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Artificial intelligence (AI) is
intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, ...
demonstrated by
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a molecular component that produce ...

machine
s, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and
animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the L ...
, which involves consciousness and emotionality. The distinction between the former and the latter categories is often revealed by the acronym chosen. 'Strong' AI is usually labelled as
artificial general intelligence Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of an intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligenc ...
(AGI) while attempts to emulate 'natural' intelligence have been called artificial biological intelligence (ABI). Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "
intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotio ...
s": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the
human mind Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Humans are highly ...
, such as "learning" and "problem solving". As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the
AI effect The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal ...
. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance,
optical character recognition Optical character recognition or optical character reader (OCR) is the electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control ...
is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in
strategic game Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an ...
systems (such as
chess Chess is a board game Board games are tabletop game Tabletop games are game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New Yor ...

chess
and Go), and also imperfect-information games like
poker Poker is a family of card games in which Card player, players betting (poker), wager over which poker hand, hand is best according to that specific game's rules in ways similar List of poker hands, to these rankings. While the earliest known f ...

poker
,
self-driving car A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV), driverless car, or robotic car (robo-car), is a car incorporating vehicular automation, that is, a ground vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with ...
s, intelligent routing in
content delivery network A content delivery network, or content distribution network (CDN), is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. The goal is to provide high availability and performance by distributing the service spatially rel ...
s, and military simulations. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an " AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. After
AlphaGo AlphaGo is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements that change a program's state (computer science), state. In much ...

AlphaGo
successfully defeated a professional Go player in 2015, artificial intelligence once again attracted widespread global attention. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into sub-fields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "
robotics Robotics is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like ...

robotics
" or "
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
"), the use of particular tools ("
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
" or
artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nod ...

artificial neural network
s), or deep philosophical differences. Sub-fields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers). The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include
reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...
,
knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
,
planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business pro ...
,
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Under ...

learning
,
natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
,
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...
and the ability to move and manipulate objects. AGI is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include
statistical methods Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers th ...
, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, a ...
, information engineering,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
,
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
, and many other fields. The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by
myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...
,
fiction Fiction is any creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, writing (literature), filmm ...
and
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
since
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

antiquity
. Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a . In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of
data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ...

data
, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the
technology industry Technology ("science of craft", from , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ') is the sum of any , s, , and used in the production of or or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as . Technology can be the of techniques, p ...
, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science,
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The d ...
and operations research.


History

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, and have been common in fiction, as in
Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (, ; ; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist who wrote the Gothic fiction, Gothic novel ''Frankenstein, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818), which is considered an History of sci ...
's ''
Frankenstein ''Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' is an 1818 novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also ...

Frankenstein
'' or
Karel Čapek Karel Čapek (; 9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer, playwright and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel ''War with the Newts'' (1936) and play ''R.U.R.'' (''Rossum's Universal Ro ...

Karel Čapek
's ''
R.U.R. ''R.U.R.'' is a 1920 science-fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) i ...
'' These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the
ethics of artificial intelligence The ethics of artificial intelligence is the branch of the ethics of technology Ethics of technology is a sub-field of ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concept ...
. The study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
s and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
's
theory of computation In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm, how algorithmic efficiency, efficiently they can be solved or t ...
, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction. This insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the
Church–Turing thesis In Computability theory (computation), computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) i ...
. Along with concurrent discoveries in
neurobiology Neuroscience is the science, scientific study of the nervous system. It is a Multidisciplinary approach, multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, computer science and Mathe ...

neurobiology
,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
and
cybernetics Cybernetics is a wide-ranging field concerned with regulatory and purposive systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influen ...

cybernetics
, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed changing the question from whether a machine was intelligent, to "whether or not it is possible for machinery to show intelligent behaviour". The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for
Turing-complete In computability theory Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic Mathematical logic, also called formal logic, is a subfield of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) include ...
"artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at
Dartmouth College Dartmouth College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...
in 1956, where the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by
John McCarthyJohn McCarthy may refer to: Government * John George MacCarthy (1829–1892), Member of Parliament for Mallow constituency, 1874–1880 * John McCarthy (Irish politician) (1862–1893), Member of Parliament for the Mid Tipperary constituency, 189 ...
to distinguish the field from cybernetics and escape the influence of the cyberneticist
Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as ...

Norbert Wiener
. Attendees
Allen Newell Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techn ...
( CMU), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...
),
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many ...

Marvin Minsky
(MIT) and
Arthur Samuel Arthur Lee Samuel (December 5, 1901 – July 29, 1990) was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity ...
(
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
) became the founders and leaders of AI research. They and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning
checkers Draughts (; British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engl ...

checkers
strategies (c. 1954) (and by 1959 were reportedly playing better than the average human), solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems (
Logic Theorist Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw. It was the first program deliberately engineered to perform automated reasoning and is called "the first artificial intelligence program". It w ...
, first run c. 1956) and speaking English. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were optimistic about the future: Herbert Simon predicted, "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do".
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many ...

