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In geography and geology, a cliff is an area of
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
which has a general angle defined by the vertical, or nearly vertical. Cliffs are formed by the processes of
weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology ...
and
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
, with the effect of
gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a by which all things with or —including s, s, , and even —are attracted to (or ''gravitate'' toward) one another. , gravity gives to s, and the causes the s of the oceans. The gravitational attracti ...

gravity
. Cliffs are common on coasts, in mountainous areas,
escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The L ...

escarpment
s and along rivers. Cliffs are usually composed of rock that is resistant to weathering and erosion. The
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
s that are most likely to form cliffs include
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
,
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
,
chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

chalk
, and
dolomiteDolomite may refer to: *Dolomite (mineral) Dolomite () is an anhydrous A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water; therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and ...
.
Igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimentary and metamorphic rock, metamorphic. Igneous rock is ...
s such as
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phaneritic A phanerite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lat ...

granite
and
basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive A volcanic rock from Italy with a relatively large six-sided phenocryst (diameter about 1 mm) surrounded by a fine-grained groundmass, as seen in thin section under a petrographic microscope Extrusi ...

basalt
also often form cliffs. An
escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The L ...

escarpment
(or scarp) is a type of cliff formed by the movement of a
geologic fault In geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over t ...
, a landslide, or sometimes by rock slides or falling rocks which change the differential erosion of the rock layers. Most cliffs have some form of
scree Scree is a collection of broken Rock (geology), rock fragments at the base of Crag (climbing), crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces. Landforms associated with ...

scree
slope at their base. In arid areas or under high cliffs, they are generally exposed jumbles of fallen rock. In areas of higher moisture, a soil slope may obscure the talus. Many cliffs also feature tributary waterfalls or
rock shelter A rock shelter (also rockhouse, crepuscular cave, bluff shelter, or abri) is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In contrast to solutional caves (karst Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of solub ...

rock shelter
s. Sometimes a cliff peters out at the end of a ridge, with
mushroom rock in Mexico , Negev, Israel ("Chalice Rock") near Oybin, Lusatian Mountains, Germany Image:Yehliu_-_Mushroom_Rock_02.jpg, Mushroom rocks in Taiwan, Yehliu A mushroom rock, also called rock pedestal, or a pedestal rock, is a naturally occurr ...

mushroom rock
s or other types of rock columns remaining. Coastal erosion may lead to the formation of sea cliffs along a receding coastline. The
Ordnance Survey , nativename_a = , nativename_r = , logo = Ordnance Survey 2015 Logo.svg , logo_width = 240px , logo_caption = , seal = , seal_width = , seal_caption = , picture = , picture_width = , picture_caption = , formed = , preceding1 = , di ...
distinguishes between around most cliffs (continuous line along the topper edge with projections down the face) and outcrops (continuous lines along lower edge).


Etymology

Cliff comes from the Old English word ''clif'' of essentially the same meaning, cognate with Dutch, Low German, and Old Norse ''klif'' 'cliff'. These may in turn all be from a
Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the Court ...

Romance
loanword into Primitive Germanic that has its origins in the Latin forms ' ("slope" or "hillside").Monika Buchmüller-Pfaff: ''Namen im Grenzland - Methoden, Aspekte und Zielsetzung in der Erforschung der lothringisch-saarländischen Toponomastik'', Francia 18/1 (1991), Francia-Online: Sex nstitut historique allemand de Paris - Deutsches Historisches Institut Paris
Onlineressource
Max Pfister: ''Altromanische Relikte in der östlichen und südlichen Galloromania, in den rheinischen Mundarten, im Alpenraum und in Oberitalien''. In : Sieglinde Heinz, Ulrich Wandruszka d. ''Fakten und Theorien : Beitr. zur roman. u. allg. Sprachwiss.''; Festschr. für Helmut Stimm zum 65. Geburtstag, Tübingen 1982, pp. 219 – 230,


Large and famous cliffs

Given that a cliff does not need to be exactly vertical, there can be ambiguity about whether a given
slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The Line'' (2009 film) * ''The Line'', ...
is a cliff or not and also about how much of a certain slope to count as a cliff. For example, given a truly vertical rock wall above a very steep slope, one could count just the rock wall or the combination. Listings of cliffs are thus inherently uncertain. Some of the largest cliffs on Earth are found underwater. For example, an 8,000 m drop over a 4,250 m span can be found at a ridge sitting inside the
Kermadec Trench The Kermadec Trench is a linear ocean trench in the south Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definit ...
. The highest very steep non-vertical cliffs in the world are
Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (; ), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, its summit at above sea level. Lying immediately southeast of the northernmost bend of the Indus river The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A tr ...

