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Hydrogen is the
chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo du ...
with the
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...
H and
atomic number The atomic number or proton number (symbol ''Z'') of a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. ...
 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At
standard conditions Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), a ...
hydrogen is a
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
of
diatomic molecule Diatomic molecules are molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position I ...
s having the
formula In , a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a . The informal use of the term ''formula'' in science refers to the . The plural of ''formula'' can be either ''formulas'' (from the mos ...
H2. It is colorless,
odorless Olfaction, or the sense of smell, is the special sense through which smells (or odors) are perceived. It occurs when an odor binds to a receptor within the nasal cavity, transmitting a signal through the olfactory system The olfactory sys ...
,
tasteless
tasteless
, non-toxic, and highly
combustible A combustible material is something that can burn (i.e., ''combust'') in air. A combustible material is flammable if it ignites easily at ambient temperatures. In other words, a combustible material ignites with some effort and a flammable mat ...
. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the
universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

universe
, constituting roughly 75% of all normal
matter In classical physics Classical physics is a group of physics theories that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be modern, and its introduction represented a major ...
.However, most of the universe's mass is not in the form of baryons or chemical elements. See
dark matter Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, ...

dark matter
and
dark energy In physical cosmology Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the unive ...

dark energy
.
Star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark ...

Star
s such as the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
are mainly composed of hydrogen in the
plasma state Plasma (πλάσμα
, Henry George Liddell, Ro ...
. Most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
and
organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s. For the most common
isotope Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number 300px, The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of ...
of hydrogen (symbol 1H) each
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
has one
proton A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge of +1''e'' elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collecti ...

proton
, one
electron The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation (particle physics), generation of the lepton particle family, and are general ...

electron
, and no
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
s. In the early
universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

universe
, the formation of protons, the nuclei of hydrogen, occurred during the first second after the
Big Bang The Big Bang theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...

Big Bang
. The emergence of neutral hydrogen atoms throughout the universe occurred about 370,000 years later during the recombination epoch, when the
plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark–gluon plasma, a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics Biology * Blood plasma ...
had cooled enough for
electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has m ...
to remain bound to protons. Hydrogen is
nonmetallic image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-en.svg, upright=1.75, Nonmetals (and metalloids) in the periodic table: Metalloids are included in the legend as they generally behave chemically like nonmetals and are sometimes counted as such.Apart from hydrog ...
, except at extremely high pressures, and readily forms a single
covalent A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
bond with most nonmetallic elements, forming compounds such as
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
and nearly all
organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in
acid–base reaction An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general che ...
s because these reactions usually involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In
ionic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e.,
anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
) where it is known as a
hydride In chemistry, a hydride is formally the anion of hydrogen, H−. The term is applied loosely. At one extreme, all chemical compound, compounds containing covalent bond, covalently bound H atoms are called hydrides: water (H2O) is a hydride of o ...

hydride
, or as a positively charged (i.e.,
cation An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
)
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...
denoted by the symbol H+. The H+ cation is simply a
proton A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge of +1''e'' elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collecti ...

proton
(symbol p) but its behavior in
aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute an ...
s and in
ionic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s involves screening of its
electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positive'' or ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like c ...
by nearby
polar Polar may refer to: Geography Polar may refer to: * Geographical pole, either of two fixed points on the surface of a rotating body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body rotates *Polar climate, the clim ...
molecules or anions. Because hydrogen is the only neutral atom for which the
Schrödinger equation The Schrödinger equation is a linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship (''function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a ma ...
can be solved analytically, the study of its energetics and chemical bonding has played a key role in the development of
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
. Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of acids on metals. In 1766–81,
Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resourc ...
was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produces water when burned, the property for which it was later named: in Greek, hydrogen means "water-former".
Industrial productionIndustrial production is a measure of output of the industrial sector of the economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distri ...
is mainly from steam reforming natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive methods such as the
electrolysis of water Electrolysis of water is the process of using electricity to decompose water into oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), g ...

electrolysis of water
. Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
processing (e.g.,
hydrocracking In petrochemistry Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, pr ...
) and
ammonia Ammonia is a chemical compound, compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the chemical formula, formula NH3. A Binary compounds of hydrogen, stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct ch ...

ammonia
production, mostly for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen is problematic in
metallurgy Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering ''Materials Science and Engineering'' may refer to several journals in the field of materials science and engineering: * '' Materials Science and Engineering A'' * '' Materials Science ...
because it can
embrittle
embrittle
many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and
storage tanks Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank; or in U.S.A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The t ...
.


Properties


Combustion

Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen) is highly flammable: : 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)286 kJ/mol: energy per mole of the combustible material (molecular hydrogen). The
enthalpy of combustion The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composi ...
is −286 kJ/mol. Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air in concentrations from 4–74% and with chlorine at 5–95%. The explosive reactions may be triggered by spark, heat, or sunlight. The hydrogen
autoignition temperature The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature in which it spontaneously ignites in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to suppl ...
, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is .