Marvin Minsky
agreed, writing, "within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved". They failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the remaining tasks. Progress slowed and in 1974, in response to the criticism of Sir James Lighthill and ongoing pressure from the US Congress to fund more productive projects, both the U.S. and British governments cut off exploratory research in AI. The next few years would later be called an " AI winter", a period when obtaining funding for AI projects was difficult. In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of
expert system In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=posse ...
s, a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts. By 1985, the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. At the same time, Japan's
fifth generation computer The Fifth Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry The was a ministry of the Government of Japan The is the central government of Japan. The Government of Japan consis ...
project inspired the U.S and British governments to restore funding for
academic research Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...
. However, beginning with the collapse of the
Lisp Machine Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp A lisp is a speech impairment in which a person misarticulates sibilant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and per ...

Lisp Machine
market in 1987, AI once again fell into disrepute, and a second, longer-lasting hiatus began. The development of
metal–oxide–semiconductor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect tran ...
(MOS)
very-large-scale integration Very large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A ci ...
(VLSI), in the form of complementary MOS (CMOS)
transistor upright=1.4, gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indonesia">Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands o ...

transistor
technology, enabled the development of practical
artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nod ...

artificial neural network
(ANN) technology in the 1980s. A landmark publication in the field was the 1989 book ''Analog VLSI Implementation of Neural Systems'' by Carver A. Mead and Mohammed Ismail. In the late 1990s and early 21st century, AI began to be used for logistics,
data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...
,
medical diagnosis Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx, Dx, or Ds) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and medical sign, signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medicine, medical context being implic ...
and other areas. The success was due to increasing computational power (see
Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that Transistor count, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit (IC) doubles about every two years. Moore's law is an observation and Forecasting, projection of a historical trend. Rather than a ph ...
and
transistor count upright=1.4, gate File:Kebun Raya Bali Candi Bentar IMG 8794.jpg, Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java and Bali A gate or gateway is a point of entry to or from a space enclosed by walls. The w ...
), greater emphasis on solving specific problems, new ties between AI and other fields (such as
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...

statistics
,
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
), and a commitment by researchers to mathematical methods and scientific standards. Deep Blue became the first computer chess-playing system to beat a reigning world chess champion,
Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian language, Russian: Гарри Кимович Каспаров, Russian pronunciation: Help:IPA/Russian, ɡarʲɪ ˈkʲiməvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsparəf born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, Гарик Кимович Ва ...

Garry Kasparov
, on 11 May 1997. In 2011, in a ''
Jeopardy! ''Jeopardy!'' is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants are presented with general knowledge clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in the form ...
''
quiz show A game show is a type of radio, television or stage show where contestants regularly compete for a reward. The history of game shows dates back to the invention of television as a medium. On most game shows, contestants either have to answer que ...
exhibition match,
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
's question answering system, Watson, defeated the two greatest ''Jeopardy!'' champions,
Brad Rutter Bradford Gates Rutter (born January 31, 1978) is an American game show A game show is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions develo ...
and
Ken Jennings Kenneth Wayne Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) is an American game show contestant and host, author, and television presenter. He is the highest-earning American game show contestant, having won money on five different game shows, including $4 ...

Ken Jennings
, by a significant margin. Faster computers, algorithmic improvements, and access to enabled advances in
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
and perception; data-hungry
deep learning #REDIRECT Deep learning#REDIRECT Deep learning Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks with representation learning. Learning can be ...

deep learning
methods started to dominate accuracy benchmarks around 2012. The
Kinect Kinect is a line of motion sensing Motion detection is the process of detecting a change in the position of an object relative to its surroundings or a change in the surroundings relative to an object. It can be achieved by either Mechanical sy ...
, which provides a 3D body–motion interface for the
Xbox 360 The Xbox 360 is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/output I ...

Xbox 360
and the
Xbox One The Xbox One is a line of home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/o ...

Xbox One
, uses algorithms that emerged from lengthy AI research as do
intelligent personal assistant remote control In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow ...
s in
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
s. In March 2016,
AlphaGo AlphaGo is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements that change a program's state (computer science), state. In much ...

AlphaGo
won 4 out of 5 games of Go in a match with Go champion
Lee Sedol Lee Sedol ( ko, 이세돌; born 2 March 1983), or Lee Se-dol, is a former South Korean professional Go (board game), Go Go players, player of Go ranks and ratings, 9 dan rank. As of February 2016, he ranked second in international titles (1 ...
, becoming the first computer Go-playing system to beat a professional Go player without handicaps. In the 2017
Future of Go SummitThe Future of Go Summit () was held in May 2017 by the Chinese Go Association, Sport Bureau of Zhejiang Province and Google in Wuzhen, Zhejiang, the permanent host of the World Internet Conference. It featured five Go (game), Go games involving Alpha ...
,
AlphaGo AlphaGo is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements that change a program's state (computer science), state. In much ...