Nanga Parbat
's Rupal Face and
Gyala Peri Gyala Peri ( Chinese: 加拉白垒, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used ...

Gyala Peri
's southeast face, which both rise approximately 4,600 m, or 15,000 ft, above their base. According to other sources, the highest cliff in the world, about 1,340 m high, is the east face of
Great Trango
Great Trango
in the
Karakoram The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and ...

Karakoram
mountains of northern Pakistan. This uses a fairly stringent notion of cliff, as the 1,340 m figure refers to a nearly vertical headwall of two stacked pillars; adding in a very steep approach brings the total drop from the East Face precipice to the nearby Dunge Glacier to nearly 2,000 m. The location of the world's highest sea cliffs depends also on the definition of 'cliff' that is used. ''Guinness World Records'' states it is
Kalaupapa, Hawaii Image:Kalaupapa HI postmark.jpg, 200px, Kalaupapa postmark Kalaupapa () is a small Unincorporated area, unincorporated community on the Hawaiian Islands, island of Molokai, Molokai, within Kalawao County, Hawaii, Kalawao County in the U.S. stat ...
, at 1,010 m high. Another contender is the north face of Mitre Peak, which drops 1,683 m to
Milford Sound Milford Sound / Piopiotahi is a fiord in the south west of New Zealand's South Island within Fiordland National Park, Piopiotahi (Milford Sound) Marine Reserve, and the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site. It has been judged the world's top t ...

Milford Sound
, New Zealand. These are subject to a less stringent definition, as the average slope of these cliffs at Kaulapapa is about 1.7, corresponding to an angle of 60 degrees, and Mitre Peak is similar. A more vertical drop into the sea can be found at Maujit Qaqarssuasia (also known as the '
Thumbnail Thumbnails (/ˈθʌmneɪl/) are reduced-size versions of pictures or video Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispers ...
') which is situated in the Torssukátak fjord area at the very tip of South Greenland and drops 1,560 m near-vertically. Considering a truly vertical drop,
Mount Thor Mount Thor, officially gazetted as Thor Peak ( iu, ᙯᕐᓱᐊᓗᒃ ''Qaisualuk'' "huge bedrock" or iu, ᑭᒍᑎᙳᐊᖅ ''Kigutinnguaq'' "resembles a tooth"), is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, gene ...

Mount Thor
on
Baffin Island Baffin Island ( iu, ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, , french: Île de Baffin, Terre de Baffin, formerly Baffin Land), in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the list of Canadian islands by area, largest island in Cana ...

Baffin Island
in Arctic Canada is often considered the highest at 1370 m (4500 ft) high in total (the top 480 m (1600 ft) is overhanging), and is said to give it the longest vertical drop on Earth at 1,250 m (4,100 ft). However, other cliffs on Baffin Island, such as Polar Sun Spire in the Sam Ford Fjord, or others in remote areas of Greenland may be higher. The highest cliff in the solar system may be Verona Rupes, an approximately high
fault scarp A fault scarp is a small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other. It is the topographic expression of faulting attributed to the displacement of the land surface by movement a ...
on Miranda, a moon of Uranus.


List

The following is an incomplete list of cliffs of the world.


Africa

Above Sea * Anaga's Cliffs, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, above Atlantic Ocean *
Cape Hangklip Pringle Bay ( af, Pringlebaai) is a small coastal village in the Overberg region of the Western Cape, in South Africa. It is situated at the foot of Hangklip, on the opposite side of False Bay from Cape Point. The town and surrounds are part of the ...
, Western Cape, South Africa, above False Bay, Atlantic Ocean *
Cape Point Cape Point ( af, Kaappunt) is a promontory A promontory is a raised mass of land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in la ...

