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In chemistry, a carbonate is a
salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Sa ...
of
carbonic acid In chemistry, carbonic acid is a dibasic acid with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical ...

carbonic acid
(H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a
polyatomic ion A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a covalently bonded A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The b ...
with the formula of . The name may also refer to a
carbonate ester A carbonate ester (organic carbonate or organocarbonate) is an ester An ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH hydroxyl group is replaced by an –O– alkyl (alkoxy) group, as in the s ...

carbonate ester
, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2. The term is also used as a verb, to describe
carbonation Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is an acidic colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules consist of a carbon atom covalent bond, covalen ...
: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and
bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry#REDIRECT Inorganic chemistry features unusual bonding B: Caesium chloride Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula Caesium, CsChloride, Cl. This colorless salt is an important sourc ...

bicarbonate
ions in water to produce
carbonated water Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water, fizzy water, club soda, water with gas or (especially in the United States, U.S.) as seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially i ...
and other carbonated beverageseither by the addition of
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is ...

carbon dioxide
gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water. In
geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can ...

geology
and
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is com ...

mineralogy
, the term "carbonate" can refer both to
carbonate minerals Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−. Carbonate divisions Anhydrous carbonates *Calcite group: trigonal **Calcite CaCO3 **Gaspeite (Ni,Mg,Fe2+)CO3 **Magnesite MgCO3 **Otavite CdCO3 **Rhodochrosite MnCO3 **S ...
and
carbonate rock 250px, Carbonate ooids on the surface of a limestone; Carmel Formation (Middle Jurassic) of southern Utah, USA. Largest is 1.0 mm in diameter. Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals. The two major ...
(which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, . Carbonate minerals are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology), cementation. Sedimentatio ...

sedimentary rock
. The most common are
calcite Calcite is a and the most stable of (CaCO3). The , based on , defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals and . Aragonite will change to calcite over timescales of days or less at temperatures exceed ...

calcite
or
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together ...

calcium carbonate
, CaCO3, the chief constituent of
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
(as well as the main component of
mollusc Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). Around 85,000 extant taxon, extant species of molluscs are recognized. The number of fossil species is es ...
shells and
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a ver ...

coral
skeletons);
dolomiteDolomite may refer to: *Dolomite (mineral) Dolomite () is an anhydrous A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water; therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and ...
, a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and
siderite :''Siderite is also the name of a type of iron meteorite Iron meteorites, also known as siderites, or ferrous meteorites, are a type of meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of ...

siderite
, or
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important
iron ore Iron ores are rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rock ...
.
Sodium carbonate Sodium carbonate, ·10, (also known as Natrium Carbonate, washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals) is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, odourless, water-soluble salts that yield modera ...

Sodium carbonate
("soda" or "natron") and
potassium carbonate Potassium carbonate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2 CO3. It is a white salt, which is soluble in water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color o ...

potassium carbonate
("potash") have been used since antiquity for cleaning and preservation, as well as for the manufacture of
glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by ...

glass
. Carbonates are widely used in industry, such as in iron smelting, as a raw material for
Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of , , , and non-specialty . It was developed from other types of in England in the early 19th century by , and is usually made from . It is a f ...

Portland cement
and
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...
manufacture, in the composition of
ceramic glaze Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired ...
s, and more.


Structure and bonding

The carbonate ion is the simplest
oxocarbon anion In chemistry, an oxocarbon anion is a negative ion consisting solely of carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical ...
. It consists of one
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
atom surrounded by three
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
atoms, in a
trigonal planar left, 200px, Structure of boron trifluoride, an example of a molecule with trigonal planar geometry. In chemistry, trigonal planar is a molecular geometry model with one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle, ...
arrangement, with ''D''3h
molecular symmetry Molecular symmetry in chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds c ...
. It has a molecular mass of 60.01  g/mol and carries a total
formal charge and the nitrate Nitrate is a polyatomic ion A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a covalently bonded set of two or more atoms, or of a metal complex, that can be considered to behave as a single unit and that has a net charg ...
of −2. It is the
conjugate base A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory The Brønsted–Lowry theory (also called proton theory of acids and bases) is an acid–base reaction An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction A chemical reactio ...
of the
hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
ion, , which is the conjugate base of ,
carbonic acid In chemistry, carbonic acid is a dibasic acid with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical ...

carbonic acid
. The
Lewis structure#REDIRECT Lewis structure Lewis structures, also known as Lewis dot formulas, Lewis dot structures, electron dot structures, or Lewis electron dot structures (LEDS), are diagrams that show the bonding between atom An atom is the smallest unit o ...
of the carbonate ion has two (long) single bonds to negative oxygen atoms, and one short double bond to a neutral oxygen. : This structure is incompatible with the observed symmetry of the ion, which implies that the three bonds are equally long and that the three oxygen atoms are equivalent. As in the case of the
isoelectronic Isoelectronicity is an effect observed when two or more molecules have the same Chemical structure, structure (positions and connectivities among atoms) and the same electron configurations, but differ by what specific elements are at certain loc ...
nitrate Nitrate is a polyatomic ion A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a covalently bonded A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the format ...

