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Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey
fluid In physics, a fluid is a liquid, gas, or other material that continuously Deformation (physics), deforms (''flows'') under an applied shear stress, or external force. They have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, are Matter, substances wh ...
s (
liquid A liquid is a nearly Compressibility, incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of State of matter#Four fundamental states, the four fund ...
s and gases) from one location to another. The
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...
discipline of piping
design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product, or process. The verb ''to design'' ...
studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic materiala natural composite material, composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and emb ...
,
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the Languages of the Unit ...
,
glass Glass is a non-Crystallinity, crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent, amorphous solid that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most ...
,
steel Steel is an alloy made up of iron with added carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that ...
,
aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) encompasses the Variety (linguistics), varieties of English language, English native to Canada. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, 2016 cens ...
,
plastic Plastics are a wide range of synthetic polymers, synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient. Their Plasticity (physics), plasticity makes it possible for plastics to be Injection moulding, moulded, Extrusion, e ...
,
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...
, and
concrete Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse construction aggregate, aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after wa ...
. The in-line components, known as fittings, valves, and other devices, typically sense and control the
pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled ''gage'' pressure)The preferred spelling varies by country and e ...
, flow rate and
temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various Conversion of units of temperature, temp ...
of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included in the field of piping design (or piping engineering), though the sensors and automatic controlling devices may alternatively be treated as part of instrumentation and control design. Piping systems are documented in piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs). If necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube cleaning process. ''Piping'' sometimes refers to piping design, the detailed specification of the physical piping layout within a process plant or commercial building. In earlier days, this was sometimes called drafting,
technical drawing Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and Academic discipline, discipline of composing Plan (drawing), drawings that Visual communication, visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essent ...
,
engineering drawing An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that is used to convey information about an object. A common use is to specify the geometry necessary for the construction of a component and is called a detail drawing. Usually, a number of ...
, and design, but is today commonly performed by designers that have learned to use automated computer-aided drawing or
computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. This software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve co ...
(CAD) software. Plumbing is a piping system with which most people are familiar, as it constitutes the form of fluid transportation that is used to provide potable
water Water (chemical formula ) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...
and fuels to their homes and businesses. Plumbing pipes also remove waste in the form of sewage, and allow venting of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems also use piping, and may transport nonpotable or potable water, or other fire-suppression fluids. Piping also has many other industrial applications, which are crucial for moving raw and semi-processed fluids for refining into more useful products. Some of the more exotic materials used in pipe construction are Inconel,
titanium Titanium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resista ...
, chrome-moly and various other steel
alloy An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Unlike chemical compounds with metallic bases, an alloy will retain all the properties of a metal in the resulting material, such as electrical conductivity, ductility, ...
s.


Engineering sub-fields

Generally, industrial piping engineering has three major sub-fields: *Piping material *Piping design *Stress analysis


Stress analysis

Process piping and power piping are typically checked by pipe stress engineers to verify that the routing, nozzle loads, hangers, and supports are properly placed and selected such that allowable pipe stress is not exceeded under different loads such as sustained loads, operating loads, pressure testing loads, etc., as stipulated by the ASME B31, EN 13480, GOST 32388, RD 10-249 or any other applicable codes and standards. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the piping under regular loads (internal pressure and thermal stresses) as well under occasional and intermittent loading cases such as earthquake, high wind or special vibration, and water hammer. This evaluation is usually performed with the assistance of a specialized ( finite element) pipe stress analysis computer programs such as AutoPIPE, CAEPIPE, CAESAR, PASS/START-PROF, ROHR2. In cryogenic pipe supports, most steel become more brittle as the temperature decreases from normal operating conditions, so it is necessary to know the temperature distribution for cryogenic conditions. Steel structures will have areas of high stress that may be caused by sharp corners in the design, or inclusions in the material.


Materials

The material with which a pipe is manufactured often forms as the basis for choosing any pipe. Materials that are used for manufacturing pipes include: * Carbon steel *ASTM A252 Spec Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 Steel Pile Pipe * Plastic piping, e.g.
HDPE pipe HDPE pipe is a type of flexible plastic pipe used for fluid and gas transfer and is often used to replace ageing concrete or steel mains pipelines. Made from the thermoplastic HDPE (high-density polyethylene), its high level of impermeability a ...
, PP-R pipe or LDPE pipe. *Low temperature service carbon steel * Stainless steel *Nonferrous metals, e.g. cupro-nickel, tantalum lined, etc. *Nonmetallic, e.g. tempered glass, Teflon lined, PVC, etc.