Flame

Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit
ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, ...

ultraviolet
light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the
Space Shuttle Main Engine The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, also known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel rocket, liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle. NASA is planning to continue using the RS-25 on the Space Shut ...
, compared to the highly visible plume of a
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (Space Shuttle SRB) was the first solid-propellant rocket A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses Rocket propellant#Solid propellants, solid propellants (fuel ...
, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. The detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a
flame detector A flame detector is a sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or c ...
; such leaks can be very dangerous. Hydrogen flames in other conditions are blue, resembling blue natural gas flames. The
destruction of the Hindenburg airship
destruction of the Hindenburg airship
was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. The visible flames in the photographs were the result of carbon compounds in the airship skin burning.


Reactants

H2 is unreactive compared to diatomic elements such as
halogens The halogens () are a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...

halogens
or oxygen. The thermodynamic basis of this low reactivity is the very strong H-H bond, with a
bond dissociation energy The bond-dissociation energy (BDE, ''D''0, or ''DH°'') is one measure of the strength Physical strength *Physical strength, as in people or animals *Hysterical strength, extreme strength occurring when people are in life-and-death situations ...
of 435.7 kJ/mol. The kinetic basis of the low reactivity is the nonpolar nature of H2 and its weak polarizability. It spontaneously reacts with
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
and
fluorine Fluorine is a chemical element with the Chemical symbol, symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow Diatomic molecule ...

fluorine
to form
hydrogen chloride The compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with ...

hydrogen chloride
and
hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an important feedstock in the preparation ...

hydrogen fluoride
, respectively. The reactivity of H2 is strongly affected by the presence of metal catalysts. Thus, while mixtures of H2 with O2 or air combust readily when heated to at least 500 C by a spark or flame, they do not react at room temperature in the absence of a catalyst.


Electron energy levels

The
ground state The ground state of a quantum-mechanical system is its lowest-energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledg ...
energy level A quantum mechanical Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking ...
of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6  eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet
photon The photon ( el, φῶς, phōs, light) is a type of elementary particle In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s ...

photon
of roughly 91  nm wavelength. The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the
Bohr model
Bohr model
of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by
electromagnetic force Electromagnetism is a branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related ...
, while planets and celestial objects are held by
gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a by which all things with or —including s, s, , and even —are attracted to (or ''gravitate'' toward) one another. , gravity gives to s, and the causes the s of the oceans. The gravitational attracti ...

gravity
. Because of the discretization of
angular momentum In , angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of . It is an important quantity in physics because it is a —the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant. In three , the ...

angular momentum
postulated in early
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
by Bohr, the electron in the Bohr model can only occupy certain allowed distances from the proton, and therefore only certain allowed energies. A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the
Schrödinger equation The Schrödinger equation is a linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship (''function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a ma ...
,
Dirac equation In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its Dirac equation#Covariant form and relativistic invariance, free form, or including Dirac equation#Comparison with t ...
or
Feynman Richard Phillips Feynman (; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation The path integral formulation is a description in quantum mechanics Quantum mech ...

Feynman
path integral formulation The path integral formulation is a description in quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic p ...
to calculate the
probability density and probability density function of a normal distribution In probability theory, a normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution for a real number, real-valued random variable. ...
of the electron around the proton. The most complicated treatments allow for the small effects of
special relativity In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force ...
and
vacuum polarization In quantum field theory In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity and quantum mechanics. QFT is used in particle physics to construct physical models o ...

vacuum polarization
. In the quantum mechanical treatment, the electron in a ground state hydrogen atom has no angular momentum at all—illustrating how the "planetary orbit" differs from electron motion.


Spin isomers

Molecular H2 exists as two spin isomers, i.e. compounds that differ only in the spin states of their nuclei. In the orthohydrogen form, the spins of the two nuclei are parallel, forming a spin
triplet state In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum p ...

triplet state
having a total molecular spin S = 1; in the parahydrogen form the spins are antiparallel and form a spin
singlet state In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is ...
having spin S = 0. The equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-hydrogen depends on temperature. At room temperature or warmer, equilibrium hydrogen gas contains about 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form. The ortho form is an
excited state In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinkin ...
, having higher energy than the para form by 1.455 kJ/mol, and it converts to the para form over the course of several minutes when cooled to low temperature. The thermal properties of the forms differ because they differ in their allowed rotational quantum states, resulting in different thermal properties such as the heat capacity. The ortho-to-para ratio in H2 is an important consideration in the
liquefaction In materials science The interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Educ ...

liquefaction
and storage of
liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
: the conversion from ortho to para is
exothermic In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these qu ...

exothermic
and produces enough heat to evaporate a most of the liquid if not converted first to parahydrogen during the cooling process.
Catalyst Catalysis () is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In cla ...

Catalyst
s for the ortho-para interconversion, such as
ferric oxide Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, the distinction is ...

ferric oxide
and
activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes ...

activated carbon
compounds, are used during hydrogen cooling to avoid this loss of liquid.


