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Meteorology is a branch of the
atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Atmosphere of Earth, Earth's atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climat ...
(which include
atmospheric chemistry Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of in which the of the and that of other planets is studied. It is a of research and draws on , , , , , and and other disciplines. Research is increasingly connected with other areas of study such as . The ...
and
atmospheric physics Within the atmospheric sciences, atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid ...
), with a major focus on
weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' o ...
. The study of meteorology dates back
millennia A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period of one thousand year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the ...
, though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after
weather observation Weather reconnaissance is the acquisition of weather data used for research and planning. Typically the term reconnaissance refers to observing weather from the air, as opposed to the ground. Methods Aircraft Helicopters are not built to wi ...

weather observation
networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the
laws of physics Scientific laws or laws of science are statements, based on repeated experiment An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into Causality, cause-and-effect by demonstrat ...
and more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important branch of weather forecasting is
marine weather forecasting Marine weather forecasting is the process by which mariner A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the ope ...
as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.
Meteorological phenomena This glossary of meteorology is a list of terms and concepts relevant to meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorolo ...
are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of
Earth's atmosphere The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The mo ...

Earth's atmosphere
:
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ...

temperature
,
air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certain environment. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather ...

air pressure
,
water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 kJ/(kg·K) Water vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor is the gaseous p ...

water vapour
,
mass flow Mass flow, also known as “mass transfer” and “bulk flow”, is the movement of fluids down a pressure or temperature gradient,Moyes & Schulte (2008). Principles of Animal Physiology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. San Francisc, CA. particularly i ...
, and the variations and interactions of these variables, and how they change over time. Different
spatial scales Spatial scale is a specific application of the term Scale (disambiguation), scale for describing or categorizing (e.g. into orders of magnitude) the size of a space (hence ''spatial''), or the extent of it at which a phenomenon or process occurs. ...
are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. Meteorology,
climatology Climatology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
,
atmospheric physics Within the atmospheric sciences, atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid ...
, and
atmospheric chemistry Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of in which the of the and that of other planets is studied. It is a of research and draws on , , , , , and and other disciplines. Research is increasingly connected with other areas of study such as . The ...
are sub-disciplines of the
atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Atmosphere of Earth, Earth's atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climat ...
. Meteorology and
hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and ...
compose the interdisciplinary field of
hydrometeorology Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, ...
. The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
,
energy production Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy In physics, energy is the physical quantity, quantitative physical property, property that must be #Energy transfer, transferred to a physical body, bod ...
,
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
,
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
, and
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
. The word ''
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
'' is from the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
μετέωρος ''metéōros'' (''meteor'') and -λογία ''-logia'' ('' -(o)logy''), meaning "the study of things high in the air."


History

The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier. Early approaches to predicting weather were based on
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of Celestial objects in astrology, celestial objects. Astrology has be ...
and were practiced by priests.
Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the Common Era. It is nam ...

Cuneiform
inscriptions on
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
ian tablets included associations between thunder and rain. The
Chaldean
Chaldean
s differentiated the
22°
22°
and 46° halos. Ancient Indian
Upanishads The Upanishads (; sa, उपनिषद् ) are Vedic period, late Vedic Sanskrit texts of Hindu philosophy which supplied the basis of later Hindu philosophy.Wendy Doniger (1990), ''Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism'', 1st Editio ...
contain mentions of clouds and
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or ...

season
s. The Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed when certain phenomena were noticed.
Varāhamihira Varāhamihira ( 505 – 587), also called Varāha or Mihira, was a Hindu astrologer, astronomer, and polymath who lived in Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh, India). He was born in the Avanti region, roughly corresponding to modern-day Malwa (part of ...
's classical work ''Brihatsamhita'', written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather observation. In 350 BC,
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
wrote ''
Meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
''. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the ''Meteorology'' is the description of what is now known as the
hydrologic cycle The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the hydrological cycle, describes the continuous movement of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, ...