History

Early wooden pipes were constructed out of logs that had a large hole bored lengthwise through the center. Later wooden pipes were constructed with staves and hoops similar to wooden
barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. They are traditionally made of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees a ...
construction. Stave pipes have the advantage that they are easily transported as a compact pile of parts on a wagon and then assembled as a hollow structure at the job site. Wooden pipes were especially popular in mountain regions where transport of heavy iron or concrete pipes would have been difficult. Wooden pipes were easier to maintain than metal, because the wood did not expand or contract with temperature changes as much as metal and so consequently expansion joints and bends were not required. The thickness of wood afforded some insulating properties to the pipes which helped prevent freezing as compared to metal pipes. Wood used for water pipes also does not rot very easily.
Electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, str ...
does not affect wood pipes at all, since wood is a much better electrical insulator. In the Western United States where redwood was used for pipe construction, it was found that redwood had "peculiar properties" that protected it from weathering, acids, insects, and fungus growths. Redwood pipes stayed smooth and clean indefinitely while iron pipe by comparison would rapidly begin to scale and corrode and could eventually plug itself up with the corrosion.


Standards

There are certain standard codes that need to be followed while designing or manufacturing any piping system. Organizations that promulgate piping standards include: *ASME - The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing ...
- B31 series ** ASME B31.1 Power piping (steam piping etc.) ** ASME B31.3 Process piping ** ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids and oil and gas ** ASME B31.5 Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components ** ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems ** ASME B31.9 Building services piping ** ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems (Withdrawn, Superseded by B31.4) ** ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines *ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials ** ASTM A252 Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles *API -
American Petroleum Institute The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry. It claims to represent nearly 600 corporations involved in extraction of petroleum, production, oil refinery, refinement, pipeline ...
** API 5L Petroleum and natural gas industries—Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems * CWB - Canadian Welding Bureau * EN 13480 - European metallic industrial piping code ** EN 13480-1 Metallic industrial piping - Part 1: General ** EN 13480-2 Metallic industrial piping - Part 2: Materials ** EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and calculation ** EN 13480-4 Metallic industrial piping - Part 4: Fabrication and installation ** EN 13480-5 Metallic industrial piping - Part 5: Inspection and testing ** EN 13480-6 Metallic industrial piping - Part 6: Additional requirements for buried piping ** PD TR 13480-7 Metallic industrial piping - Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures ** EN 13480-8 Metallic industrial piping - Part 8: Additional requirements for aluminium and aluminium alloy piping ** EN 13941 District heating pipes * GOST, RD, SNiP, SP - Russian piping codes **RD 10-249 Power Piping **GOST 32388 Process Piping, HDPE Piping **SNiP 2.05.06-85 & SP 36.13330.2012 Gas and Oil transmission piping systems **GOST R 55990-2014 & SP 284.1325800.2016 Field pipelines **SP 33.13330.2012 Steel Pipelines **GOST R 55596-2013 District heating networks * EN 1993-4-3 Eurocode 3 — Design of steel structures - Part 4-3: Pipelines *AWS - American Welding Society *AWWA - American Water Works Association *MSS – Manufacturers' Standardization Society *ANSI - American National Standards Institute *NFPA - National Fire Protection Association *EJMA - Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association *Intro to pipe stress - https://web.archive.org/web/20161008161619/http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joints/metal-expansion-joints-in-one-minute/part-1-thermal-growth%26#x20;(one minute)


See also

*
Drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and groundwater, sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe Waterlogging (agricult ...
* Firestop *
Gasket image:gaskets.jpg, Some seals and gaskets A gasket is a Seal (mechanical), mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression (physical) ...
*
HDPE pipe HDPE pipe is a type of flexible plastic pipe used for fluid and gas transfer and is often used to replace ageing concrete or steel mains pipelines. Made from the thermoplastic HDPE (high-density polyethylene), its high level of impermeability a ...
* Hydraulic machinery * Hydrogen piping * Hydrostatic test * MS Pipe, MS Tube * Pipe Cutting * Pipefitter * Pipe network analysis * Pipe marking * Pipe support * Piping and plumbing fitting ** Coupling (piping) ** Double-walled pipe ** Elbow (piping) ** Nipple (plumbing) ** Pipe cap ** Street elbow ** Union (plumbing) ** Valve ** Victaulic * Pipeline pre-commissioning * Plastic pipework * Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems * Plumbing * Riser clamp * Thermal insulation


References


Further reading


ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2
from Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
Seismic Design and Retrofit of Piping Systems, July 2002
from American Lifelines Alliance website
Engineering and Design, Liquid Process Piping. Engineer manual, entire document


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EM 1110-l-4008, May 1999 * Integral Principals of The Structural Dynamics of Flow By L G Claret


External links

*
oil and gas training courses online
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