Phases

*
Gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

Gas
eous hydrogen *
Liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
* Slush hydrogen * Solid hydrogen *
Metallic hydrogen Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen is t ...
*
Plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark–gluon plasma, a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics Biology * Blood plasma ...
hydrogen


Compounds


Covalent and organic compounds

While H2 is not very reactive under standard conditions, it does form compounds with most elements. Hydrogen can form compounds with elements that are more
electronegative Electronegativity, symbolized as ''Chi (letter), χ'', is the tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons (or electron density) to itself. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance at which its valence ...

electronegative
, such as
halogen The halogens () are a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...

halogen
s (F, Cl, Br, I), or
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
; in these compounds hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge. When bonded to a more electronegative element, particularly
fluorine Fluorine is a chemical element with the Chemical symbol, symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow Diatomic molecule ...

fluorine
,
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
, or
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
, hydrogen can participate in a form of medium-strength noncovalent bonding with another electronegative element with a lone pair, a phenomenon called
hydrogen bond A hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily electrostatic Electrostatics is a branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department ...

hydrogen bond
ing that is critical to the stability of many biological molecules. Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as
metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

metal
s and
metalloid A metalloid is a type of chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chem ...
s, where it takes on a partial negative charge. These compounds are often known as
hydride In chemistry, a hydride is formally the anion of hydrogen, H−. The term is applied loosely. At one extreme, all chemical compound, compounds containing covalent bond, covalently bound H atoms are called hydrides: water (H2O) is a hydride of o ...

hydride
s. Hydrogen forms a vast array of compounds with
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
called the
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
s, and an even vaster array with
heteroatoms In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they under ...
that, because of their general association with living things, are called
organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s. The study of their properties is known as
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and th ...
and their study in the context of living
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s is known as
biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and pr ...

biochemistry
. By some definitions, "organic" compounds are only required to contain carbon. However, most of them also contain hydrogen, and because it is the carbon-hydrogen bond that gives this class of compounds most of its particular chemical characteristics, carbon-hydrogen bonds are required in some definitions of the word "organic" in chemistry. Millions of
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
s are known, and they are usually formed by complicated pathways that seldom involve elemental hydrogen. Hydrogen is highly soluble in many rare earth and
transition metal In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions: * The IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations tha ...
s and is soluble in both nanocrystalline and
amorphous metal An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with disordered atomic-scale structure. Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arr ...
s. Hydrogen
solubility In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...

solubility
in metals is influenced by local distortions or impurities in the
crystal lattice In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of f ...
. These properties may be useful when hydrogen is purified by passage through hot
palladium Palladium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

palladium
disks, but the gas's high solubility is a metallurgical problem, contributing to the
embrittlementEmbrittlement is a significant decrease of ductility Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing (e.g. into wire). In materials science, ductility is defined by the degree to which a material can ...

embrittlement
of many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.


Hydrides

Compounds of hydrogen are often called
hydride In chemistry, a hydride is formally the anion of hydrogen, H−. The term is applied loosely. At one extreme, all chemical compound, compounds containing covalent bond, covalently bound H atoms are called hydrides: water (H2O) is a hydride of o ...

hydride
s, a term that is used fairly loosely. The term "hydride" suggests that the H atom has acquired a negative or anionic character, denoted H, and is used when hydrogen forms a compound with a more
electropositive Electronegativity, symbolized as ''Chi (letter), χ'', is the tendency for an atom of a given chemical element to attract shared electrons (or electron density) when forming a chemical bond. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its ato ...
element. The existence of the , suggested by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 for group 1 and 2 salt-like hydrides, was demonstrated by Moers in 1920 by the electrolysis of molten
lithium hydride Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, prope ...

lithium hydride
(LiH), producing a
stoichiometric Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical s ...
quantity of hydrogen at the anode. For hydrides other than group 1 and 2 metals, the term is quite misleading, considering the low electronegativity of hydrogen. An exception in group 2 hydrides is , which is polymeric. In
lithium aluminium hydride Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, ...

lithium aluminium hydride
, the anion carries hydridic centers firmly attached to the Al(III). Although hydrides can be formed with almost all main-group elements, the number and combination of possible compounds varies widely; for example, more than 100 binary borane hydrides are known, but only one binary aluminium hydride. Binary
indium Indium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

indium
hydride has not yet been identified, although larger complexes exist. In
inorganic chemistry#REDIRECT Inorganic chemistry features unusual bonding B: Caesium chloride Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula Caesium, CsChloride, Cl. This colorless salt is an important source of caesium ions in a var ...
, hydrides can also serve as
bridging ligand In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions. The ligand may be atomic or polyatomic. Virtually all complex organic compounds can serve as bridging ligands, so the term is usually res ...

bridging ligand
s that link two metal centers in a
coordination complex A coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the ''coordination centre'', and a surrounding array of chemical bond, bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ''ligands'' or complexing ...
. This function is particularly common in
group 13 element File:Kamienica al. Solidarności 93 dawniej Leszno 13.JPG, 240px, Building at 93 Solidarność Avenue, formerly 13 Leszno Street, in Warsaw, 2014, which was in 1940–1941 the headquarters, HQ of ''Trzynastka'' The Group Thirteen network ( pl, ...
s, especially in
borane Trihydridoboron, also known as borane or borine, is an unstable and highly reactive molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongs ...

borane
s (
boron Boron is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

boron
hydrides) and
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
complexes, as well as in clustered
carborane Carboranes are electron-delocalized (non-classically bonded) clusters composed of boron Boron is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernov ...
s.