hydrologic cycle
. The book
De Mundo ''On the Universe'' ( el, Περὶ Κόσμου; la, De mundo) is a theological and scientific treatise included in the Corpus Aristotelicum The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτ ...
(composed before 250 BC or between 350 and 200 BC) noted: :If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt; if it is only half of fire, but violent also and massive, it is called a ''meteor''; if it is entirely free from fire, it is called a smoking bolt. They are all called 'swooping bolts' because they swoop down upon the Earth. Lightning is sometimes smoky, and is then called 'smoldering lightning"; sometimes it darts quickly along, and is then said to be ''vivid''. At other times, it travels in crooked lines, and is called ''forked lightning''. When it swoops down upon some object it is called 'swooping lightning'. The
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
scientist
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the ''Book of Signs''. The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD,
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died  AD 45. His short work (''De situ orbis libri III.'') remained in use nearly to the year 1500. It occupies less th ...
, a geographer for the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, formalized the climatic zone system. According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century,
Al-Dinawari Abū Ḥanīfah Aḥmad ibn Dāwūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, Kurdish languages, Kurdish: Dînewerî; fa, ابوحنيفه دينوری) was an Iranian peoples, Iranian Islamic Golden Age polymath, Islamic astronomy, astronomer, Muslim Agricult ...
wrote the ''Kitab al-Nabat'' (''Book of Plants''), in which he deals with the application of meteorology to
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
during the
Arab Agricultural Revolution The Arab Agricultural Revolution was the transformation in agriculture from the Golden Age of Islam, 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World. The agronomy, agronomic literature of the time, with major books by Ibn Bassal and ...
. He describes the meteorological character of the sky, the
planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and ...

planet
s and
constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest ...

constellation
s, the
sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

sun
and
moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

moon
, the
lunar phase The lunar phase or Moon phase is the shape of the Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural s ...
s indicating
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or ...

season
s and rain, the ''anwa'' (
heavenly bodies "Heavenly Bodies" is a song written by Elaine Lifton, Gloria Nissenson and Lee Ritenour, and recorded by American country music artist Earl Thomas Conley. It was released in May 1982 as the first single from the album ''Somewhere Between Right a ...
of rain), and atmospheric phenomena such as winds, thunder, lightning, snow, floods, valleys, rivers, lakes. Early attempts at predicting weather were often related to prophecy and divining, and were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones.


Research of visual atmospheric phenomena

Ptolemy wrote on the
atmospheric refraction Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of or other from a straight line as it passes through the due to the variation in as a function of . This refraction is due to the velocity of light through , decreasing (the increases) with increased ...

atmospheric refraction
of light in the context of astronomical observations. In 1021,
Alhazen Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinization of names, Latinized as Alhazen ; full name ; ) was a Muslim Arab Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematician, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomer, and Physics in the medieval Islamic world, ...
showed that atmospheric refraction is also responsible for
twilight Twilight is the of the lower when the Sun is not directly visible because it is below the . Twilight is produced by in the upper atmosphere, illuminating the lower atmosphere so that is neither completely lit nor completely dark. The w ...

twilight
; he estimated that twilight begins when the sun is 19 degrees below the
horizon The horizon is the apparent line that separates the surface of a celestial body In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that st ...

horizon
, and also used a geometric determination based on this to estimate the maximum possible height of the
Earth's atmosphere The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The mo ...

Earth's atmosphere
as 52,000 ''passim'' (about 49 miles, or 79 km). St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, and that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop.
Roger Bacon Roger Bacon (; la, Rogerus or ', also '' Rogerus''; ), also known by the scholastic accolade It was customary in the European Middle Ages, more precisely in the period of scholasticism which extended into early modern times, to designate th ...
was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42 degrees above the horizon. In the late 13th century and early 14th century,
Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī Kamal al-Din Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan al-Farisi or Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn Hasan (1267– 12 January 1319, long assumed to be 1320)) ( fa, كمال‌الدين فارسی) was a Persian Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Is ...
and
Theodoric of Freiberg Theodoric of Freiberg (; – ) was a German member of the Dominican order The Order of Preachers, whose members are known as Dominicans, ( la, Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), is a mendicant order of the Catholic Church fou ...
were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary
rainbow A rainbow is a meteorological Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of sc ...

rainbow
phenomenon. Theoderic went further and also explained the secondary rainbow. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that
aurora An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights (aurora polaris), northern lights (aurora borealis), or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in high-l ...

aurora
e are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the
Earth's magnetic field Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. Fo ...
lines.


