
Angelina Jolie Angelina Jolie (; née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname, the given name or to the entire name. Where births are required to be officially registered, the entire ...

Angelina Jolie
) and
TomKat Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer. He has received List of awards and nominations received by Tom Cruise, various accolades for his work, including three Golden Globe Awards and three nominations f ...
(
Tom Cruise Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer. He has received List of awards and nominations received by Tom Cruise, various accolades for his work, including three Golden Globe Awards and three nominations f ...
and
Katie Holmes Kate Noelle Holmes (born December 18, 1978) is an American actress and producer. She first achieved fame as Joey Potter on the television series ''Dawson's Creek'' (1998–2003). She made her feature film debut in Ang Lee's ''The Ice Storm (fi ...

Katie Holmes
). "
Desilu Productions Desilu Productions () was an American television production company founded and co-owned by husband and wife Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, studi ...
" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors
Desi Arnaz Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986), better known as Desi Arnaz, was a Cuban Americans, Cuban-American actor, musician, bandleader, comedian and film and television producer, revolutionary in the creation ...
and
Lucille Ball Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, studio executive, and producer. As one of Hollywood’s greatest icons, and arguably the most iconic female entertainer of all time, she was the ...
.
Miramax Miramax, LLC (also known as Miramax Films) is an American entertainment company known for producing and distributing films and television shows. Its headquarters are located in Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels") ...
is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers. On Wednesday, 28 June 2017, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 130 Pulit ...

The New York Times
''
crossword A crossword is a word puzzle that usually takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white- and black-shaded squares. The game's goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues, which lead ...
included the quip, "How I wish
Natalie Portman Natalie Portman (born Natalie Hershlag,https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3260477,00.html he, נטע-לי הרשלג; ) is an Israeli-born American actress, director and producer. Prolific in film since a teenager, she has starred in Bloc ...

Natalie Portman
dated
Jacques Cousteau Jacques-Yves Cousteau, (, also , ; 11 June 191025 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, Conservation movement, conservationist, filmmaker, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in wa ...
, so I could call them 'Portmanteau'". Holidays are another example, as in , a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of
Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, Canada, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Simil ...
and the first day of the
Jewish holiday Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or ''Yamim Tovim'' ( he, ימים טובים, , Good Days, Grammatical number, or singular , in Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated Hebrew language, Hebrew []), are holidays observed in Judai ...
of Hanukkah on Thursday, 28 November 2013. Chrismukkah is another pop-culture portmanteau neologism popularized by the TV drama ''The O.C.'', merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah. In the The Walt Disney Company, Disney film '' Big Hero 6'', the film is situated in a fictitious city called "San Fransokyo", which is a portmanteau of two real locations, San Francisco and Tokyo.


Other languages


Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , ''Literal translation, lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( ), is the s ...
abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with CD, or simply (''Disk''), Hebrew has the blend (''taklitor''), which consists of (''taklít'', Phonograph record) and (''or'', light). Modern Hebrew is full of portmanteau blends, such as the following: * (''arpíakh'', smog), from (''arafél'', fog) and (''píakh'', soot) * (''midrakhov'', pedestrian-only street), from (''midrakhá'', sidewalk) and (''rekhóv'', street) * (''makhazémer'', musical), from (''makhazé'',theatre play) and (''zémer'', singing erund Other blends include the following: * (''migdalór'', lighthouse), from (''migdál'', tower) and (''or'', light) * (''karnàf'', rhinoceros), from (''kéren'', horn) and (''af'', nose) * (''ramzór'', traffic light), from (''rémez'', indication) and (''or'', light) Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an
acrostic An acrostic is a poem Poetry (derived from the Greek '' poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered ...
: * (''tapúz'', orange (fruit), from (''tapúakh'', apple) and (''zaháv'', gold), as well as (''tapúd'', potato) from (''tapúakh'', apple) and (''adamah'', soil) but the full is more common in the latter case.