Protons and acids

Oxidation of hydrogen removes its electron and gives H+, which contains no electrons and a
nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
which is usually composed of one proton. That is why is often called a proton. This species is central to discussion of
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
s. Under the
Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory The Brønsted–Lowry theory (also called proton theory of acids and bases) is an acid–base reaction An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set ...
, acids are proton donors, while bases are proton acceptors. A bare proton, , cannot exist in solution or in ionic crystals because of its unstoppable attraction to other atoms or molecules with electrons. Except at the high temperatures associated with plasmas, such protons cannot be removed from the
electron cloud In atomic theory Atomic theory is the scientific theory A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that has been repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method The sc ...
s of atoms and molecules, and will remain attached to them. However, the term 'proton' is sometimes used loosely and metaphorically to refer to positively charged or
cation An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
ic hydrogen attached to other species in this fashion, and as such is denoted "" without any implication that any single protons exist freely as a species. To avoid the implication of the naked "solvated proton" in solution, acidic aqueous solutions are sometimes considered to contain a less unlikely fictitious species, termed the "
hydronium In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in th ...

hydronium
ion" (). However, even in this case, such solvated hydrogen cations are more realistically conceived as being organized into clusters that form species closer to H. Other
oxonium ionOxonium may refer to: * Oxonium ion, any ion which contains a trivalent oxygen atom, *Oxonium is an IUPAC name for the simplest oxonium ion, hydronium In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, element ...
s are found when water is in acidic solution with other solvents. Although exotic on Earth, one of the most common ions in the universe is the ion, known as protonated molecular hydrogen or the trihydrogen cation.


Isotopes

Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted , and . Other, highly unstable nuclei ( to ) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature. * is the most common hydrogen isotope, with an abundance of more than 99.98%. Because the
nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name ''protium''. It is unique among all stable isotopes in having no neutrons; see diproton for a discussion of why others do not exist. * , the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as ''
deuterium Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific elemen ...

deuterium
'' and contains one proton and one
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
in the nucleus. All deuterium in the universe is thought to have been produced at the time of the
Big Bang The Big Bang theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...

Big Bang
, and has endured since that time. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called
heavy water Heavy water (deuterium oxide, , ) is a form of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). I ...

heavy water
. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for -
NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and Electromagnetism, electromagnetic ra ...
. Heavy water is used as a
neutron moderator In nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehi ...
and coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial
nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the reactants and products ...

nuclear fusion
. * is known as ''
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
'' and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into
helium-3 Helium-3 (3He see also helion) is a light, stable isotope Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number (number of protons A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a positive electric charge Ele ...

helium-3
through
beta decay In , beta decay (''β''-decay) is a type of in which a (fast energetic or ) is emitted from an , transforming the original to an of that nuclide. For example, beta decay of a transforms it into a by the emission of an electron accompanie ...

beta decay
with a
half-life Half-life (symbol ''t''1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies ...
of 12.32 years. It is so radioactive that it can be used in
luminous paint Luminous may refer to: * Luminous flame A luminous flame is a burning flame which is brightly visible. Much of its output is in the form of visible light, as well as heat or light in the non-visible wavelengths. An early study of flame luminosity ...
, making it useful in such things as watches. The glass prevents the small amount of radiation from getting out. Small amounts of tritium are produced naturally by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests. It is used in nuclear fusion reactions, as a tracer in
isotope geochemistry Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the proces ...
, and in specialized self-powered lighting devices. Tritium has also been used in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a
radiolabelA radioactive tracer, radiotracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemic ...
. Unique among the elements, distinct names are assigned to its isotopes in common use today. During the early study of radioactivity, various heavy radioactive isotopes were given their own names, but such names are no longer used, except for deuterium and tritium. The symbols D and T (instead of and ) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium, but the symbol P is already in use for
phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical el ...

phosphorus
and thus is not available for protium. In its nomenclatural guidelines, the
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Science Council (ISC). IUPAC ...
(IUPAC) allows any of D, T, , and to be used, although and are preferred. The
exotic atom An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same Electric charge, charge. For example, electrons may be replaced by other negatively charged particles such as mu ...
muonium Muonium is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon and an electron The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed ...

muonium
(symbol Mu), composed of an and an
electron The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation (particle physics), generation of the lepton particle family, and are general ...

electron
, is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the electron. Muonium was discovered in 1960. During the muon's lifetime, muonium can enter into compounds such as muonium chloride (MuCl) or sodium muonide (NaMu), analogous to
hydrogen chloride The compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with ...

hydrogen chloride
and
sodium hydride Sodium hydride is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by ch ...
respectively.