Cape Point
, Western Cape, South Africa, above Atlantic Ocean *
Chapman's Peak Chapman's Peak is the name of a mountain on the western side of the Cape Peninsula, between Hout Bay and Noordhoek, Cape Town, Noordhoek in Cape Town, South Africa. The western flank of the mountain falls sharply for hundreds of metres into the At ...

Chapman's Peak
, Western Cape, South Africa, above Atlantic Ocean * Karbonkelberg, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, above
Hout Bay Hout Bay ( af, Houtbaai, meaning "Wood Bay") is a seaside suburb of Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic ...

Hout Bay
, Atlantic Ocean *
Kogelberg that runs along it. The Kogelberg is a range of mountains along the False Bay coast in the Western Cape of South Africa. They form part of the Cape Fold Belt, starting south of the Elgin, Western Cape, Elgin valley and forming a steep coastal range ...

Kogelberg
,
Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
, South Africa, above
False Bay False or falsehood may refer to: *False (logic) In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing var ...

False Bay
,
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
*
Los Gigantes
Los Gigantes
,
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
, Canary Islands, Spain, above Atlantic Ocean *
Table Mountain Table Mountain ( naq, Huriǂoaxa, lit= sea-emerging; af, Tafelberg) is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the ...

Table Mountain
,
Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad ; Xhosa language, Xhosa: ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in South Africa, after Johannesburg, and also the legislative Capital city, capital of South Africa. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is ...

Cape Town
, Western Cape, South Africa, above Atlantic Ocean Above Land * Innumerable peaks in the
Drakensberg The Drakensberg (Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over ...

Drakensberg
mountains of South Africa are considered cliff formations. The Drakensberg Range is regarded, together with Ethiopia's
Simien Mountains The Simien Mountains (Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Sem ...

Simien Mountains
, as one of the two finest erosional mountain ranges on Earth. Because of their near-unique geological formation, the range has an extraordinarily high percentage of cliff faces making up its length, particularly along the highest portion of the range. This portion of the range is virtually uninterrupted cliff faces, ranging from to in height for almost . Of all, the "Drakensberg Amphitheatre" (mentioned above) is most well known. Other notable cliffs include the
Trojan Wall Trojan or Trojans may refer to: * Of or from the ancient city of Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkal ...
, Cleft Peak, Injisuthi Triplets, Cathedral Peak, Monk's Cowl, Mnweni Buttress, etc. The cliff faces of the
Blyde River Canyon The Blyde River Canyon is a 26km long Canyon A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Hi ...

Blyde River Canyon
, technically still part of the Drakensberg, may be over , with the main face of the Swadini Buttress approximately tall. ** Drakensberg Amphitheatre, South Africa above base, long. The
Tugela Falls Tugela Falls is a complex of seasonal waterfall A waterfall is an area where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabula ...

Tugela Falls
, the world's second tallest waterfall, falls over the edge of the cliff face. * Karambony, Madagascar, above base. *
Mount Meru, Tanzania
Mount Meru, Tanzania
Caldera Cliffs, * Tsaranoro, Madagascar, above base


America


North

Several big granite faces in the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
region vie for the title of 'highest vertical drop on Earth', but reliable measurements are not always available. The possible contenders include (measurements are approximate):
Mount Thor Mount Thor, officially gazetted as Thor Peak ( iu, ᙯᕐᓱᐊᓗᒃ ''Qaisualuk'' "huge bedrock" or iu, ᑭᒍᑎᙳᐊᖅ ''Kigutinnguaq'' "resembles a tooth"), is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, gene ...

Mount Thor
,
Baffin Island Baffin Island ( iu, ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, , french: Île de Baffin, Terre de Baffin, formerly Baffin Land), in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the list of Canadian islands by area, largest island in Cana ...

Baffin Island
, Canada; 1,370 m (4,500 ft) total; top 480 m (1600 ft) is overhanging. This is commonly regarded as being the largest vertical drop on Eart

ref name="Buchmüller-Pfaff" />ot:leapyear at 1,250 m (4,100 ft). # The sheer north face of Polar sun spire, Polar Sun Spire, in the §74:MTAtoFa of
Baffin Island Baffin Island ( iu, ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, , french: Île de Baffin, Terre de Baffin, formerly Baffin Land), in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the list of Canadian islands by area, largest island in Cana ...