Instruments and classification scales

In 1441,
King Sejong Sejong the Great (; 15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean Korean may refer to: People and cu ...
's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized
rain gauge A rain gauge (also known as an udometer,pluvia metior, pluviometer, ombrometer, and hyetometer) is an instrument used by meteorologist A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of ...
. These were sent throughout the
Joseon dynasty Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and repl ...
of
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmer's potential harvest. In 1450,
Leone Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, e ...
developed a swinging-plate
anemometer An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed and wind direction, direction. It is also a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word ''anemos'', which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed in ...

anemometer
, and was known as the first ''anemometer''. In 1607,
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the ...

Galileo Galilei
constructed a
thermoscope A thermoscope is a device that shows changes in temperature. A typical design is a tube in which a liquid rises and falls as the temperature changes. The modern thermometer gradually evolved from it with the addition of a scale in the early 17th ce ...

thermoscope
. In 1611,
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
wrote the first scientific treatise on snow crystals: "Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow)." In 1643,
Evangelista Torricelli Evangelista Torricelli ( , also , ; 15 October 160825 October 1647) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ...

Evangelista Torricelli
invented the mercury
barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certain environment. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. Many measurements of air pressure are used within surface weather analysis to ...

barometer
. In 1662, Sir
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
invented the mechanical, self-emptying, tipping bucket rain gauge. In 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit created a reliable scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type thermometer. In 1742,
Anders Celsius Anders Celsius (, 27 November 170125 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical o ...

Anders Celsius
, a Swedish astronomer, proposed the "centigrade" temperature scale, the predecessor of the current
Celsius The degree Celsius is a unit of temperature on the Celsius scale, a temperature scale Scale of temperature is a methodology of calibrating the physical quantity temperature in metrology. Empirical scales measure temperature in relation to conv ...

Celsius
scale. In 1783, the first hair
hygrometer A hygrometer is an instrument used to measure the amount of water vapor in air, in soil, or in confined spaces. Humidity measurement instruments usually rely on measurements of some other quantities such as temperature, pressure, mass, a mechani ...

hygrometer
was demonstrated by . In 1802–1803,
Luke Howard Luke Howard, (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conduc ...

Luke Howard
wrote ''On the Modification of Clouds'', in which he assigns
cloud types The list of cloud types groups the main genera as ''high'' (cirrus, cirro-), ''middle'' (alto-), ''multi-level'' (nimbostratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus), and ''low'' (stratus, strato-) according to the altitude level or levels at which each cloud is ...
Latin names. In 1806,
Francis Beaufort Sir Francis Beaufort (; 27 May 1774 – 17 December 1857) was an Irish hydrographer, rear admiral of the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and S ...
introduced his system for classifying wind speeds. Near the end of the 19th century the first
cloud atlas A cloud atlas is a pictorial key (or an atlas) to the nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively ...
es were published, including the ''
International Cloud Atlas The ''International Cloud Atlas'' or simply the ''Cloud Atlas'', is a cloud atlas that was first published in 1896 and has remained in print since. Its initial purposes included aiding the training of meteorologists and promoting more consistent u ...
'', which has remained in print ever since. The April 1960 launch of the first successful
weather satellite A weather satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that ...
,
TIROS-1 TIROS-1 (or TIROS-A) was the first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite, and the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites. Program The TIROS Program was NASA's first experimental step to determine if satellite ...
, marked the beginning of the age where weather information became available globally.