AlphaGo
won a three-game match with
Ke Jie Ke Jie (; born 2 August 1997) is a Chinese professional Go player of 9 dan rank. Career 2008–15: Early Career and Bailing Cup Breakthrough Ke Jie started to learn how to play Go in 2003 when he was 5 years old and won his first national ch ...
, who at the time continuously held the world No. 1 ranking for two years. Deep Blue's
Murray Campbell Murray Campbell is a Canadians, Canadian computer scientist. He is a Senior Manager in the Business Analytics and Mathematical Sciences Department at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, USA. The mission of the S ...
called AlphaGo's victory "the end of an era... board games are more or less done and it's time to move on." This marked the completion of a significant milestone in the development of Artificial Intelligence as Go is a relatively complex game, more so than Chess. AlphaGo was later improved, generalized to other games like chess, with
AlphaZero AlphaZero is a computer program developed by artificial intelligence research company DeepMind to master the games of chess, shogi and Go (game), go. This algorithm uses an approach similar to AlphaGo Zero. On December 5, 2017, the DeepMind t ...
; and
MuZero MuZero is a computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language A pr ...
to play many different
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s, that were previously handled separately, in addition to board games. Other programs handle imperfect-information games; such as for
poker Poker is a family of card games in which Card player, players betting (poker), wager over which poker hand, hand is best according to that specific game's rules in ways similar List of poker hands, to these rankings. While the earliest known f ...

poker
at a superhuman level, Pluribus (poker bot) and Cepheus (poker bot). See:
General game playing General game playing (GGP) is the design of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, ...
. According to Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
increased from a "sporadic usage" in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. Clark also presents factual data indicating the improvements of AI since 2012 supported by lower error rates in image processing tasks. He attributes this to an increase in affordable
neural networks#REDIRECT Artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ ( ...

neural networks
, due to a rise in cloud computing infrastructure and to an increase in research tools and datasets. Other cited examples include Microsoft's development of a Skype system that can automatically translate from one language to another and Facebook's system that can describe images to blind people. In a 2017 survey, one in five companies reported they had "incorporated AI in some offerings or processes". Around 2016,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
greatly accelerated its government funding; given its large supply of data and its rapidly increasing research output, some observers believe it may be on track to becoming an "AI superpower". By 2020,
Natural Language Processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
systems such as the enormous
GPT-3 Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) is an Autoregressive model, autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like text. It is the third-generation language prediction model in the GPT-n series (and the success ...
(then by far the largest artificial neural network) were matching human performance on pre-existing benchmarks, albeit without the system attaining commonsense understanding of the contents of the benchmarks. DeepMind's AlphaFold 2 (2020) demonstrated the ability to determine, in hours rather than months, the 3D structure of a protein. Facial recognition advanced to where, under some circumstances, some systems claim to have a 99% accuracy rate.


Basics

Computer science defines AI research as the study of "
intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotio ...
s": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. A more elaborate definition characterizes AI as "a system's ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation." A typical AI analyzes its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success. An AI's intended utility function (or goal) can be simple ("1 if the AI wins a game of Go, 0 otherwise") or complex ("Perform actions mathematically similar to ones that succeeded in the past"). Goals can be explicitly defined or induced. If the AI is programmed for "
reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. M ...
", goals can be implicitly induced by rewarding some types of behavior or punishing others. Alternatively, an evolutionary system can induce goals by using a "
fitness function{{no footnotes, date=May 2015 A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that is used to summarise, as a single figure of merit, how close a given design solution is to achieving the set aims. Fitness functions are used in genetic ...
" to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems, similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food. Some AI systems, such as nearest-neighbor, instead of reason by analogy, these systems are not generally given goals, except to the degree that goals are implicit in their training data. Such systems can still be benchmarked if the non-goal system is framed as a system whose "goal" is to successfully accomplish its narrow classification task. AI often revolves around the use of
algorithms In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...
. An algorithm is a set of unambiguous instructions that a mechanical computer can execute. A complex algorithm is often built on top of other, simpler, algorithms. A simple example of an algorithm is the following (optimal for first player) recipe for play at
tic-tac-toe Tic-tac-toe (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. ...