Baffin Island
, rises 4,300 ft above the flat frozen fjord, although the lower portion of the face breaks from the vertical wall with a series of ledges and buttresses. # Ketil's and its neighbor 's west faces in Tasermiut,
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
have been reported as over 1,000 m high. Another relevant cliff in Greenland is Agdlerussakasit's
Thumbnail Thumbnails (/ˈθʌmneɪl/) are reduced-size versions of pictures or video Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispers ...
. Other notable cliffs include: * Ättestupan Cliff, northern side of
Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord ( da, Kejser Franz Josef Fjord; kl, Kangerluk Kejser Franz Joseph) is a major fjord system in the NE Greenland National Park area, East Greenland. Geography The Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord has its mouth in the Foster Ba ...
, Greenland * Big Sandy Mountain, east face buttress, Wind River Range, Wyoming, 550 m * along the
Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay ( ) is the largest estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zo ...
in Maryland, U.S. 25 m * of
Saguenay River __NOTOC__ The Saguenay River () is a major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its ...
, Quebec, Canada, 347 m * All faces of
Devils Tower Devils Tower (also known as Bear Lodge Butte) is a butte, possibly laccolithic, composed of igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of th ...

Devils Tower
, Wyoming, United States, 195 m * Doublet Peak, southwest face,
Wind River Range 300px, Looking across the Bonneville Basin to Mount Bonneville and Raid Peak. The Wind River Range (or "Winds" for short), is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range i ...
, Wyoming, United States, 370 m *
El Capitan El Capitan ( es, El Capitán; ''The Captain'' or ''The Chief'') is a vertical Rock formations in the United States, rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The El Capitan Gra ...

El Capitan
,
Yosemite Valley Yosemite Valley ( ; ''Yosemite'', Miwok for "killer") is a U-shaped valley, glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about long and deep, surroun ...

Yosemite Valley
, California, United States; 900 m (3,000 ft) *
Grand Teton Grand Teton is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger th ...

Grand Teton
, north face
Teton Range The Teton Range is a of the in . It extends for approximately in a north–south direction through the U.S. state of , east of the state line. It is south of and most of the east side of the range is within . One theory says the early Frenc ...

Teton Range
, Wyoming * Northwest Face of
Half Dome Half Dome is a granite dome Mount Bulka, a granite monolith in Bayanaul National Park, Kazakhstan. Granite domes are Dome (geology), domical hills composed of granite with bare rock exposed over most of the surface. Generally, domical features ...

Half Dome
, near El Capitan, California, United States; 1,444 m (4,737 ft) total, vertical portion about 610 m (2,000 ft) *
Longs Peak Longs Drugs is an American chain owned by parent company CVS Health with approximately 70 drugstores throughout the Hawaii, state of Hawaii and formerly in the Continental US. Before being acquired by parent company in 2008, it was a chain of ove ...

Longs Peak
Diamond,
Rocky Mountain National Park Rocky Mountain National Park is an American national park located approximately northwest of Denver in north-central Colorado, within the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The park is situated between the towns of Estes Park, Colorado, Estes Pa ...

Rocky Mountain National Park
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
, United States, 400 m *
Mount Asgard Mount Asgard ( iu, ᓯᕙᓂᑎᕈᑎᖑᐊᒃ, ''Sivanitirutinguak'') is a twin peaked mountain with two flat-topped, cylindrical, rock towers, separated by a saddle. It is located in Auyuittuq National Park, on the Cumberland Peninsula of Baffi ...
,
Baffin Island Baffin Island ( iu, ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, , french: Île de Baffin, Terre de Baffin, formerly Baffin Land), in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the list of Canadian islands by area, largest island in Cana ...

Baffin Island
, Canada; vertical drop of about 1,200 m (4,000 ft). * , Glacier National Park (U.S.) north face, * The North Face of
North Twin Peak North Twin (Peak) is one of the two main peaks that comprise The Twins massif located at the northeast corner of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. The other lower peak is named South Twin Peak, South Twin (3,566 m). ...
,
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simila ...

