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mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, if is a
subset In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...

subset
of , then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the
function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
that sends each element of to , treated as an element of : :\iota: A\rightarrow B, \qquad \iota(x)=x. A "hooked arrow" () is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: :\iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (However, some authors use this hooked arrow for any
embedding In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
.) This and other analogous
injective In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections. Given any
morphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...

morphism
between
objects Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy) An object is a philosophy, philosophical term often used in contrast to the term ''Subject (philosophy), subject''. A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. For mo ...
and , if there is an inclusion map into the
domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function In mathematics, the domain of a Function (mathematics), function is the Set (mathematics), set of inputs accepted by the function. It is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(f), where is th ...
, then one can form the restriction of . In many instances, one can also construct a canonical inclusion into the
codomain In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...

codomain
known as the
range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic), a chain of hills or mountains; a somewhat linear, complex mountainous or hilly area (cordillera, sierra) ** Mountain range, a group of mountains bordered by lowlands * Range, a term used to i ...
of .


Applications of inclusion maps

Inclusion maps tend to be
homomorphism In algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. I ...
s of
algebraic structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
s; thus, such inclusion maps are
embedding In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
s. More precisely, given a substructure closed under some operations, the inclusion map will be an embedding for tautological reasons. For example, for some binary operation , to require that :\iota(x\star y)=\iota(x)\star \iota(y) is simply to say that is consistently computed in the sub-structure and the large structure. The case of a
unary operation In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
is similar; but one should also look at
nullary Arity () is the number of argument of a function, arguments or operands taken by a function (mathematics), function or operation (mathematics), operation in logic, mathematics, and computer science. In mathematics, arity may also be named ''rank'', ...
operations, which pick out a ''constant'' element. Here the point is that closure means such constants must already be given in the substructure. Inclusion maps are seen in
algebraic topology Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained ...
where if is a
strong deformation retract In topology, a branch of mathematics, a retraction is a continuous mapping from a topological space into a Subspace topology, subspace that preserves the position of all points in that subspace. The subspace is then called a retract of the original ...
of , the inclusion map yields an
isomorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
between all
homotopy groups In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
(that is, it is a
homotopy equivalence In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous function (topology), continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ὁμός ''homós'' "same, similar" and τόπος ''tópos'' " ...

homotopy equivalence
). Inclusion maps in
geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ...

geometry
come in different kinds: for example
embedding In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
s of
submanifold In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
s. Contravariant objects (which is to say, objects that have
pullback In mathematics, a pullback is either of two different, but related processes: precomposition and fiber-product. Its dual is a Pushforward (disambiguation), pushforward. Precomposition Precomposition with a Function (mathematics), function probabl ...

pullback
s; these are called covariant in an older and unrelated terminology) such as
differential form In the mathematical Mathematics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population ...
s ''restrict'' to submanifolds, giving a mapping in the ''other direction''. Another example, more sophisticated, is that of
affine scheme In commutative algebra Commutative algebra is the branch of algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together wit ...
s, for which the inclusions :\operatorname\left(R/I\right) \to \operatorname(R) and :\operatorname\left(R/I^2\right) \to \operatorname(R) may be different
morphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...

morphism
s, where is a
commutative ring In ring theory In algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical ana ...
and is an
ideal Ideal may refer to: Philosophy * Ideal (ethics) An ideal is a principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting ...
of .


See also

*
CofibrationIn mathematics, in particular homotopy theory, a continuous mapping :i: A \to X, where A and X are topological spaces, is a cofibration if it lets homotopy classes of maps ,Sbe extended to homotopy classes of maps ,Swhenever a map f \in \te ...
*
Identity function Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation, identity map or identity transformation, is a function (mathematics), function that always returns the same value that was ...

Identity function


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Inclusion Map Functions and mappings
Basic concepts in set theory{{Commons This category is for the foundational concepts of naive set theory, in terms of which contemporary mathematics is typically expressed. Mathematical concepts ...