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Industrial processes are procedures involving
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
,
physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physical" (Olivia Newton-John song) *Physical ( ...

physical
,
electrical Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...
or
mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), p ...
steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.


Chemical processes by main basic material

Certain chemical process yield important basic materials for society, e.g., (
cement A cement is a binder (material), binder, a substance used for construction that solidification, sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (constru ...
,
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

steel
,
aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Uni ...

aluminum
, and
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
). However, these chemical reactions contribute to
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known event ...
by emitting
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is ...

carbon dioxide
, a
greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformat ...
, through chemical reactions, as well as through the combustion of
fossil fuels A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen che ...
to generate the high temperatures needed to reach the
activation energies
activation energies
of the chemical reactions.


Cement (the paste within concrete)

*
Calcination Calcination refers to heating a solid to high temperatures in absence of air or oxygen, generally for the purpose of removing impurities or volatile substances. However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment Thermal treatment is any ...
Limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

Limestone
, which is largely composed of fossilized
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together ...

calcium carbonate
(CaCO3), breaks down at high temperatures into useable
calcium oxide Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter ...

calcium oxide
(CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (), which gets released as a
by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, process or ; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste: for example, , whic ...
. This chemical reaction, called calcination, figures most prominently in creating
cement A cement is a binder (material), binder, a substance used for construction that solidification, sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (constru ...
(the paste within
concrete Concrete is a composed of fine and coarse bonded together with a fluid (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material. Its ...

concrete
). The reaction is also important in providing calcium oxide to act as a chemical
flux of \mathbf(\mathbf) with the unit normal vector \mathbf(\mathbf) ''(blue arrows)'' at the point \mathbf multiplied by the area dS. The sum of \mathbf\cdot\mathbf dS for each patch on the surface is the flux through the surface Flux describes ...
(removal of impurities) within a
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of used for to produce industrial metals, generally , but also others such as or . ''Blast'' refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel (), , and ( ...
. :CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)


Steel

*
Smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane (size: 6.7 × 5.8 × 5.1 cm) ore – galena and anglesite (size: 4.8 × 4.0 × 3.0 cm) ore (size: 7.5 × 6.1 × 4.1 cm) File:OreCartPachuca.JPG, upMinecart on ...
– Inside of a
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of used for to produce industrial metals, generally , but also others such as or . ''Blast'' refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel (), , and ( ...
,
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
(CO) is released by combusting coke (a high-carbon derivative of
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen ...

coal
) and removes the undesired oxygen (O) within
ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart- ...

ore
s. is released as a by-product, carrying away the oxygen and leaving behind the desired pure metal. Most prominently,
iron smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, sh ...
is how
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

steel
(largely iron with small amounts of carbon) is created from mined
iron ore Iron ores are rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rock ...
and coal. :Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) → 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)


Aluminum

*
Hall–Héroult process The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add ...
– Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is smelted with coke (C) in a high-temperature
electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms ...

electrolysis
reaction, yielding the desired pure aluminum (Al) and a mixture of CO and . :Al2O3(s) + 3 C(s) → 2 Al(s) + 3 CO(g) :2 Al2O3(s) + 3 C(s) → 4 Al(s) + 3 CO2(g)


Fertilizer

*
Haber process The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation is a chemical process by which molecular nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atom ...

Haber process
– Atmospheric Nitrogen (N2) is separated, yielding ammonia (NH3), which is used to make all synthetic
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
. The Haber process uses a
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 ...
carbon source, generally
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic wit ...

natural gas
, to provide the CO for the
water-gas shift reaction The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Hea ...
, yielding
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

hydrogen
(H2) and releasing . The H2 is used to break the strong triple bond in N2, yielding industrial ammonia. :CH4(g) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + 3 H2(g) :CO(g) + H2O(g) → H2(g) + CO2(g) :N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g)


Other chemical processes

*
Pyroprocessing Pyroprocessing (from Greek Πυρος = ''fire'') is a process in which materials are subjected to high temperatures (typically over 800 °C) in order to bring about a chemical or physical change. Pyroprocessing includes such terms as ore-ro ...
– using heat to chemically combine materials, such as in
cement A cement is a binder (material), binder, a substance used for construction that solidification, sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (constru ...
. *
Disinfection Disinfectants are chemical agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms on inert surfaces. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores An endospore is a dormant, tough, and no ...
– chemical treatment to kill bacteria and viruses.