Irish

A few portmanteaus are in use in modern Irish, for example: *
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage, usually made of leather and opening into two equal parts. Some were large, upright, and hinged at the back and ...
is referred to as (from , "Britain", and , "leave") or (from , "England", and , "out") * The resignation of
Tánaiste The Tánaiste ( , ) is the deputy head of the government of Ireland and thus holder of its second-most senior office. The Tánaiste is appointed by the President of Ireland on the advice of the Taoiseach. The current office holder is former Taois ...
(deputy prime minister) Frances Fitzgerald was referred to as (from , "goodbye" and ''Tánaiste'') * , an Irish-language
preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school. It ...
(from , "infants", and , "band") * The Irish translation of ''
A Game of Thrones ''A Game of Thrones'' is the first novel in '' A Song of Ice and Fire'', a series of fantasy novels by the American author George R. R. Martin. It was first published on August 1, 1996. The novel won the 1997 Locus Award and was nominated fo ...
'' refers to
Winterfell The fictional world in which the '' A Song of Ice and Fire'' novels by George R. R. Martin take place is divided into several continents, known collectively as The Known World. Most of the story takes place on the continent of Westeros and in ...
castle as (from , "winter", and , "exposed to winds") * (from English ''jail'' and , "Irish-speaking region"): the community of Irish-speaking
republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
prisoners.


Icelandic

There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and
neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
s are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, ''Tölva'' ("computer") is a ''portmanteau'' of ''tala'' ("digit; number") and ''völva'' ("oracle or seeress").


Indonesian

In
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...

Indonesian
, portmanteaus and
acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or European Union, EU (European Union), but sometimes using sy ...
s are very common in both formal and informal usage.


Malaysian

In the Malaysian national language of Bahasa Melayu, the word ''jadong'' was constructed out of three Malay words for evil (''jahat''), stupid (''bodoh'') and arrogant (''sombong'') to be used on the worst kinds of community and religious leaders who mislead naive, submissive and powerless folk under their thrall.


Japanese

A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two back-clippings). The portion of each input word retained is usually two
morae A mora (plural ''morae'' or ''moras''; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also ref ...
, which is tantamount to one
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...

kanji
in most words written in kanji. The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words,
gairaigo is Japanese language, Japanese for "Loanword, loan word", and indicates a transcription into Japanese. In particular, the word usually refers to a Japanese word of foreign origin that was not borrowed in ancient times from Old Chinese, Old or Midd ...
(later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name for the
University of Tokyo , abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877, it was the first of the imperial universities. The university has ten faculties, 15 graduate schools and enrolls about 30,00 ...
, in full . With borrowings, typical results are words such as , meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a uniquely Japanese contraction of the English . Another example, , is a contracted form of the English words and . A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is , blending the Japanese word for and the Greek word . The Japanese fad of egg-shaped keychain pet toys from the 1990s, Tamagotchi, is a portmanteau combining the two Japanese words tamago (たまご), which means "egg", and uotchi (ウオッチ) "watch". The portmanteau can also be seen as a combination of tamago (たまご), "egg", and tomodachi (友だち), which means "friend". Some anime titles also are portmanteaus, such as ''
Hetalia is a Japanese webcomic Webcomics (also known as online comics or Internet comics) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typicall ...

Hetalia
'' (ヘタリア). It came from He''ta''re (ヘタレ), which means "idiot", and I''ta''lia (イタリア) which means Italy. Another example is ''
Servamp is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (comi ...
'', which came from the English words Ser''va''nt (サーヴァント) and ''Va''mpire (ヴァンパイア).


Portuguese

In
Brazilian Portuguese Brazilian Portuguese (', or ' ) or also ' is the set of dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...
, portmanteaus are usually slang, including: * ''Cantriz'', from ''cantora'' (female singer) and ''atriz'' (actress), which defines women that both sing and act. * ''Aborrescente'', from ''aborrecer'' (annoy) and ''adolescente'' (teenager), which is a pejorative term for teenagers. * ''Pescotapa'', from ''pescoço'' (neck) and ''tapa'' (slap), which defines a slap on the back of the neck. In
European Portuguese European Portuguese ( pt, português europeu, ), also known as Portuguese of Portugal (Portuguese language, Portuguese: português de Portugal), Iberian Portuguese (Portuguese language, Portuguese: português ibérico), and Peninsular Portuguese ( ...
, portmanteaus are also used. Some of them include: * ''Telemóvel'', which means mobile phone, comes from ''telefone'' (telephone) and ''móvel'' (mobile). * ''Cantautor'', which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from ''cantor'' (singer) and ''autor'' (songwriter).