Rocky Mountains
, Alberta, Canada, 1,200 m * The west face of Notch Peak in the
House Range The House Range is a north-south trending mountain range in Millard County, Utah, Millard County, of west-central Utah. The House Range was named in 1859 by James H. Simpson. It was named by Simpson because "...of its well-defined stratification ...
of southwestern Utah, U.S.; a
carbonate rock Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categori ...
pure vertical drop of about 670 m (2,200 ft), with from the top of the cliff to valley floor (bottom of the canyon below the notch) * Painted Wall in
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is an American national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-na ...

Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
, Colorado, United States; 685 m (2,250 ft) * Raftsmen's Acropolis, a rock face of the Montagne des Érables, Quebec, Canada, 800 m * Rockwall,
Kootenay National Park Kootenay National Park is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that ...

Kootenay National Park
, British Columbia, Canada, 30 km of mostly unbroken cliffs up to 900 m *
Royal Gorge The Royal Gorge is a canyon A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substan ...

Royal Gorge
cliffs, Colorado, United States, 350 m * Faces of
Shiprock Shiprock ( nv, , "rock with wings" or "winged rock") is a monadnock An inselberg or monadnock () is an isolated rock hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep ...
, New Mexico, United States, 400 m * All walls of the
Stawamus Chief The Stawamus Chief, officially Stawamus Chief Mountain (often referred to as simply The Chief, or less commonly Squamish Chief), is a granitic dome located adjacent to the town of Squamish, British Columbia, Canada. It towers over above the wa ...

Stawamus Chief
, Squamish, British Columbia, Canada, up to 500 m * Temple Peak, east face, Wind River Range, Wyoming, 400 m * Temple Peak East, north face, Wind River Range, Wyoming, 450 m * Toroweap (a.k.a. Tuweep),
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , ) is a steep-sided canyon A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive ...

Grand Canyon
, Arizona, United States; 900 m (3,000 ft) *
Uncompahgre Peak Uncompahgre can refer to several different geographic features, mainly within Colorado: Places * Uncompahgre Peak Uncompahgre Peak () is the List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains#Highest prominent summits, sixth highest summit of the Roc ...

Uncompahgre Peak
, northeast face, San Juan Range, Colorado, 275 m (550 m rise above surrounding plateau) * East face of the West Temple in
Zion National Park Zion National Park is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-n ...

Zion National Park
, Utah, United States believed to be the tallest sandstone cliff in the world, 670 m


South

* All faces of Auyan Tepui, along with all other Tepuis, Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana, Auyan Tepui is about 1,000 m (location of
Angel Falls Angel Falls ( es, Salto Ángel; Pemon language: ''Kerepakupai Merú'' meaning "waterfall of the deepest place", or ''Parakupá Vená'', meaning "the fall from the highest point") is a waterfall in Venezuela. It is the List of waterfalls by hei ...

Angel Falls
) (the falls are 979 m, the highest in the world) * All faces of Cerro Chalten (Fitz Roy), Patagonia, Argentina-Chile, 1200 m * All faces of
Cerro Torre Cerro Torre is one of the mountains of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field in South America. It is located in Argentina. west of Fitz Roy (also known as Cerro Chaltén). The peak is the highest of a four mountain chain: the other peaks are Torre Egg ...

Cerro Torre
,
Patagonia Patagonia () refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America, governed by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes Mountains, lakes, fjords, and glaciers in the west and P ...

Patagonia
, Chile-Argentina * /Sugar Loaf, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 395 m * Pared de , Peru, 771 m * Pared Sur Cerro Aconcagua. Las Heras,
Mendoza Mendoza may refer to: Places Argentina * Greater Mendoza, the name given to the large urban conurbation around the city of Mendoza * Mendoza, Argentina, the capital of the province of Mendoza * Mendoza Department, subdivision of the Mendoza Provinc ...