History


Discovery and use

In 1671,
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
discovered and described the reaction between
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
filings and dilute
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
s, which results in the production of hydrogen gas. In 1766,
Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resourc ...
was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by naming the gas from a metal-acid reaction "inflammable air". He speculated that "inflammable air" was in fact identical to the hypothetical substance called "Phlogiston theory, phlogiston" and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. He is usually given credit for the discovery of hydrogen as an element. In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek ὑδρο- ''hydro'' meaning "water" and -γενής ''genes'' meaning "former") when he and Pierre-Simon Laplace, Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned. Lavoisier produced hydrogen for his experiments on mass conservation by reacting a flux of steam with metallic
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
through an incandescent iron tube heated in a fire. Anaerobic oxidation of iron by the protons of water at high temperature can be schematically represented by the set of following reactions: :1) Fe + H2O -> FeO + H2 :2) Fe + 3 H2O -> Fe2O3 + 3 H2 :3) Fe + 4 H2O -> Fe3O4 + 4 H2 Many metals such as zirconium undergo a similar reaction with water leading to the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen was Liquid hydrogen, liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. He produced solid hydrogen the next year. Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and
tritium Tritium ( or , ) or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or H) is a rare and radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucl ...

tritium
was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck. Heavy water, which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen, was discovered by Urey's group in 1932. François Isaac de Rivaz built the first de Rivaz engine, an internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819. The Döbereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823. The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783. Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard. German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins; the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900. Regularly scheduled flights started in 1910 and by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, they had carried 35,000 passengers without a serious incident. Hydrogen-lifted airships were used as observation platforms and bombers during the war. The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship ''R34 (airship), R34'' in 1919. Regular passenger service resumed in the 1920s and the discovery of helium reserves in the United States promised increased safety, but the U.S. government refused to sell the gas for this purpose. Therefore, H2 was used in the LZ 129 Hindenburg, ''Hindenburg'' airship, which was destroyed in a midair fire over New Jersey on 6 May 1937. The incident was broadcast live on radio and filmed. Ignition of leaking hydrogen is widely assumed to be the cause, but later investigations pointed to the ignition of the aluminium, aluminized fabric coating by static electricity. But the damage to hydrogen's reputation as a lifting gas was already done and commercial hydrogen airship travel Rigid airship#Demise, ceased. Hydrogen is still used, in preference to non-flammable but more expensive helium, as a lifting gas for Weather balloon#Materials and equipment, weather balloons. In the same year, the first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant in the rotor and the stator in 1937 at Dayton, Ohio, Dayton, Ohio, by the Dayton Power & Light Co.; because of the thermal conductivity and very low viscosity of hydrogen gas, thus lower drag than air, this is the most common type in its field today for large generators (typically 60 MW and bigger; smaller generators are usually air cooling, air-cooled). The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2). For example, the International Space Station, ISS, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Odyssey and the Mars Global Surveyor are equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries. In the dark part of its orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope is also powered by nickel-hydrogen batteries, which were finally replaced in May 2009, more than 19 years after launch and 13 years beyond their design life.


Role in quantum theory

Because of its simple atomic structure, consisting only of a proton and an electron, the hydrogen atom, together with the spectrum of light produced from it or absorbed by it, has been central to the development of the theory of
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
ic structure. Furthermore, study of the corresponding simplicity of the hydrogen molecule and the corresponding cation H2+, brought understanding of the nature of the chemical bond, which followed shortly after the quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom had been developed in the mid-1920s. One of the first quantum effects to be explicitly noticed (but not understood at the time) was a Maxwell observation involving hydrogen, half a century before full Quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical theory arrived. Maxwell observed that the specific heat capacity of H2 unaccountably departs from that of a diatomic gas below room temperature and begins to increasingly resemble that of a monatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. According to quantum theory, this behavior arises from the spacing of the (quantized) rotational energy levels, which are particularly wide-spaced in H2 because of its low mass. These widely spaced levels inhibit equal partition of heat energy into rotational motion in hydrogen at low temperatures. Diatomic gases composed of heavier atoms do not have such widely spaced levels and do not exhibit the same effect. Antihydrogen () is the antimatter counterpart to hydrogen. It consists of an antiproton with a positron. Antihydrogen is the only type of antimatter atom to have been produced .


Cosmic prevalence and distribution

Hydrogen, as atomic H, is the most Natural abundance, abundant
chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo du ...
in the universe, making up 75 percent of Baryon, normal matter by mass and more than 90 percent by number of atoms. (Most of the mass of the universe, however, is not in the form of chemical-element type matter, but rather is postulated to occur as yet-undetected forms of mass such as
dark matter Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, ...

dark matter
and
dark energy In physical cosmology Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the unive ...

dark energy
.) This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. Molecular clouds of H2 are associated with star formation. Hydrogen plays a vital role in powering stars through the proton-proton reaction in case of stars with very low to approximately 1 mass of the Sun and the CNO cycle of
nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the reactants and products ...

nuclear fusion
in case of stars more massive than our
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
.