tic-tac-toe
: # If someone has a "threat" (that is, two in a row), take the remaining square. Otherwise, # if a move "forks" to create two threats at once, play that move. Otherwise, # take the center square if it is free. Otherwise, # if your opponent has played in a corner, take the opposite corner. Otherwise, # take an empty corner if one exists. Otherwise, # take any empty square. Many AI algorithms are capable of learning from data; they can enhance themselves by learning new
heuristics A heuristic (; ), or heuristic technique, is any approach to problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their transla ...
(strategies, or "rules of thumb", that have worked well in the past), or can themselves write other algorithms. Some of the "learners" described below, including Bayesian networks, decision trees, and nearest-neighbor, could theoretically, (given infinite data, time, and memory) learn to approximate any
function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
, including which combination of mathematical functions would best describe the world. These learners could therefore derive all possible knowledge, by considering every possible hypothesis and matching them against the data. In practice, it is seldom possible to consider every possibility, because of the phenomenon of "
combinatorial explosion In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
", where the time needed to solve a problem grows exponentially. Much of AI research involves figuring out how to identify and avoid considering a broad range of possibilities unlikely to be beneficial. For example, when viewing a map and looking for the shortest driving route from
Denver Denver () is a consolidated city and county, the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...

Denver
to
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
in the East, one can in most cases skip looking at any path through
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
or other areas far to the West; thus, an AI wielding a pathfinding algorithm like A* can avoid the combinatorial explosion that would ensue if every possible route had to be ponderously considered. The earliest (and easiest to understand) approach to AI was symbolism (such as formal logic): "If an otherwise healthy adult has a fever, then they may have
influenza Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), ...

influenza
". A second, more general, approach is
Bayesian inference Bayesian inference is a method of in which is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more or becomes available. Bayesian inference is an important technique in , and especially in . Bayesian updating is particularly important in th ...
: "If the current patient has a fever, adjust the probability they have influenza in such-and-such way". The third major approach, extremely popular in routine business AI applications, are analogizers such as and nearest-neighbor: "After examining the records of known past patients whose temperature, symptoms, age, and other factors mostly match the current patient, X% of those patients turned out to have influenza". A fourth approach is harder to intuitively understand, but is inspired by how the brain's machinery works: the
artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nod ...

artificial neural network
approach uses artificial "
neurons A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapse In the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living ...

neurons
" that can learn by comparing itself to the desired output and altering the strengths of the connections between its internal neurons to "reinforce" connections that seemed to be useful. These four main approaches can overlap with each other and with evolutionary systems; for example, neural nets can learn to make inferences, to generalize, and to make analogies. Some systems implicitly or explicitly use multiple of these approaches, alongside many other AI and non-AI algorithms; the best approach is often different depending on the problem. Learning algorithms work on the basis that strategies, algorithms, and inferences that worked well in the past are likely to continue working well in the future. These inferences can be obvious, such as "since the sun rose every morning for the last 10,000 days, it will probably rise tomorrow morning as well". They can be nuanced, such as "X% of
families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...
have geographically separate species with color variants, so there is a Y% chance that undiscovered
black swans The black swan (''Cygnus atratus'') is a large Anatidae, waterbird, a species of swan which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. Within Australia, the black swan is nomadic, with erratic migration patterns dependent ...
exist". Learners also work on the basis of " Occam's razor": The simplest theory that explains the data is the likeliest. Therefore, according to Occam's razor principle, a learner must be designed such that it prefers simpler theories to complex theories, except in cases where the complex theory is proven substantially better. Settling on a bad, overly complex theory gerrymandered to fit all the past training data is known as
overfitting In statistics, overfitting is "the production of an analysis that corresponds too closely or exactly to a particular set of data, and may therefore fail to fit additional data or predict future observations reliably". An overfitted model is a ...

overfitting
. Many systems attempt to reduce overfitting by rewarding a theory in accordance with how well it fits the data, but penalizing the theory in accordance with how complex the theory is. Besides classic overfitting, learners can also disappoint by "learning the wrong lesson". A toy example is that an image classifier trained only on pictures of brown horses and black cats might conclude that all brown patches are likely to be horses. A real-world example is that, unlike humans, current image classifiers often don't primarily make judgments from the spatial relationship between components of the picture, and they learn relationships between pixels that humans are oblivious to, but that still correlate with images of certain types of real objects. Modifying these patterns on a legitimate image can result in "adversarial" images that the system misclassifies. Compared with humans, existing AI lacks several features of human "
commonsense reasoning In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotiona ...
"; most notably, humans have powerful mechanisms for reasoning about " naïve physics" such as space, time, and physical interactions. This enables even young children to easily make inferences like "If I roll this pen off a table, it will fall on the floor". Humans also have a powerful mechanism of "
folk psychology In philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigmatic issue in philosophy of mind, although a number of ot ...
" that helps them to interpret natural-language sentences such as "The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they advocated violence" (A generic AI has difficulty discerning whether the ones alleged to be advocating violence are the councilmen or the demonstrators). This lack of "common knowledge" means that AI often makes different mistakes than humans make, in ways that can seem incomprehensible. For example, existing self-driving cars cannot reason about the location nor the intentions of pedestrians in the exact way that humans do, and instead must use non-human modes of reasoning to avoid accidents.