Electrolysis

The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals. *
Gilding Gilding is a decorative technique for applying a very thin coating of to solid surfaces such as metal (most common), wood, , or stone. A gilded object is also described as "gilt". Where metal is gilded, the metal below was traditionally in th ...
,
electroplating Electroplating is a general name for processes that produce a metal coating on a solid substrate through the redox, reduction of cations of that metal by means of a direct current, direct electric current. The part to be coated acts as the cathode ...
,
anodization s have an anodized aluminium surface that has been dyed; they are made in many colours. Anodizing is an electrolyte, electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide of rutile Rutile is a mineral composed pri ...
,
electrowinning Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, ...
– depositing a material on an electrode *
Electropolishing Electropolishing, also known as electrochemical polishing, anodic polishing, or electrolytic polishing (especially in the metallography of bronze revealing a cast dendrite (metal), dendritic structure Metallography is the study of the physical ...
– the reverse of electroplating * Electrofocusing – similar to electroplating, but separating molecules *
Electrolytic process An electrolytic process is the use of electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, stru ...
– the generic process of using electrolysis *
Electrophoretic deposition Electrophoretic deposition (EPD), is a term for a broad range of industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic prope ...
– electrolytic deposition of colloidal particles in a liquid medium *
Electrotyping Electrotyping (also galvanoplasty) is a chemical method for forming metal parts that exactly reproduce a model. The method was invented by Moritz von Jacobi in Russia in 1838, and was immediately adopted for applications in printing and several o ...

Electrotyping
– using electroplating to produce printing plates *
Metallizing of the 1886VE10 microcontroller A microcontroller (MCU for ''microcontroller unit'') is a small computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern compu ...
,
plating Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. Plating has been done for hundreds of years; it is also critical for modern technology. Plating is used to decorate objects, for corrosion inhibition, to improve ...

plating
,
spin coating Spin coating is a procedure used to deposit uniform thin film A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer The nanometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol ...
– the generic terms for giving non-metals a metallic coating


Cutting

* Shearing *
Sawing A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, Wire saw, wire, or Chain saw, chain with a hard toothed edge. It is used to cut through material, very often wood though sometimes metal or stone. The cut is made by placing the toothed edge against t ...

Sawing
*
Plasma cutting Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot . Typical materials cut with a include , , , and , although other conductive metals may be cut as well. Plasma cutting is often used in shops, and , ...
*
Water-jet cutting A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using an extremely high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The term abrasive jet ...
- cutting materials using a very high-pressure jet of water * Oxyacetylene cutting *
Electrical discharge machining Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is ...
(EDM) *
Machining Machining is a process in which a material (often metal) is cut to a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme are collectively called subtractive manufacturing, in contrast to ...
– the mechanical cutting and shaping of metal which involves the loss of the material *
Laser cutting Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser A laser is a device that emits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived b ...


Metalworking

*
Smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane (size: 6.7 × 5.8 × 5.1 cm) ore – galena and anglesite (size: 4.8 × 4.0 × 3.0 cm) ore (size: 7.5 × 6.1 × 4.1 cm) File:OreCartPachuca.JPG, upMinecart on ...
and direct Reduction – extracting metals from ores. *
Forging Forging is a manufacturing process Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. ...

Forging
– the shaping of metal by use of heat and hammer *
Casting Casting is a manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is th ...

Casting
– shaping of a liquid material by pouring it into moulds and letting it solidify *
Steelmaking Steelmaking is the process of producing steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepare ...
— turning "pig iron" from smelting into steel *
Progressive stamping Progressive stamping is a metalworking Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polis ...
– the production of components from a strip or roll * Stamping *
Hydroforming Hydroforming is a cost-effective way of shaping ductile metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...
– a tube of metal is expanded into a mould under pressure *
Sandblasting Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics ...
– cleaning of a surface using sand or other particles *
Soldering Soldering (AmE American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Ameri ...