Atmospheric composition research

In 1648,
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, writer and Catholic Church, Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector i ...

Blaise Pascal
rediscovered that
atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer), is the ...
decreases with height, and deduced that there is a vacuum above the atmosphere. In 1738,
Daniel Bernoulli Daniel Bernoulli Fellows of the Royal Society, FRS (; – 27 March 1782) was a Swiss people, Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family from Basel. He is particularly remembered for ...
published ''Hydrodynamics'', initiating the
Kinetic theory of gases of the ideal gas is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its particles. The Bohr radius, size of helium atoms relative to their spacing is shown to scale under 1950 Atmosphere (unit), atmospheres of pressure. The atoms have a certain, avera ...

Kinetic theory of gases
and established the basic laws for the theory of gases. In 1761,
Joseph Black Joseph Black (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide. He was Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry at the University of Glasgo ...
discovered that ice absorbs heat without changing its temperature when melting. In 1772, Black's student
Daniel Rutherford Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is known for the isolation of nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atomic number 7. I ...
discovered
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
, which he called ''phlogisticated air'', and together they developed the
phlogiston theory The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated the existence of a fire-like element called phlogiston () contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature e ...
. In 1777,
Antoine Lavoisier Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier ( , ,; 26 August 17438 May 1794), When reduced without charcoal, it gave off an air which supported respiration and combustion in an enhanced way. He concluded that this was just a pure form of common air and th ...

Antoine Lavoisier
discovered
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
and developed an explanation for combustion. In 1783, in Lavoisier's essay "Reflexions sur le phlogistique," he deprecates the phlogiston theory and proposes a
caloric theoryThe caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms of en ...
. In 1804, Sir
John LeslieJohn Leslie may refer to: United Kingdom * Sir John Leslie (physicist) (1766–1832), Scottish mathematician and physicist * John Leslie (TV presenter) (born 1965), Scottish former television presenter * John Leslie (bishop of Clogher) (1571–1671) ...
observed that a matte black surface radiates heat more effectively than a polished surface, suggesting the importance of
black-body radiation Black-body radiation is the within or surrounding a body in with its environment, emitted by a (an idealized opaque, non-reflective body). It has a specific spectrum of wavelengths, inversely related to intensity that depend only on the bod ...
. In 1808,
John Dalton John Dalton (; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...

John Dalton
defended caloric theory in ''A New System of Chemistry'' and described how it combines with matter, especially gases; he proposed that the
heat capacity Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a physical property A physical property is any property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on t ...
of gases varies inversely with
atomic weight Relative atomic mass (symbol: ''A'') or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quantification (science), quantified by measurement. A physical quantity ca ...
. In 1824, Sadi Carnot analyzed the efficiency of
steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energ ...

steam engine
s using caloric theory; he developed the notion of a reversible process and, in postulating that no such thing exists in nature, laid the foundation for the
second law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics establishes the concept of entropy Entropy is a scientific concept, as well as a measurable physical property that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty. The term an ...
.


Research into cyclones and air flow

In 1494,
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
experienced a tropical cyclone, which led to the first written European account of a hurricane. In 1686,
Edmund Halley Edmond (or Edmund) Halley (; – ) was an English astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such ...

Edmund Halley
presented a systematic study of the
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
and
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
s and identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions. In 1735, an ''ideal'' explanation of through study of the
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
was written by
George Hadley George Hadley (12 February 1685 – 28 June 1768) was an English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who proposed the atmospheric mechanism by which the trade winds are sustained, which is now named in his honour as Hadley circulation. As a key f ...
. In 1743, when
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States that was negotiated on behalf of the United States by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simp ...