Challenges

The cognitive capabilities of current architectures are very limited, using only a simplified version of what intelligence is really capable of. For instance, the human mind has come up with ways to reason beyond measure and logical explanations to different occurrences in life. What would have been otherwise straightforward, an equivalently difficult problem may be challenging to solve computationally as opposed to using the human mind. This gives rise to two classes of models: structuralist and functionalist. The structural models aim to loosely mimic the basic intelligence operations of the mind such as reasoning and logic. The functional model refers to the correlating data to its computed counterpart. The overall research goal of artificial intelligence is to create technology that allows computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner. The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have received the most attention.


Reasoning, problem solving

Early researchers developed algorithms that imitated step-by-step reasoning that humans use when they solve puzzles or make logical deductions. By the late 1980s and 1990s, AI research had developed methods for dealing with or incomplete information, employing concepts from
probability Probability is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained ...

probability
and
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
. These algorithms proved to be insufficient for solving large reasoning problems because they experienced a "combinatorial explosion": they became exponentially slower as the problems grew larger. Even humans rarely use the step-by-step deduction that early AI research could model. They solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgments.


Knowledge representation

Knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
and
knowledge engineering Knowledge engineering (KE) refers to all technical, scientific and social aspects involved in building, maintaining and using knowledge-based systems. Background Expert systems One of the first examples of an expert system In artificial intel ...
are central to classical AI research. Some "expert systems" attempt to gather explicit knowledge possessed by experts in some narrow domain. In addition, some projects attempt to gather the "commonsense knowledge" known to the average person into a database containing extensive knowledge about the world. Among the things a comprehensive commonsense knowledge base would contain are: objects, properties, categories and relations between objects; situations, events, states and time; causes and effects; knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know); and many other, less well researched domains. A representation of "what exists" is an
ontology Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, Becoming (philosophy), becoming, and reality. It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into Category of being, basic categories and which of these ...
: the set of objects, relations, concepts, and properties formally described so that software agents can interpret them. The
semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ...
of these are captured as
description logic Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike ...
concepts, roles, and individuals, and typically implemented as classes, properties, and individuals in the
Web Ontology Language The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of Knowledge representation and reasoning, knowledge representation languages for authoring Ontology (information science), ontologies. Ontologies are a formal way to describe taxonomies and classificatio ...
. The most general ontologies are called upper ontologies, which attempt to provide a foundation for all other knowledge by acting as mediators between domain ontologies that cover specific knowledge about a particular knowledge domain (field of interest or area of concern). Such formal knowledge representations can be used in content-based indexing and retrieval, scene interpretation, clinical decision support, knowledge discovery (mining "interesting" and actionable inferences from large databases), and other areas. Among the most difficult problems in knowledge representation are: ; Default reasoning and the
qualification problem In philosophy and Artificial intelligence, AI (especially, knowledge-based systems), the qualification problem is concerned with the impossibility of listing ''all'' the preconditions required for a real-world action to have its intended effect. It ...
:Many of the things people know take the form of "working assumptions". For example, if a bird comes up in conversation, people typically picture a fist-sized animal that sings and flies. None of these things are true about all birds.
John McCarthyJohn McCarthy may refer to: Government * John George MacCarthy (1829–1892), Member of Parliament for Mallow constituency, 1874–1880 * John McCarthy (Irish politician) (1862–1893), Member of Parliament for the Mid Tipperary constituency, 189 ...
identified this problem in 1969 as the qualification problem: for any commonsense rule that AI researchers care to represent, there tend to be a huge number of exceptions. Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires. AI research has explored a number of solutions to this problem. ;Breadth of commonsense knowledge: The number of atomic facts that the average person knows is very large. Research projects that attempt to build a complete knowledge base of commonsense knowledge (e.g.,
Cyc Cyc (pronounced ) is a long-term artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process wher ...
) require enormous amounts of laborious ontological engineering—they must be built, by hand, one complicated concept at a time. ;Subsymbolic form of some commonsense knowledge:Much of what people know is not represented as "facts" or "statements" that they could express verbally. For example, a chess master will avoid a particular chess position because it "feels too exposed" or an art critic can take one look at a statue and realize that it is a fake. These are non-conscious and sub-symbolic intuitions or tendencies in the human brain. Knowledge like this informs, supports and provides a context for symbolic, conscious knowledge. As with the related problem of sub-symbolic reasoning, it is hoped that situated AI, computational intelligence, or statistical AI will provide ways to represent this knowledge.