nitrate
ion, the symmetry can be achieved by a
resonance Resonance describes the phenomenon of increased amplitude The amplitude of a Periodic function, periodic Variable (mathematics), variable is a measure of its change in a single Period (mathematics), period (such as frequency, time or Wavelen ...
among three structures: : This resonance can be summarized by a model with fractional bonds and
delocalized
delocalized
charges: :


Chemical properties

Metal carbonates generally decompose on heating, liberating carbon dioxide from the long term
carbon cycle The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physi ...

carbon cycle
to the short term carbon cycle and leaving behind an oxide of the metal. This process is called
calcination Calcination refers to heating a solid to high temperatures in absence of air or oxygen, generally for the purpose of removing impurities or volatile substances. However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment Thermal treatment is any ...
, after ''calx'', the Latin name of quicklime or
calcium oxide Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter ...

calcium oxide
, CaO, which is obtained by roasting limestone in a
lime kiln A lime kiln is a kiln , Wrecclesham, Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Grea ...

lime kiln
. A carbonate salt forms when a positively charged ion, , , or , associates with the negatively charged oxygen atoms of the ion by forming electrostatic attractions with them, forming an ionic
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
: :2  + → : + → :2  + 3  → Most carbonate salts are
insoluble In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atom ...

insoluble
in
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ...

water
at
standard temperature and pressure Standard temperature and pressure (STP) are standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), a ...
, with
solubility constantSolubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more t ...
s of less than . Exceptions include
lithium Lithium (from el, λίθος, lithos, lit=stone) is a with the Li and  3. It is a soft, silvery-white . Under , it is the least dense metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly and flammable, a ...

lithium
,
sodium Sodium is a with the  Na (from Latin ''natrium'') and  11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive . Sodium is an , being in of the periodic table. Its only stable is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, and must be ...

sodium
,
potassium Potassium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

potassium
and
ammonium The ammonium cation An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to charge of a proton, which is conside ...

ammonium
carbonates, as well as many uranium carbonates. In
aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute an ...
, carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, and carbonic acid exist together in a
dynamic equilibrium In chemistry, and in physics, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction occurs. Substances transition between the reactants and products at equal rates, meaning there is no net change. Reactants and products are formed at such a rate ...
. In strongly basic conditions, the carbonate ion predominates, while in weakly basic conditions, the
bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry#REDIRECT Inorganic chemistry features unusual bonding B: Caesium chloride Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula Caesium, CsChloride, Cl. This colorless salt is an important sourc ...

bicarbonate
ion is prevalent. In more acid conditions, aqueous
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is ...

carbon dioxide
, CO2(aq), is the main form, which, with water, H2O, is in equilibrium with carbonic acidthe equilibrium lies strongly towards carbon dioxide. Thus
sodium carbonate Sodium carbonate, ·10, (also known as Natrium Carbonate, washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals) is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, odourless, water-soluble salts that yield modera ...

sodium carbonate
is basic,
sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate ( IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion ( HCO3 ...

sodium bicarbonate
is weakly basic, while carbon dioxide itself is a weak acid.
Carbonated water Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water, fizzy water, club soda, water with gas or (especially in the United States, U.S.) as seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially i ...
is formed by dissolving CO2 in water under pressure. When the partial pressure of CO2 is reduced, for example when a can of soda is opened, the equilibrium for each of the forms of carbonate (carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, and carbonic acid) shifts until the concentration of CO2 in the solution is equal to the solubility of CO2 at that temperature and pressure. In living systems an enzyme,
carbonic anhydrase The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyst, catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the Dissociation (chemistry), dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and ...

carbonic anhydrase
, speeds the interconversion of CO2 and carbonic acid. Although the carbonate salts of most metals are insoluble in water, the same is not true of the bicarbonate salts. In solution this equilibrium between carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide and carbonic acid changes constantly to the changing temperature and pressure conditions. In the case of metal ions with insoluble carbonates, such as , formation of insoluble compounds results. This is an explanation for the buildup of scale inside pipes caused by
hard water Hard water is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living orga ...
.


Carbonate in the inorganic nomenclature

Systematic additive IUPAC name for carbonate anion is trioxidocarbonate(2−). Similarly,
cyanide A cyanide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...

cyanide
anion CN is named nitridocarbonate(1−). However, following the same logic for carbonate(4−) (
orthocarbonic acid Orthocarbonic acid (methanetetrol) is the name given to a hypothetical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordina ...
), by similitude to silicate(4−) ( orthosilicic acid), in the systematic additive nomenclature makes no sense as this species has never been identified under normal conditions of temperature and pressure. Orthocarbonic acid is energetically much less stable than orthosilicic acid and cannot exist under normal conditions because of the energetically unfavorable orbital configuration of a single central carbon atom bound to four oxygen atoms.