Soldering
,
brazing Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, with the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing differs from weld ...
,
welding Welding is a process that joins materials, usually s or s, by using high to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing . Welding is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as and , which do not the base ...

welding
– a process for joining metals * Tumble polishing – for polishing *
Precipitation hardening Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or particle hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in Ameri ...
– heat treatment used to strengthen malleable materials *
Work hardening #REDIRECT Work hardening#REDIRECT Work hardening Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation. Work hardening may be desirable, undesirable, or inconsequential, depending on th ...
– adding strength to metals, alloys, etc. *
Case hardening Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal at the surface. For iron or steel with low carbon ...
,
differential hardeningDifferential heat treatment (also called selective heat treatment or local heat treatment) is a technique used during heat treating to harden or soften certain areas of a steel object, creating a difference in hardness between these areas. There ar ...
,
shot peening Shot peening is a cold working process used to produce a compressive residual stress Residual stresses are stresses that remain in a solid material after the original cause of the stresses has been removed. Residual stress may be desirable or ...

shot peening
– creating a wear-resistant surface * Die cutting – A "forme" or "die" is pressed onto a flat material in order to cut, score, punch and otherwise shape the material *
Electric arc furnace An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace A furnace is a structure in which heat is produced with the help of combustion. Furnace may also refer to: Appliances Buildings * Furnace (house heating): a furnace , or a heater or boiler , used to ...

Electric arc furnace
— very-high-temperature processing


Iron and steel

*
Smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane (size: 6.7 × 5.8 × 5.1 cm) ore – galena and anglesite (size: 4.8 × 4.0 × 3.0 cm) ore (size: 7.5 × 6.1 × 4.1 cm) File:OreCartPachuca.JPG, upMinecart on ...
– the generic process used in furnaces to produce steel, copper, etc. *
Catalan forge A bloomery is a type of once used widely for iron from its . The bloomery was the earliest form of capable of smelting iron. Bloomeries produce a porous mass of and called a ''bloom''. The mix of slag and iron in the bloom, termed ', ...

Catalan forge
,
open hearth furnace An open-hearth furnace or open hearth furnace is any of several kinds of industrial Industrial furnace, furnace in which excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to Steelmaking, produce steel. Because steel is difficult to ma ...
,
bloomery A bloomery is a type of furnace A furnace, referred to as a heater or boiler in British English, is a heating unit used to heat up an entire building. Furnaces are mostly used as a major component of a central heating system. The name de ...
,
Siemens regenerative furnace Open-hearth furnaces are one of several kinds of furnace A furnace, referred to as a heater or boiler in British English, is a heating unit used to heat up an entire building. Furnaces are mostly used as a major component of a central heating ...
– produced wrought iron *
Blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of used for to produce industrial metals, generally , but also others such as or . ''Blast'' refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel (), , and ( ...
– produced cast iron * Direct Reduction – produced
direct reduced iron Direct reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, meta ...
*
Crucible steel Crucible steel is steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be pre ...
*
Cementation process The cementation process is an obsolete technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, s ...
*
Bessemer process The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some refer ...

Bessemer process
*
Basic oxygen steelmaking Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, or OSM), also known as Linz-Donawitz steelmaking or the oxygen converter processBrock and Elzinga, p. 50. is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel. Blowing o ...


Moulding

The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould. *
Casting Casting is a manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is th ...

Casting
,
sand casting Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting In metalworking and jewelry making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is delivered into a mold (usually by a crucible) that contains a negative impression (i.e., ...

sand casting
– the shaping of molten metal or plastics using a mould *
Sintering Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering or frittage is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction In materials science The interdisciplinary ...
,
powder metallurgy Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders. PM processes can avoid, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal removal processes, thereby drastically reducing yield lo ...
– the making of objects from metal or ceramic powder *
Blow molding Blow molding (or moulding) is a manufacturing process for forming and joining together hollow plastic parts. It is also used for forming glass bottles or other hollow shapes. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blo ...

Blow molding
as in
plastic container Plastic containers are containers made exclusively or partially of plastic Plastics are a wide range of synthetic polymers, synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient. Their Plasticity (physics), plasticity mak ...
s or in the glass container industry – making hollow objects by blowing them into a mould. *
Compression molding Compression molding is a method of molding in which the molding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mold cavity. The mold is closed with a top force or plug member, pressure is applied to force the material int ...

Compression molding


Separation

Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product. *
Comminution Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by Crusher, crushing, Mill (grinding), grinding, cutting, Vibrator (mechanical), vibrating, or other processes. In geology, it occurs ...

Comminution
– reduces the size of physical particles (it exists between crushing and grinding) *
Froth flotation Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating of hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic. This is used in mineral processing, paper recycling and waste-water treatment industries. Historically this was first used in the mining industry, w ...
,
flotation process of the froth surface. Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic. This is used in mineral processing, paper recycling and waste-water treatment industries. Historically this was first used in th ...
– separating minerals through flotation *
Liquid–liquid extraction Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complex A coordination complex consists of a central atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter I ...
– dissolving one substance in another * Frasch process – for extracting molten sulfur from the ground


Distillation

Distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically com ...