States

Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
ic and
plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark–gluon plasma, a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics Biology * Blood plasma ...
states, with properties quite distinct from those of molecular hydrogen. As a plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together, resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing the light from the Sun and other stars). The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind they interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the Aurora (phenomenon), aurora. Hydrogen is found in the neutral atomic state in the interstellar medium because the atoms seldom collide and combine. They are the source of the hydrogen line, 21-cm hydrogen line at 1420 MHz that is detected in order to probe primordial hydrogen. The large amount of neutral hydrogen found in the damped Lyman-alpha systems is thought to dominate the Physical cosmology, cosmological baryonic density of the universe up to a redshift of ''z'' = 4. Under ordinary conditions on Earth, elemental hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas, H2. Hydrogen gas is very rare in the Earth's atmosphere (1 part per million, ppm by volume) because of its light weight, which enables it to atmospheric escape, escape from the atmosphere more rapidly than heavier gases. However, hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface, mostly in the form of chemical compounds such as
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
s and water. A molecular form called protonated molecular hydrogen () is found in the interstellar medium, where it is generated by ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays. This ion has also been observed in the upper atmosphere of the planet Jupiter. The ion is relatively stable in the environment of outer space due to the low temperature and density. is one of the most abundant ions in the universe, and it plays a notable role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Neutral triatomic hydrogen H3 can exist only in an excited form and is unstable. By contrast, the positive hydrogen molecular ion () is a rare molecule in the universe.


Production

is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories, often as a by-product of other reactions; in industry for the hydrogenation of Saturated and unsaturated compounds, unsaturated substrates; and in nature as a means of expelling redox, reducing equivalents in biochemical reactions.


Electrolysis of water

The
electrolysis of water Electrolysis of water is the process of using electricity to decompose water into oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), g ...

electrolysis of water
is a simple method of producing hydrogen. A low voltage current is run through the water, and gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms at the cathode. Typically the cathode is made from platinum or another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. If, however, the gas is to be burnt on site, oxygen is desirable to assist the combustion, and so both electrodes would be made from inert metals. (Iron, for instance, would oxidize, and thus decrease the amount of oxygen given off.) The theoretical maximum efficiency (electricity used vs. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is in the range 88–94%. : 2 (l) → 2 (g) + (g)


Methane pyrolysis (industrial method)

Hydrogen production using natural gas methane pyrolysis is a recent "no greenhouse gas" one-step process. Developing volume production using this method is the key to enabling faster carbon reduction by using hydrogen in industrial processes, fuel cell electric heavy truck transportation, and in gas turbine electric power generation. Methane pyrolysis uses methane bubbled up through the molten metal catalyst at high temperatures (1340 K, 1065 °C or 1950 °F) to produce non-polluting hydrogen gas in high volume, at low cost and produces non-polluting solid
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
C with no emission of greenhouse gas. : (g) → C(s) + 2 (g) ΔH° = 74 kJ/mol The industrial quality solid carbon may be sold as manufacturing feedstock or permanently landfilled, it is not released into the atmosphere and no ground water pollution in landfill. Methane pyrolysis is in development and considered suitable for commercial bulk hydrogen production. Volume production is being evaluated in the BASF "methane pyrolysis at scale" pilot plant. Further research continues in several laboratories, including at Karlsruhe Liquid-metal Laboratory (KALLA) and the chemical engineering laboratory at University of California – Santa Barbara


Industrial methods

Hydrogen is often produced using water steaming with some transmission of natural gases, which involves the removal of hydrogen from hydrocarbons at very high temperatures, with 48% of hydrogen production coming from steam reforming. Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas with release of atmospheric greenhouse gas or with capture using CCS and climate change mitigation. Steam reforming is also known as the Bosch reaction, Bosch process and is widely used for the industrial preparation of hydrogen. At high temperatures (1000–1400 K, 700–1100 °C or 1300–2000 °F), steam (water vapor) reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and . : + → CO + 3 This reaction is favored at low pressures but is nonetheless conducted at high pressures (2.0 MPa, 20 atm or 600 inHg). This is because high-pressure is the most marketable product, and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification systems work better at higher pressures. The product mixture is known as "synthesis gas" because it is often used directly for the production of methanol and related compounds. Hydrocarbons other than methane can be used to produce synthesis gas with varying product ratios. One of the many complications to this highly optimized technology is the formation of coke or carbon: : → C + 2 Consequently, steam reforming typically employs an excess of . Additional hydrogen can be recovered from the steam by use of carbon monoxide through the water gas shift reaction, especially with an iron oxide catalyst. This reaction is also a common industrial source of carbon dioxide: : CO + → + Other important methods for CO and production include partial oxidation of hydrocarbons: : 2 + → 2 CO + 4 and the coal reaction, which can serve as a prelude to the shift reaction above: : C + → CO + Hydrogen is sometimes produced and consumed in the same industrial process, without being separated. In the Haber process for the Ammonia production, production of ammonia, hydrogen is generated from natural gas. Electrolysis of brine to yield
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
also produces hydrogen as a co-product.