Mendoza
, Argentina, 2,700 m * ,
Pedra Azul State Park Pedra Azul State Park ( pt, Parque Estadual de Pedra Azul) is a State park (Brazil), state park in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Location The Pedra Azul State Park was created in 1991 to protect the natural heritage of the region, and in ...
,
Espirito Santo ''Espirito'' (Brazilian for "Spirit") is the second album by Lawson Rollins. Rollins composed all of the music and co-produced the album with Persian-American musician and producer Shahin Shahida (of Shahin & Sepehr) and multi-platinum producer Do ...

Espirito Santo
, Brazil, 540 m * Scratched Stone (Pedra Riscada), São José do Divino/MG, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1,480 m * Faces of the Torres del Paine group, Patagonia, Chile, up to 900 m


Asia

Above Sea * Qingshui Cliff, Xiulin, Hualien, Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan averaging 800 m above Pacific Ocean. The tallest peak, Qingshui Mountain, rises 2408 m directly from the Pacific Ocean. * Ra's Sajir, Oman, above the Arabian Sea * Theoprosopon, between Chekka and Selaata in north Lebanon jutting into the Mediterranean. * Tōjinbō, Sakai, Fukui, Sakai, Fukui prefecture, Japan 25 m above Sea of Japan Above Land * Various cliffs in the Ak-Su Valley of Kyrgyzstan are high and steep. * Baintha Brakk (The Ogre), Panmah Muztagh, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 2,000 m *
Gyala Peri Gyala Peri ( Chinese: 加拉白垒, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used ...

Gyala Peri
, southeast face, Mêdog County, Tibet, China, 4,600 m * Hunza Peak south face, Karakoram, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 1,700 m * K2 west face, Karakoram, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 2900m * Latok, The Latok Group, Panmah Muztagh, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 1,800 m * Lhotse northeast face, Mahalangur Himal, Nepal, 2900m * Lhotse south face, Mahalangur Himal, Nepal, 3200 m * Meru Peak, Uttarakhand, India, 1200 m *
Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (; ), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, its summit at above sea level. Lying immediately southeast of the northernmost bend of the Indus river The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A tr ...

Nanga Parbat
, Rupal Face, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, 4,600 m * Qingshui Cliff, Xiulin, Hualien, Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan averaging 800 m above Pacific Ocean. The tallest peak, Qingshui Mountain, rises 2408 meters directly from the Pacific Ocean. * Ramon Crater, Israel, 400 m * Shispare Sar southwest face, Karakoram, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 3,200 m * Spantik northwest face, Karakoram, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 2,000 m * Trango Towers: East Face Great Trango Tower, Baltoro Muztagh, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 1,340 m (near vertical headwall), 2,100 m (very steep overall drop from East Summit to Dunge Glacier). Northwest Face drops approximately 2,200 m to the Trango Glacier below, but with a taller slab topped out with a shorter overhanging headwall of approximately 1,000 m. The Southwest "Azeem" Ridge forms the group's tallest steep rise of roughly 2,286 m (7,500 ft) from the Trango Glacier to the Southwest summit. * Uli Biaho, Uli Biaho Towers, Baltoro Glacier, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan * Ultar Sar southwest face, Karakoram, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, 3,000 m * World's End, Sri Lanka, World's End, Horton Plains, Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. It has a sheer drop of about 4000 ft (1200 m) * Various cliffs in Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, Hunan Province, China. The cliffs can get to around 1,000 ft (300 m).