Distillation
is the purification of volatile substances by
evaporation Evaporation is a type of vaporization Vaporization (or vaporisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling. Evaporation is a surface phe ...

evaporation
and
condensation Condensation is the change of the state of matter In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and Plasma (physics), plasma. ...

condensation
*
Fractional distillation Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matt ...
,
steam distillationImage:Steam dist.svg, alt=Steam Distillation Apparatus, Steam distillation apparatus in a lab. Steam distillation is a separation process that consists in distillation, distilling water together with other Volatility (chemistry), volatile and non-v ...

steam distillation
,
vacuum distillation
vacuum distillation
*
Batch distillationBatch distillation refers to the use of distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Dry distillation is th ...
*
Continuous distillation Continuous distillation, a form of distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved wit ...
*
Fractionating column
Fractionating column
* Spinning cone


Additive manufacturing

In additive manufacturing, material is progressively added to the piece until the desired shape and size are obtained. * Fused deposition modeling (FDM) * Stereolithography (SLA) * Selective laser sintering (SLS) * Photolithography


Petroleum and organic compounds

The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products. * Cracking (chemistry) – the generic term for breaking up the larger molecules * Alkylation – refining of crude oil * Burton process – cracking of hydrocarbons * Cumene process – making phenol and acetone from benzene * Friedel-Crafts reaction, Kolbe-Schmitt reaction * Olefin metathesis, thermal depolymerization * Transesterification – organic chemicals * Raschig hydroxylamine process, Raschig process for production of hydroxylamine – part of the process to produce nylon * Oxo process – Produces aldehydes from alkenes * Polymerisation


Organized by product

* Aluminium – ( Hall-Héroult process, Deville process, Bayer process, Wöhler process) * Ammonia, used in
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
– (
Haber process The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation is a chemical process by which molecular nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atom ...

Haber process
) * Bromine – (Dow process) * Chlorine, used in chemicals – (chloralkali process, Weldon process, Sodium hypochlorite#Production, Hooker process) * Fat – (rendering (industrial), rendering) * Fertilizer – (nitrophosphate process) * Glass – (Float glass, Pilkington process) * Gold – (bacterial oxidation, Parkes process) * Graphite – (Acheson process) * Heavy water, used to refine radioactive products – (Girdler sulfide process) * Hydrogen – (water–gas shift reaction, steam reforming) * Lead (and Bismuth) – (Betts electrolytic process, Betterton-Kroll process) * Nickel – (Mond process) * Nitric acid – (Ostwald process) * Paper – (pulping, Kraft process, Fourdrinier machine) * Rubber – (vulcanization) * Salt – (Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process) * Semiconductor crystals – (Bridgman–Stockbarger method, Czochralski method) * Silver – (Patio process, Parkes process) * Silicon carbide – (Acheson process, Lely process) * Sodium carbonate, used for soap – (Leblanc process, Solvay process, Leblanc-Deacon process) * Sulfuric acid – (lead chamber process, contact process) * Titanium – (Hunter process, Kroll process) * Zirconium – (Hunter process, Kroll process, van Arkel–de Boer process) A list by process: * Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process – produces salt from brine * Bacterial oxidation – used to produce gold * Bayer process – the extraction of aluminium from ore * Chloralkali process, Weldon process – for producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide * Dow process – produces bromine from brine * FFC Cambridge process * Girdler sulfide process – for making heavy water * Hunter process, Kroll process – produces titanium and zirconium * Industrial rendering – the separation of fat from bone and protein * Lead chamber process, contact process – production of sulfuric acid * Mond process – nickel * Nitrophosphate process – a number of similar process for producing fertilizer * Ostwald process – produces nitric acid * Packaging * Pidgeon process – produces magnesium, reducing the oxide using silicon * Steam reforming, water gas shift reaction – produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide from methane or hydrogen and carbon dioxide from water and carbon monoxide * Vacuum metalising – a finishing process * Van Arkel–de Boer process – for producing titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, thorium or protactinium * Formox process – oxidation of methanol to produce formaldehyde


See also

* Chemical engineering * Mass production


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Industrial Processes Industrial processes, Secondary sector of the economy Technology-related lists Industry-related lists