Planning

Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. They need a way to visualize the future—a representation of the state of the world and be able to make predictions about how their actions will change it—and be able to make choices that maximize the
utility As a topic of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within thos ...

utility
(or "value") of available choices. In classical planning problems, the agent can assume that it is the only system acting in the world, allowing the agent to be certain of the consequences of its actions. However, if the agent is not the only actor, then it requires that the agent can reason under uncertainty. This calls for an agent that can not only assess its environment and make predictions but also evaluate its predictions and adapt based on its assessment. Multi-agent planning uses the
cooperation Cooperation (written as co-operation in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial ...

cooperation
and competition of many agents to achieve a given goal.
Emergent behavior In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, ...
such as this is used by
evolutionary algorithms In computational intelligence (CI), an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization (mathematics), optimization algorithm. An EA uses mechanisms inspired by biological ev ...
and
swarm intelligence Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry Giddings Franklin Henry Giddings (March 23, 1855 – June 11, 1931) was an American sociologist and economist ...
.


Learning

Machine learning (ML), a fundamental concept of AI research since the field's inception, is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience.
Unsupervised learning Unsupervised learning is a type of algorithm that learns patterns from untagged data. The hope is that through mimicry, which is the primary way young children learn the machine is forced to build a compact internal representation of its world a ...
is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input, without requiring a human to label the inputs first.
Supervised learning Supervised learning (SL) is the machine learning task of learning a function that Map (mathematics), maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs. It infers a function from ' consisting of a set of ''training examples''. In supe ...
includes both
classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracels ...
and numerical regression, which requires a human to label the input data first. Classification is used to determine what category something belongs in, and occurs after a program sees a number of examples of things from several categories. Regression is the attempt to produce a function that describes the relationship between inputs and outputs and predicts how the outputs should change as the inputs change. Both classifiers and regression learners can be viewed as "function approximators" trying to learn an unknown (possibly implicit) function; for example, a spam classifier can be viewed as learning a function that maps from the text of an email to one of two categories, "spam" or "not spam".
Computational learning theory In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algo ...
can assess learners by computational complexity, by sample complexity (how much data is required), or by other notions of
optimization File:Nelder-Mead Simionescu.gif, Nelder-Mead minimum search of Test functions for optimization, Simionescu's function. Simplex vertices are ordered by their values, with 1 having the lowest ( best) value., alt= Mathematical optimization (alter ...
. In
reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. M ...
the agent is rewarded for good responses and punished for bad ones. The agent uses this sequence of rewards and punishments to form a strategy for operating in its problem space.


Natural language processing

Natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
(NLP) allows machines to read and
understand Understanding is a psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic disc ...
human language. A sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would enable natural-language user interfaces and the acquisition of knowledge directly from human-written sources, such as newswire texts. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include
information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ...
,
text mining Text mining, also referred to as ''text data mining'', similar to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or ...
,
question answering Question A question is an utterance which typically functions as a request for information, which is expected to be provided in the form of an answer. Questions can thus be understood as a kind of illocutionary act in the field of pragmatics ...
and
machine translation Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation Computer-aided translation (CAT), also referred to as machine-assisted translation (MAT) or machine-aided human translation (M ...
. Many current approaches use word co-occurrence frequencies to construct syntactic representations of text. "Keyword spotting" strategies for search are popular and scalable but dumb; a search query for "dog" might only match documents with the literal word "dog" and miss a document with the word "poodle". "Lexical affinity" strategies use the occurrence of words such as "accident" to assess the sentiment of a document. Modern statistical NLP approaches can combine all these strategies as well as others, and often achieve acceptable accuracy at the page or paragraph level. Beyond semantic NLP, the ultimate goal of "narrative" NLP is to embody a full understanding of commonsense reasoning. By 2019,
transformer A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another, or multiple Electrical network, circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux ...
-based deep learning architectures could generate coherent text.


Perception

Machine perceptionMachine perception is the capability of a computer system to interpret data in a manner that is similar to the way humans use their senses to relate to the world around them. The basic method that the computers take in and respond to their environmen ...
is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras (visible spectrum or infrared), microphones, wireless signals, and active
lidar Lidar (, also LIDAR, or LiDAR; sometimes LADAR) is a method for determining ranges (variable distance) by targeting an object with a laser A laser is a device that emits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiati ...
, sonar, radar, and
tactile sensor File:TactileHeadImage.png, alt=A PPS tactile sensor system (TactileHead) designed to quantify the pressure over a human head., A PPS tactile sensor system (TactileHead ) designed to quantify the pressure distribution over the face and head. Usef ...
s) to deduce aspects of the world. Applications include
speech recognition Speech recognition is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Educa ...

speech recognition
, facial recognition, and
object recognition The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to object recognition: Object recognition – technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence. Humans recogn ...
.
Computer vision Computer vision is an interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ...
is the ability to analyze visual input. Such input is usually ambiguous; a giant, fifty-meter-tall pedestrian far away may produce the same pixels as a nearby normal-sized pedestrian, requiring the AI to judge the relative likelihood and reasonableness of different interpretations, for example by using its "object model" to assess that fifty-meter pedestrians do not exist.