Spanish

Although not very common in Spanish, portmanteaus are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in
Mexican Spanish Mexican Spanish ( es, español mexicano) is a set of Variety (linguistics), varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico. Spanish was brought to Mexico in the 16th century by Spanish Conquistadors. As in all other Spanish-speaking cou ...
'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' (coffee shop) and 'librería' (bookstore), or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", (cookie), and above all family-owned business (of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda"). Such usages are prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time, commonly, a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in Cola Cao, a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product. Other examples: * ''Cantautor'', which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from ''cantante'' (singer) and ''autor'' (songwriter). *'''' and '' Ofimática'' two
Neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
s that are blends of ''mecánica'' (mechanical) with ''electrónica'' (electronics), and ''oficina'' (office) with ''informática'' (
informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe'' informatics is synonym for computer science and computing as a profession, in which the cent ...
) respectively. *'' Espanglish'', interlanguage that combines words from both Spanish (''Español'') and English. *'' Metrobús'', blend of ''metro'' (subway) and ''autobús.'' *'' Autopista'', blend of ''automóvil'' (car) and ''pista'' (highway). *Company names and brands with portmanteaus are common in Spanish. Some examples of Spanish portmanteaus for Mexican companies include: The Mexican flag carrier
Aeroméxico Aerovías de México, S.A. de C.V. operating as Aeroméxico (stylized as AEROMEXICO), is the flag carrier airline of Mexico, based in Mexico City. It operates scheduled services to more than 90 destinations in Mexico; North, South and Central Am ...
, (Aerovías de México), Banorte (Bank and North),
Cemex CEMEX S.A.B. de C.V., known as Cemex, is a Mexican multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mult ...

Cemex
(Cement and Mexico), Jumex (Jugos Mexicanos or Mexican Juice), Mabe (from founders Egon MAbardi and Francisco BErrondo),
Pemex#REDIRECT Pemex {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R from alternative language, es, es {{R printworthy ...
(Petróleos Mexicanos or Mexican Oil),
Softtek Softtek is a Mexico-based information technology company, operating in North America, Latin America, Europe and Asia. Headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico, the company has 15,000 associates in Mexico and abroad and is the largest private IT vendor i ...

Softtek
(portmanteau and stylization of Software and technology), and
Telmex Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City ) , blank1_name_sec1 = Human Development Index, HDI , blank1_info_sec1 = 0.897 Very High , blank_name_sec2 = GDP (Nom ...
(Teléfonos de Mexico).
Gamesa Gamesa (formerly Galletera Mexicana S.A. de C.V. "Mexican Biscuit Company") is Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion ...
(Galletera Mexicana, S.A. or Mexican Biscuit Company, Inc.) and Famsa (fabricantes Muebleros, S.A.) are examples of portmanteaus of four words, including the "S.A." (Sociedad Anónima). *Many more portmanteaus in Spanish come from
Anglicism An anglicism is a word or construction borrowed from English by another language. With the rise in Anglophone media and global spread of British and US cultures in the 20th and 21st centuries, many English terms have entered popular usage in o ...
s, which are words borrowed from English, like ''módem'', ''transistor, códec, email, internet'' or ''emoticon.'' A somewhat popular example in Spain is the word Gallifante, a portmanteau of Gallo y Elefante (Cockerel and Elephant). It was the prize on the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Juego de niños) that ran on the public television channel La 1 of
Televisión Española Televisión Española (acronym TVE, or lowercase letters: tve, in English "Spanish Television") is the national Government-owned corporation, state-owned public service broadcasting, public-service television broadcaster in Spain. TVE belongs to ...
(TVE) from 1988 to 1992.


Portmanteau morph

In
linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...

linguistics
, a blend is an amalgamation or fusion of independent
lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeolog ...
s, while a ''portmanteau'' or ''portmanteau morph'' is a single
morph Morph may refer to: Astronomy * Morphs collaboration, a collaboration that studied the evolution of spiral galaxies using the Magellan and the Hubble Space Telescope Biology * Morph (zoology), a visual or behavioral difference between organi ...
that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word on this definition alw ...
s. For example, in the Latin word ''animalis'' the ending ''-is'' is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singular number and the genitive case. In English two separate morphs are used (''of an animal''). Other examples include French ''à le'' → ''au'' /o/, and ''de le'' → ''du'' /dy/.


See also

*
Amalgamation (names) An amalgamated name is a name that is formed by combining several previously existing names. These may take the form of an acronym (where only one letter of each name is taken) or a Blend word, blend (where a large part of each name is taken, such ...
*
Hybrid word A hybrid word or hybridism is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meanin ...
* List of geographic portmanteaus * List of portmanteaus * Portmanteau sentence *
Syllabic abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...


References


External links

{{Wiktionary, portmanteau, portmanteau word, English blends
Lexiconcept.com
an online portmanteau generator
Portmanteaur.com
a tool for making portmanteaus
Portmanteau tool – Invent new words
(with definition) 1870s neologisms