Organic carbonates

In
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and th ...
a carbonate can also refer to a
functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a substituent or moiety (chemistry), moiety in a molecule that causes the molecule's characteristic chemical reactions. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reactions re ...
within a larger molecule that contains a carbon atom bound to three oxygen atoms, one of which is double bonded. These compounds are also known as organocarbonates or carbonate esters, and have the general formula ROCOOR′, or RR′CO3. Important organocarbonates include
dimethyl carbonate Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to C ...

dimethyl carbonate
, the cyclic compounds
ethylene carbonate Ethylene carbonate (sometimes abbreviated EC) is the organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to ...

ethylene carbonate
and
propylene carbonate Propylene carbonate (often abbreviated PC) is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carb ...
, and the phosgene replacement, triphosgene.


Buffer

It works as a
buffer Buffer may refer to: Science * Buffer gas, an inert or nonflammable gas * Buffer solution, a solution used to prevent changes in pH * Buffering agent, the weak acid or base in a buffer solution * Lysis buffer, in cell biology * Metal ion buffer * M ...
in the blood as follows: when pH is low, the concentration of hydrogen ions is too high, so one exhales CO2. This will cause the equation to shift left, essentially decreasing the concentration of H+ ions, causing a more basic pH. When pH is too high, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood is too low, so the kidneys excrete bicarbonate (). This causes the equation to shift right, essentially increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions, causing a more acidic pH. Three important reversible reactions control the above pH balance: # H2CO3 H+ + # H2CO3 CO2 + H2O # CO2(aq) CO2(g) Exhaled CO2(g) depletes CO2(aq), which in turn consumes H2CO3, causing the aforementioned shift left in the first reaction by
Le Châtelier's principle Le Chatelier's principle (pronounced or ), also called Chatelier's principle, is a principle of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, mole ...
. By the same principle, when the pH is too high, the kidneys excrete bicarbonate () into urine as urea via the
urea cycle The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, bioch ...

urea cycle
(or Krebs–Henseleit ornithine cycle). By removing the bicarbonate, more H+ is generated from carbonic acid (H2CO3), which comes from CO2(g) produced by
cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such a ...

cellular respiration
. Crucially, this same buffer operates in the oceans. It is a major factor in climate change and the long-term carbon cycle, due to the large number of marine organisms (especially coral) which are formed of calcium carbonate. Increased solubility of carbonate through increased temperatures results in lower production of marine
calcite Calcite is a and the most stable of (CaCO3). The , based on , defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals and . Aragonite will change to calcite over timescales of days or less at temperatures exceed ...

calcite
and increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This, in turn, increases Earth temperature. The tonnage of is on a geological scale and may all be redissolved into the sea and released to the atmosphere, increasing CO2 levels even more.


Carbonate salts

* Carbonate overview:


Presence outside Earth

It is generally thought that the presence of carbonates in
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
is strong evidence for the presence of liquid water. Recent observations of the
planetary nebula A planetary nebula (PN, plural PNe), is a type of emission nebula An emission nebula is a nebula " from the Eagle Nebula. Evidence from the Spitzer Telescope suggests that the pillars may already have been destroyed by a supernova explos ...

planetary nebula
NGC 6302 NGC 6302 (also known as the Bug Nebula, Butterfly Nebula, or Caldwell 69) is a bipolar nebula, bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius. The structure in the nebula is among the most complex ever observed in planetary nebulae. The ...

NGC 6302
show evidence for carbonates in space, where aqueous alteration similar to that on Earth is unlikely. Other minerals have been proposed which would fit the observations. Until recently carbonate deposits have not been found on Mars via remote sensing or in situ missions, even though Martian meteorites contain small amounts. Groundwater may have existed at and
Meridiani Planum Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of th ...

Meridiani Planum
.


See also

* Cap carbonates *
Orthocarbonic acid Orthocarbonic acid (methanetetrol) is the name given to a hypothetical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordina ...
, , or , a hypothetic unstable molecule *
Oxalate Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is an anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. A ...
* Peroxocarbonate *
Sodium percarbonate Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula . It is an adduct of sodium carbonate ("soda ash" or "washing soda") and hydrogen peroxide (that is, a wikt:perhydrate, perhydrate) whose formula is more properly written as 2   ...

Sodium percarbonate


References


External links


Carbonate/bicarbonate/carbonic acid equilibrium in water: pH of solutions, buffer capacity, titration and species distribution vs. pH computed with a free spreadsheet
* {{Authority control Oxyanions