Metal-acid

Many metals react with water to produce , but the rate of hydrogen evolution depends on the metal, the pH, and the presence alloying agents. Most commonly, hydrogen evolution is induced by acids. The alkali and alkaline earth metals, aluminium, zinc, manganese, and iron react readily with aqueous acids. This reaction is the basis of the Kipp's apparatus, which once was used as a laboratory gas source: : Zn + 2 → + In the absence of acid, the evolution of is slower. Because iron is widely used structural material, its anaerobic corrosion is of technological significance: : Fe + 2 O → + Many metals, such as
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
, are slow to react with water because they form passivated coatings of oxides. An alloy of aluminium and gallium, however, does react with water. At high pH, aluminium can produce : : 2 Al + 6 + 2 → 2 + 3 Some metal-containing compounds react with acids to evolve . Under anaerobic conditions, ferrous hydroxide () can be oxidized by the protons of water to form magnetite and . This process is described by the Schikorr reaction: : 3 → + 2 O + This process occurs during the anaerobic corrosion of
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
and steel in Anoxic waters, oxygen-free groundwater and in reducing soils below the water table.


Thermochemical

More than 200 thermochemical cycles can be used for water splitting. Many of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle have been evaluated for their commercial potential to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity. A number of laboratories (including in France, Germany, Greece, Japan, and the USA) are developing thermochemical methods to produce hydrogen from solar energy and water.


Serpentinization reaction

In deep geological conditions prevailing far away from the Earth's atmosphere, hydrogen () is produced during the process of Serpentinization#Hydrogen production by anaerobic oxidation of fayalite ferrous ions, serpentinization. In this process, water protons (H+) are reduced by ferrous (Fe2+) ions provided by fayalite (). The reaction forms magnetite (), quartz (Si), and hydrogen (): : 3 + 2 O → 2 + 3 Si + 3 : ''fayalite + water → magnetite + quartz + hydrogen'' This reaction closely resembles the Schikorr reaction observed in anaerobic oxidation of ferrous hydroxide in contact with water.


Applications


Petrochemical industry

Large quantities of are used in the "upgrading" of fossil fuels. Key consumers of include hydrodealkylation, hydrodesulfurization, and
hydrocracking In petrochemistry Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, pr ...
. Many of these reactions can be classified as hydrogenolysis, i.e., the cleavage of bonds to carbon. Illustrative is the separation of sulfur from liquid fossil fuels: :R-S-R + 2 H2 → H2S + 2 RH


Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation, the addition of to various substrates is conducted on a large scale. The hydrogenation of N2 to produce ammonia by the Haber-Bosch Process consumes a few percent of the energy budget in the entire industry. The resulting ammonia is used to supply the majority of the protein consumed by humans. Hydrogenation is used to convert unsaturated fats and Vegetable oil, oils to saturated fats and oils. The major application is the production of margarine. Methanol is produced by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. It is similarly the source of hydrogen in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. is also used as a reducing agent for the conversion of some ores to the metals.


Coolant

Hydrogen is commonly used in power stations as a coolant in generators due to a number of favorable properties that are a direct result of its light diatomic molecules. These include low density, low viscosity, and the highest Specific heat capacity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of all gases.


Energy carrier

Hydrogen is not an energy resource as a combustion fuel because there is no naturally occurring source of hydrogen in useful quantities. The Sun's energy comes from Stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear fusion of hydrogen, but this process is difficult to achieve controllably on Earth. Elemental hydrogen from solar, biological, or electrical sources requires more energy to make than is obtained by burning it, so in these cases hydrogen functions as an energy carrier, like a battery. Hydrogen may be obtained from fossil sources (such as methane), but these sources are unsustainable. The energy density per unit ''volume'' of both
liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
and compressed hydrogen gas at any practicable pressure is significantly less than that of traditional fuel sources, although the energy density per unit fuel ''mass'' is higher. Nevertheless, elemental hydrogen has been widely discussed in the context of energy, as a possible future ''carrier'' of energy on an economy-wide scale. For example, CO2 sequestration, sequestration followed by carbon capture and storage could be conducted at the point of production from fossil fuels. Hydrogen used in transportation would burn relatively cleanly, with some NOx, NOx emissions, but without carbon emissions. However, the infrastructure costs associated with full conversion to a hydrogen economy would be substantial. Fuel cells can convert hydrogen and oxygen directly to electricity more efficiently than internal combustion engines.


Semiconductor industry

Hydrogen is employed to saturate broken ("dangling") bonds of amorphous silicon and amorphous carbon that helps stabilizing material properties. It is also a potential electron donor in various oxide materials, including zinc oxide, ZnO, Tin dioxide, SnO2, Cadmium oxide, CdO, Magnesium oxide, MgO, Zirconium dioxide, ZrO2, Hafnium(IV) oxide, HfO2, Lanthanum(III) oxide, La2O3, Yttrium(III) oxide, Y2O3, Titanium dioxide, TiO2, Strontium titanate, SrTiO3, Lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3, Silicon dioxide, SiO2, Aluminium oxide, Al2O3, Zircon, ZrSiO4, Hafnon, HfSiO4, and Strontium zirconate, SrZrO3.