Benjamin Franklin
was prevented from seeing a lunar eclipse by a
hurricane A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of Atmosphere of Earth, air and together with oc ...
, he decided that cyclones move in a contrary manner to the winds at their periphery. Understanding the kinematics of how exactly the rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first. Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. In 1856,
William Ferrel William Ferrel (January 29, 1817 – September 18, 1891), an American meteorologist Meteorologists are scientists who study and work in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheri ...
proposed the existence of a circulation cell in the mid-latitudes, and the air within deflected by the Coriolis force resulting in the prevailing westerly winds. Late in the 19th century, the motion of air masses along isobar (meteorology), isobars was understood to be the result of the large-scale interaction of the pressure gradient force and the deflecting force. By 1912, this deflecting force was named the Coriolis effect. Just after World War I, a group of meteorologists in Norway led by Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of extratropical cyclone, mid-latitude cyclones, and introduced the idea of front (meteorology), fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses. The group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined how rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes.


Observation networks and weather forecasting

In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century a range of meteorological instruments were invented – the thermometer,
barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certain environment. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. Many measurements of air pressure are used within surface weather analysis to ...

barometer
, hydrometer, as well as wind and rain gauges. In the 1650s natural philosophers started using these instruments to systematically record weather observations. Scientific academies established weather diaries and organised observational networks. In 1654, Ferdinando II de Medici established the first ''weather observing'' network, that consisted of meteorological stations in Florence, Cutigliano, Vallombrosa, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Innsbruck, Osnabrück, Paris and Warsaw. The collected data were sent to Florence at regular time intervals. In the 1660s Robert Hooke of the Royal Society of London sponsored networks of weather observers. Hippocrates' treatise ''Airs, Waters, and Places'' had linked weather to disease. Thus early meteorologists attempted to correlate weather patterns with epidemic outbreaks, and the climate with public health. During the Age of Enlightenment meteorology tried to rationalise traditional weather lore, including astrological meteorology. But there were also attempts to establish a theoretical understanding of weather phenomena. Edmond Halley and
George Hadley George Hadley (12 February 1685 – 28 June 1768) was an English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who proposed the atmospheric mechanism by which the trade winds are sustained, which is now named in his honour as Hadley circulation. As a key f ...
tried to explain
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
. They reasoned that the rising mass of heated equator air is replaced by an inflow of cooler air from high latitudes. A flow of warm air at high altitude from equator to poles in turn established an early picture of circulation. Frustration with the lack of discipline among weather observers, and the poor quality of the instruments, led the early modern nation states to organise large observation networks. Thus by the end of the 18th century, meteorologists had access to large quantities of reliable weather data. In 1832, an electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling. The arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly gathering surface weather observations from a wide area. This data could be used to produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the Smithsonian Institution began to establish an observation network across the United States under the leadership of Joseph Henry. Similar observation networks were established in Europe at this time. The Reverend William Clement Ley was key in understanding of cirrus clouds and early understandings of Jet Streams. Charles Kenneth Mackinnon Douglas, known as 'CKM' Douglas read Ley's papers after his death and carried on the early study of weather systems. Nineteenth century researchers in meteorology were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of ''Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade'' with the task of gathering weather observations at sea. FitzRoy's office became the Met Office, United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1854, the second oldest national meteorological service in the world (the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Austria was founded in 1851 and is the oldest weather service in the world). The first daily weather forecasts made by FitzRoy's Office were published in ''The Times'' newspaper in 1860. The following year a system was introduced of hoisting storm warning cones at principal ports when a gale was expected. Over the next 50 years, many countries established national meteorological services. The India Meteorological Department (1875) was established to follow tropical cyclone and
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
. The Finnish Meteorological Central Office (1881) was formed from part of Magnetic Observatory of Helsinki University. Japan's Tokyo Meteorological Observatory, the forerunner of the Japan Meteorological Agency, began constructing surface weather maps in 1883. The United States Weather Bureau (1890) was established under the United States Department of Agriculture. The Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1906) was established by a Meteorology Act to unify existing state meteorological services.