Motion and manipulation

AI is heavily used in robotics. Advanced
robotic arm Image:STS-3 Canadarm captures PDP.jpg, 250px, The Canadarm while deploying a payload from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually Program (machine), programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; ...
s and other
industrial robot An industrial robot is a robot A robot is a machine—especially one Computer program, programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. A robot can be guided by an external control device, o ...

industrial robot
s, widely used in modern factories, can learn from experience how to move efficiently despite the presence of friction and gear slippage. A modern mobile robot, when given a small, static, and visible environment, can easily determine its location and
map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. A ...
its environment; however, dynamic environments, such as (in
endoscopy An endoscopy (''looking inside'') is a procedure used in medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someon ...

endoscopy
) the interior of a patient's breathing body, pose a greater challenge.
Motion planning Motion planning, also path planning (also known as the navigation problem or the piano mover's problem) is a computational problem In theoretical computer science An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are used to mode ...
is the process of breaking down a movement task into "primitives" such as individual joint movements. Such movement often involves compliant motion, a process where movement requires maintaining physical contact with an object.
Moravec's paradoxMoravec's paradox is the observation by artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which ...
generalizes that low-level sensorimotor skills that humans take for granted are, counterintuitively, difficult to program into a robot; the paradox is named after
Hans Moravec Hans Peter Moravec (born November 30, 1948, Kautzen, Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the ...
, who stated in 1988 that "it is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility". This is attributed to the fact that, unlike checkers, physical dexterity has been a direct target of
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
for millions of years.


Social intelligence

Moravec's paradox can be extended to many forms of social intelligence. Distributed multi-agent coordination of autonomous vehicles remains a difficult problem.
Affective computing Affective computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer science Computer science deals with the theoretic ...
is an interdisciplinary umbrella that comprises systems which recognize, interpret, process, or simulate human affects. Moderate successes related to affective computing include textual
sentiment analysisSentiment analysis (also known as opinion mining or emotion AI) is the use of natural language processing#REDIRECT Natural language processing {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ..., text analysis, computational linguisti ...
and, more recently, multimodal affect analysis (see multimodal sentiment analysis), wherein AI classifies the affects displayed by a videotaped subject. In the long run, social skills and an understanding of human emotion and
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
would be valuable to a social agent. The ability to predict the actions of others by understanding their motives and emotional states would allow an agent to make better decisions. Some computer systems mimic human emotion and expressions to appear more sensitive to the emotional dynamics of human interaction, or to otherwise facilitate
human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) is research in the design and the use of Computing, computer technology, which focuses on the Interface (computing), interfaces between people (user (computing), users) and computers. HCI researchers observe th ...
. Similarly, some
virtual assistant remote control In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow ...
s are programmed to speak conversationally or even to banter humorously; this tends to give naïve users an unrealistic conception of how intelligent existing computer agents actually are.


General intelligence

Historically, projects such as the Cyc knowledge base (1984–) and the massive Japanese Fifth Generation Computer Systems initiative (1982–1992) attempted to cover the breadth of human cognition. These early projects failed to escape the limitations of non-quantitative symbolic logic models and, in retrospect, greatly underestimated the difficulty of cross-domain AI. Nowadays, most current AI researchers work instead on tractable "narrow AI" applications (such as medical diagnosis or automobile navigation). Many researchers predict that such "narrow AI" work in different individual domains will eventually be incorporated into a machine with
artificial general intelligence Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of an intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligenc ...
(AGI), combining most of the narrow skills mentioned in this article and at some point even exceeding human ability in most or all these areas. Many advances have general, cross-domain significance. One high-profile example is that
DeepMind DeepMind Technologies is a British artificial intelligence subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. and research laboratory founded in September 2010. DeepMind was List of mergers and acquisitions by Google, acquired by Google in 2014. The company is based ...
in the 2010s developed a "generalized artificial intelligence" that could learn many diverse
Atari Atari () is a brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive Atari Interactive is a name used by several separate groups and corporations since the mid-1990s. In 1996, it was the name of Ata ...

Atari
games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. Besides transfer learning, hypothetical AGI breakthroughs could include the development of reflective architectures that can engage in decision-theoretic metareasoning, and figuring out how to "slurp up" a comprehensive knowledge base from the entire unstructured
Web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropod An ar ...
. Some argue that some kind of (currently-undiscovered) conceptually straightforward, but mathematically difficult, "Master Algorithm" could lead to AGI. Finally, a few "emergent" approaches look to simulating human intelligence extremely closely, and believe that
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics t ...
features like an
artificial brain An artificial brain (or artificial mind) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
or simulated
child development Child development involves the biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, b ...
may someday reach a critical point where general intelligence emerges. Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. For example, even specific straightforward tasks, like
machine translation Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation Computer-aided translation (CAT), also referred to as machine-assisted translation (MAT) or machine-aided human translation (M ...
, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP), follow the author's argument (
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
), know what is being talked about (
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
), and faithfully reproduce the author's original intent (
social intelligence Social intelligence is the capacity to know oneself and to know others. Social Intelligence develops from experience with people and learning from success and failures in social settings. It is more commonly referred to as "tact", "common sense ...
). A problem like machine translation is considered "
AI-complete In the field of artificial intelligence, the most difficult problems are informally known as AI-complete or AI-hard, implying that the difficulty of these computational problems, assuming intelligence is computational, is equivalent to that of solvi ...
", because all of these problems need to be solved simultaneously in order to reach human-level machine performance.