Europe

Above Sea *Beachy Head, England, 162 m above the English Channel *Beinisvørð, Faroe Islands, 470 m above North Atlantic *Belogradchik Rocks, Bulgaria - up to 200 m high
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
towers *Benwee Head Cliffs, Erris, Co. Mayo, Ireland, 304 m above Atlantic Ocean *Cabo Girão, Madeira, Portugal, 589 m above Atlantic Ocean *Cap Canaille, France, 394 m above Mediterranean sea is the highest sea cliff in France *Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands, 750 m above North Atlantic *Conachair, St Kilda, Scotland, St Kilda, Scotland 427 m above Atlantic Ocean, highest sea cliff in the UK *Croaghaun, Achill Island, Ireland, 688 m above Atlantic Ocean *Dingli Cliffs, Malta, 250 m above Mediterranean sea *Dvuglav, Rila Mountain, Bulgaria 460 m (south face) *Étretat, France, 84 m above the English Channel *Faneque, Gran Canaria, Spain, 1027 m above Atlantic Ocean *Hangman cliffs, Devon 318 m above Bristol Channel is the highest sea cliff in England *High Cliff, between Boscastle and St Gennys, 223 m above Celtic Sea *Hornelen, Norway, 860 m above Skatestraumen *:is:Hvanndalabjarg, Hvanndalabjarg, Ólafsfjörður, Iceland, 630 m above Atlantic Ocean *Jaizkibel, Spain, 547 m above the Bay of Biscay *Kaliakra cliffs, Bulgaria, more than 70 m above the Black Sea *The Kame, Foula, Shetland, 376 m above the North Atlantic, second highest sea cliff in the UK *Le Tréport, France, 110 m above the English Channel *Cliffs of Moher, Ireland, 217 m above Atlantic Ocean *Møns Klint, Denmark, 143 m above Baltic Sea *Monte Solaro, Capri, Italy, 589 m above the Mediterranean Sea *Ontika Limestone cliff, Estonia, 55 m above Baltic Sea. *Preikestolen, Norway, 604 m above Lysefjorden *Slieve League, Ireland, 601 m above Atlantic Ocean *Snake Island (Black Sea), Snake Island, Ukraine, 41 m above the Black Sea *Vixía Herbeira, Northern Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Spain, 621 m above Atlantic Ocean *White cliffs of Dover, England, 100 m above the Strait of Dover Above Land *Great north faces of the Alps, The six great north faces of the Alps (Eiger 1,500 m, Matterhorn 1,350 m, Grandes Jorasses 1,100 m, Aiguille du Dru, Petit Dru 1,000 m, and Piz Badile 850 m, Cima Grande di Lavaredo 450 m) *Giewont (north face), Tatra Mountains, Poland, 852 m above Polana Strążyska Glade (geography), glade *Kjerag, Norway 984 m. *Mięguszowiecki Szczyt north face rises to 1,043 m above Morskie Oko lake level, High Tatras, Poland *Troll Wall, Norway 1,100 m above base *Vihren peak north face, Pirin Mountain, Bulgaria 460 m to the (Golemiya Kazan) *Vratsata, Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park, Bulgaria 400 m Submarine *Bouldnor Cliff - the waters of the coast of the Isle of Wight


Oceania

Above Sea * Ball's Pyramid, a sea stack 562m high and only 200m across at its base * The Elephant, New Zealand, has cliffs falling approx 1180m into Milford Sound, and a 900m drop in less than 300m horizontally * Great Australian Bight * Kalaupapa, Hawaii, 1,010 m above Pacific Ocean * The Lion, New Zealand, 1,302 m above Milford Sound (drops from approx 1280m to sea level in a very short distance) * Lovers Leap, Highcliff, and The Chasm, on Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, all 200 to 300 m above the Pacific Ocean * Mitre Peak, New Zealand, 1,683 m above
Milford Sound Milford Sound / Piopiotahi is a fiord in the south west of New Zealand's South Island within Fiordland National Park, Piopiotahi (Milford Sound) Marine Reserve, and the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site. It has been judged the world's top t ...

Milford Sound
* Tasman National Park, Tasmania, has 300m dolerite sea cliffs dropping directly to the ocean in columnar form * The Twelve Apostles (Victoria). A series of sea stacks in Australia, ranging from approximately 50 to 70 m above the Bass Strait * Zuytdorp Cliffs in Western Australia Above Land * Mount Banks in the Blue Mountains National Park, New South Wales, Australia: west of its saddle there is a 490 m fall within 100 M horizontally.


As habitat

Cliff landforms provide unique habitat Niche (ecology), niches to a variety of plants and animals, whose preferences and needs are suited by the vertical geometry of this landform type. For example, a number of birds have decided affinities for choosing cliff locations for nesting, often driven by the defensibility of these locations as well as absence of certain predators.


Flora

The population of the rare'' Borderea chouardii'', during 2012, existed only on two cliff habitats within western Europe.


See also

* Cliffed coast * List of landforms * Steilhang


References


External links

* {{Authority control Cliffs, Coastal geography Erosion landforms Slope landforms Coastal and oceanic landforms Oronyms