Numerical weather prediction

In 1904, Norwegian scientist Vilhelm Bjerknes first argued in his paper ''Weather Forecasting as a Problem in Mechanics and Physics'' that it should be possible to forecast weather from calculations based upon physical law, natural laws. It was not until later in the 20th century that advances in the understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of modern numerical weather prediction. In 1922, Lewis Fry Richardson published "Weather Prediction By Numerical Process," after finding notes and derivations he worked on as an ambulance driver in World War I. He described how small terms in the prognostic fluid dynamics equations that govern atmospheric flow could be neglected, and a numerical calculation scheme that could be devised to allow predictions. Richardson envisioned a large auditorium of thousands of people performing the calculations. However, the sheer number of calculations required was too large to complete without electronic computers, and the size of the grid and time steps used in the calculations led to unrealistic results. Though numerical analysis later found that this was due to numerical instability. Starting in the 1950s, number, numerical forecasts with computers became feasible. The first weather forecasts derived this way used barotropic (single-vertical-level) models, and could successfully predict the large-scale movement of midlatitude Rossby waves, that is, the pattern of low-pressure area, atmospheric lows and High-pressure area, highs. In 1959, the UK Meteorological Office received its first computer, a Ferranti Mercury. In the 1960s, the Chaos theory, chaotic nature of the atmosphere was first observed and mathematically described by Edward Lorenz, founding the field of chaos theory. These advances have led to the current use of ensemble forecasting in most major forecasting centers, to take into account uncertainty arising from the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. Mathematical models used to predict the long term weather of the Earth (climate models), have been developed that have a resolution today that are as coarse as the older weather prediction models. These climate models are used to investigate long-term climate shifts, such as what effects might be caused by human emission of greenhouse gases.


Meteorologists

Meteorologists are scientists who study and work in the field of meteorology. The American Meteorological Society publishes and continually updates an authoritative electronic ''Meteorology Glossary''. Meteorologists work in Government agency, government agencies, private consulting and research services, industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations, and in education. In the United States, meteorologists held about 10,000 jobs in 2018. Although weather forecasts and warnings are the best known products of meteorologists for the public, weather presenters on radio and television are not necessarily professional meteorologists. They are most often reporters with little formal meteorological training, using unregulated titles such as ''weather specialist'' or ''weatherman''. The American Meteorological Society and National Weather Association issue "Seals of Approval" to weather broadcasters who meet certain requirements but this is not mandatory to be hired by the media.


Equipment

Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. In the atmosphere, there are many things or qualities of the atmosphere that can be measured. Rain, which can be observed, or seen anywhere and anytime was one of the first atmospheric qualities measured historically. Also, two other accurately measured qualities are wind and humidity. Neither of these can be seen but can be felt. The devices to measure these three sprang up in the mid-15th century and were respectively the
rain gauge A rain gauge (also known as an udometer,pluvia metior, pluviometer, ombrometer, and hyetometer) is an instrument used by meteorologist A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of ...
, the anemometer, and the hygrometer. Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to construct adequate equipment to measure the many atmospheric variables. Many were faulty in some way or were simply not reliable. Even
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
noted this in some of his work as the difficulty to measure the air. Sets of surface measurements are important data to meteorologists. They give a snapshot of a variety of weather conditions at one single location and are usually at a weather station, a ship or a weather buoy. The measurements taken at a weather station can include any number of atmospheric observables. Usually, temperature, atmospheric pressure, pressure, wind measurements, and humidity are the variables that are measured by a thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer, respectively. Professional stations may also include air quality sensors (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, dust, and smoke), ceilometer (cloud ceiling), falling precipitation sensor, level sensor, flood sensor, lightning, lightning sensor, microphone (explosions, sonic booms, thunder), pyranometer/pyrheliometer/spectroradiometer (IR/Vis/UV photodiodes),
rain gauge A rain gauge (also known as an udometer,pluvia metior, pluviometer, ombrometer, and hyetometer) is an instrument used by meteorologist A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of ...
/snow gauge, scintillation counter (background radiation, fallout, radon), seismometer (earthquakes and tremors), transmissometer (visibility), and a GPS clock for data logging. Upper air data are of crucial importance for weather forecasting. The most widely used technique is launches of radiosondes. Supplementing the radiosondes a Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay, network of aircraft collection is organized by the World Meteorological Organization. Remote sensing, as used in meteorology, is the concept of collecting data from remote weather events and subsequently producing weather information. The common types of remote sensing are Radar, Lidar, and satellites (or photogrammetry). Each collects data about the atmosphere from a remote location and, usually, stores the data where the instrument is located. Radar and Lidar are not passive because both use EM radiation to illuminate a specific portion of the atmosphere. Weather satellites along with more general-purpose Earth-observing satellites circling the earth at various altitudes have become an indispensable tool for studying a wide range of phenomena from forest fires to El Niño.