Rocket propellant

Liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
and liquid oxygen together serve as cryogenic fuel in liquid-propellant rockets, as in the RS-25, Space Shuttle main engines.


Niche and evolving uses

*Shielding gas: Hydrogen is used as a shielding gas in welding methods such as atomic hydrogen welding. *Cryogenic research: Liquid H2 is used in cryogenic research, including superconductivity studies. *Buoyant lifting: Because is lighter than air, having only 7% of the density of air, it was once widely used as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. *Leak detection: Pure or mixed with nitrogen (sometimes called forming gas), hydrogen is a tracer gas for Leak detection, detection of minute leaks. Applications can be found in the automotive, chemical, power generation, aerospace, and telecommunications industries. Hydrogen is an authorized food additive (E 949) that allows food package leak testing, as well as having anti-oxidizing properties. *Neutron moderation: Deuterium (hydrogen-2) is used in CANDU reactor, nuclear fission applications as a neutron moderator, moderator to slow
neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...

neutron
s. *Nuclear fusion fuel: Deuterium is used in
nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the reactants and products ...

nuclear fusion
reactions. *Isotopic labeling: Deuterium compounds have applications in chemistry and biology in studies of Kinetic isotope effect, isotope effects on reaction rates. *Rocket propellant: NASA has investigated the use of rocket propellant made from atomic hydrogen, boron or carbon that is frozen into solid molecular hydrogen particles that are suspended in liquid helium. Upon warming, the mixture vaporizes to allow the atomic species to recombine, heating the mixture to high temperature. *Tritium uses: Tritium (hydrogen-3), produced in nuclear reactors, is used in the production of hydrogen bombs, as an isotopic label in the biosciences, and as a source of beta particle, beta radiation in Tritium radioluminescence, radioluminescent paint for instrument dials and emergency signage.


Biological reactions

H2 is a product of some types of Fermentation (biochemistry), anaerobic metabolism and is produced by several microorganisms, usually via reactions catalysis, catalyzed by
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
- or nickel-containing enzymes called hydrogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reversible redox reaction between H2 and its component two protons and two electrons. Creation of hydrogen gas occurs in the transfer of reducing equivalents produced during pyruvate fermentation (biochemistry), fermentation to water. The natural cycle of hydrogen production and consumption by organisms is called the hydrogen cycle. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the human body in terms of numbers of
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
s of the element but, it is the 3rd most abundant element by mass, because hydrogen is so light. H2 occurs in the breath of humans due to the metabolic activity of hydrogenase-containing microorganisms in the large intestine. The concentration in fasted people at rest is typically less than 5 parts per million (ppm) but can be 50 ppm when people with intestinal disorders consume molecules they cannot absorb during diagnostic hydrogen breath tests. Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus, as is methane, itself a hydrogen source of increasing importance. Water splitting, in which water is decomposed into its component protons, electrons, and oxygen, occurs in the Light-dependent reactions, light reactions in all photosynthetic organisms. Some such organisms, including the alga ''Chlamydomonas reinhardtii'' and cyanobacteria, have evolved a second step in the dark reactions in which protons and electrons are reduced to form H2 gas by specialized hydrogenases in the chloroplast. Efforts have been undertaken to genetically modify cyanobacterial hydrogenases to efficiently synthesize H2 gas even in the presence of oxygen. Efforts have also been undertaken with genetically modified Biological hydrogen production (Algae), alga in a bioreactor.


Safety and precautions

Hydrogen poses a number of hazards to human safety, from potential detonations and fires when mixed with air to being an asphyxiant in its pure,
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
-free form. In addition, liquid hydrogen is a cryogen and presents dangers (such as frostbite) associated with very cold liquids. Hydrogen dissolves in many metals and in addition to leaking out, may have adverse effects on them, such as hydrogen embrittlement, leading to cracks and explosions. Hydrogen gas leaking into external air may spontaneously ignite. Moreover, hydrogen fire, while being extremely hot, is almost invisible, and thus can lead to accidental burns. Even interpreting the hydrogen data (including safety data) is confounded by a number of phenomena. Many physical and chemical properties of hydrogen depend on the Spin isomers of hydrogen, parahydrogen/orthohydrogen ratio (it often takes days or weeks at a given temperature to reach the equilibrium ratio, for which the data is usually given). Hydrogen detonation parameters, such as critical detonation pressure and temperature, strongly depend on the container geometry.


Notes


See also

* Hydrogen economy * Hydrogen production * Hydrogen safety * Hydrogen technologies *
Liquid hydrogen Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which ...
* Methane pyrolysis (for Hydrogen) * Pyrolysis


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * Hydrogen safety covers the safe production, handling and use


External links


Basic Hydrogen Calculations of Quantum Mechanics


at ''The Periodic Table of Videos'' (University of Nottingham)



{{Authority control Hydrogen, Chemical elements Reactive nonmetals Diatomic nonmetals Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements Nuclear fusion fuels Airship technology Reducing agents Refrigerants Gaseous signaling molecules E-number additives