Spatial scales

The study of the atmosphere can be divided into distinct areas that depend on both time and spatial scales. At one extreme of this scale is climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology. Respectively, the geospatial size of each of these three scales relates directly with the appropriate timescale. Other subclassifications are used to describe the unique, local, or broad effects within those subclasses.


Microscale

Microscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena on a scale of about or less. Individual thunderstorms, clouds, and local turbulence caused by buildings and other obstacles (such as individual hills) are modeled on this scale.


Mesoscale

Mesoscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena that has horizontal scales ranging from 1 km to 1000 km and a vertical scale that starts at the Earth's surface and includes the atmospheric boundary layer, troposphere, tropopause, and the lower section of the stratosphere. Mesoscale timescales last from less than a day to multiple weeks. The events typically of interest are thunderstorms, squall lines, weather front, fronts, rainbands, precipitation bands in tropical cyclone, tropical and extratropical cyclones, and topographically generated weather systems such as mountain waves and sea breeze, sea and land breezes.


Synoptic scale

Synoptic scale meteorology predicts atmospheric changes at scales up to 1000 km and 105 sec (28 days), in time and space. At the synoptic scale, the Coriolis acceleration acting on moving air masses (outside of the tropics) plays a dominant role in predictions. The phenomena typically described by synoptic meteorology include events such as extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges, weather front, frontal zones, and to some extent jet streams. All of these are typically given on weather maps for a specific time. The minimum horizontal scale of synoptic phenomena is limited to the spacing between weather station, surface observation stations.


Global scale

Global scale meteorology is the study of weather patterns related to the transport of heat from the tropics to the Geographical pole, poles. Very large scale oscillations are of importance at this scale. These oscillations have time periods typically on the order of months, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation, or years, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Global scale meteorology pushes into the range of climatology. The traditional definition of climate is pushed into larger timescales and with the understanding of the longer time scale global oscillations, their effect on climate and weather disturbances can be included in the synoptic and mesoscale timescales predictions. Numerical Weather Prediction is a main focus in understanding air–sea interaction, tropical meteorology, atmospheric predictability, and tropospheric/stratospheric processes. The Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey, California, developed a global atmospheric model called Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). NOGAPS is run operationally at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center for the United States Military. Many other global atmospheric models are run by national meteorological agencies.


Some meteorological principles


Boundary layer meteorology

Boundary layer meteorology is the study of processes in the air layer directly above Earth's surface, known as the Planetary boundary layer, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The effects of the surface – heating, cooling, and friction – cause turbulence, turbulent mixing within the air layer. Significant movement of sensible heat, heat, matter, or momentum on time scales of less than a day are caused by turbulent motions. Boundary layer meteorology includes the study of all types of surface–atmosphere boundary, including ocean, lake, urban land and non-urban land for the study of meteorology.


Dynamic meteorology

Dynamic meteorology generally focuses on the fluid dynamics of the atmosphere. The idea of air parcel is used to define the smallest element of the atmosphere, while ignoring the discrete molecular and chemical nature of the atmosphere. An air parcel is defined as a point in the fluid continuum of the atmosphere. The fundamental laws of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion are used to study the atmosphere. The physical quantities that characterize the state of the atmosphere are temperature, density, pressure, etc. These variables have unique values in the continuum.


Applications


Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere at a future time and given location. Humans have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since at least the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve. Once an all-human endeavor based mainly upon changes in Atmospheric pressure, barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition, numerical weather prediction, forecast models are now used to determine future conditions. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The chaos theory, chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts become less accurate as the difference in current time and the time for which the forecast is being made (the ''range'' of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most likely outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life and property. Forecasts based on temperature and Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation are important to agriculture, and therefore to commodity traders within stock markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine what to wear. Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow, and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them.


Aviation meteorology

Aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic control, air traffic management. It is important for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the ''Aeronautical Information Manual'':
''The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulative—thrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance. In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional drag by an equal percentage.''


Agricultural meteorology

Meteorologists, soil science, soil scientists, agricultural hydrologists, and agronomy, agronomists are people concerned with studying the effects of weather and climate on plant distribution, crop yield, water-use efficiency, phenology of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of managed and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the role of vegetation on climate and weather.


Hydrometeorology

Hydrometeorology is the branch of meteorology that deals with the hydrologic cycle, the water budget, and the rainfall statistics of storms. A hydrometeorologist prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating (quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically the range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology, mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences. The multidisciplinary nature of the branch can result in technical challenges, since tools and solutions from each of the individual disciplines involved may behave slightly differently, be optimized for different hard- and software platforms and use different data formats. There are some initiatives – such as the DRIHM project – that are trying to address this issue.


Nuclear meteorology

Nuclear meteorology investigates the distribution of radioactive aerosols and gases in the atmosphere.


Maritime meteorology

Maritime meteorology deals with air and wave forecasts for ships operating at sea. Organizations such as the Ocean Prediction Center, Honolulu National Weather Service forecast office, United Kingdom Met Office, and Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA prepare high seas forecasts for the world's oceans.


Military meteorology

Military meteorology is the research and application of meteorology for
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
purposes. In the United States, the United States Navy's Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command oversees meteorological efforts for the Navy and United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps while the United States Air Force's Air Force Weather Agency is responsible for the Air Force and United States Army, Army.


Environmental meteorology

Environmental meteorology mainly analyzes industrial pollution dispersion physically and chemically based on meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind, and various weather conditions.


Renewable energy

Meteorology applications in renewable energy includes basic research, "exploration," and potential mapping of wind power and solar radiation for wind and solar energy.


See also


References


Further reading

*Byers, Horace. General Meteorology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. * * * * * * *


Dictionaries and encyclopedias

* * *


External links

''Please see
weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' o ...
for weather forecast sites.''
Air Quality Meteorology
– Online course that introduces the basic concepts of meteorology and air quality necessary to understand meteorological computer models. Written at a bachelor's degree level.
The GLOBE Program
– (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) An international environmental science and education program that links students, teachers, and the scientific research community in an effort to learn more about the environment through student data collection and observation.
Glossary of Meteorology
– From the American Meteorological Society, an excellent reference of nomenclature, equations, and concepts for the more advanced reader.
JetStream – An Online School for Weather
– National Weather Service
Learn About Meteorology
– Australian Bureau of Meteorology
The Weather Guide
– Weather Tutorials and News at About.com
Meteorology Education and Training (MetEd)
– The COMET Program
NOAA Central Library
– National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
The World Weather 2010 Project
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Ogimet – online data from meteorological stations of the world, obtained through NOAA free servicesNational Center for Atmospheric Research Archives, documents the history of meteorologyWeather forecasting and Climate science
– United Kingdom Meteorological Office
Meteorology
BBC Radio 4 discussion with Vladimir Janković, Richard Hambyn and Iba Taub (''In Our Time, 6 March 2003)
Virtual exhibition about meteorology
on the digital library of Paris Observatory {{Authority control Meteorology, Applied and interdisciplinary physics Oceanography Physical geography Greek words and phrases