Approaches

No established unifying theory or
paradigm In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as ...
guides AI research. Researchers disagree about many issues. A few of the most long-standing questions that have remained unanswered are these: should artificial intelligence simulate natural intelligence by studying
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
or
neurobiology Neuroscience is the science, scientific study of the nervous system. It is a Multidisciplinary approach, multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, computer science and Mathe ...

neurobiology
? Or is
human biology Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of academic study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as human genetics, genetics, human evolution, evolution, human physiology, physiology, anatomy, epidem ...
as irrelevant to AI research as bird biology is to
aeronautical engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and build ...
? Can intelligent behavior be described using simple, elegant principles (such as
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
or
optimization File:Nelder-Mead Simionescu.gif, Nelder-Mead minimum search of Test functions for optimization, Simionescu's function. Simplex vertices are ordered by their values, with 1 having the lowest ( best) value., alt= Mathematical optimization (alter ...
)? Or does it necessarily require solving a large number of unrelated problems?


Cybernetics and brain simulation

In the 1940s and 1950s, a number of researchers explored the connection between
neurobiology Neuroscience is the science, scientific study of the nervous system. It is a Multidisciplinary approach, multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, computer science and Mathe ...
,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, and
cybernetics Cybernetics is a wide-ranging field concerned with regulatory and purposive systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influen ...

cybernetics
. Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter's
turtles Turtles are an Order (biology), order of reptiles known as Testudines, characterized by a turtle shell, shell developed mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the Pleurodira, side-necked turtles and Cryptodi ...
and the Johns Hopkins Beast. Many of these researchers gathered for meetings of the Teleological Society at Princeton University and the Ratio Club in England. By 1960, this approach was largely abandoned, although elements of it would be revived in the 1980s.


Symbolic

When access to digital computers became possible in the mid-1950s, AI research began to explore the possibility that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation. The research was centered in three institutions: Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford, and MIT, and as described below, each one developed its own style of research. John Haugeland named these symbolic approaches to AI "good old fashioned AI" or "GOFAI". During the 1960s, symbolic approaches had achieved great success at simulating high-level "thinking" in small demonstration programs. Approaches based on
cybernetics Cybernetics is a wide-ranging field concerned with regulatory and purposive systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influen ...

cybernetics
or
artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nod ...

artificial neural network
s were abandoned or pushed into the background. Researchers in the 1960s and the 1970s were convinced that symbolic approaches would eventually succeed in creating a machine with
artificial general intelligence Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of an intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligenc ...
and considered this the goal of their field.


Cognitive simulation

Economist Herbert Simon and
Allen Newell Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techn ...
studied human problem-solving skills and attempted to formalize them, and their work laid the foundations of the field of artificial intelligence, as well as cognitive science, operations research and management science. Their research team used the results of psychology, psychological experiments to develop programs that simulated the techniques that people used to solve problems. This tradition, centered at Carnegie Mellon University would eventually culminate in the development of the Soar (cognitive architecture), Soar architecture in the middle 1980s.


Logic-based

Unlike Simon and Newell,
John McCarthyJohn McCarthy may refer to: Government * John George MacCarthy (1829–1892), Member of Parliament for Mallow constituency, 1874–1880 * John McCarthy (Irish politician) (1862–1893), Member of Parliament for the Mid Tipperary constituency, 189 ...
felt that machines did not need to simulate human thought, but should instead try to find the essence of abstract reasoning and problem-solving, regardless of whether people used the same algorithms. His laboratory at Stanford University, Stanford (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, SAIL) focused on using formal
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
to solve a wide variety of problems, including
knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
, automated planning and scheduling, planning and
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Under ...

learning
. Logic was also the focus of the work at the University of Edinburgh and elsewhere in Europe which led to the development of the programming language Prolog and the science of logic programming.


Anti-logic or scruffy

Researchers at MIT (such as
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many ...

Marvin Minsky
and Seymour Papert) found that solving difficult problems in computer vision, vision and
natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
required ad hoc solutions—they argued that no simple and general principle (like
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
) would capture all the aspects of intelligent behavior. Roger Schank described their "anti-logic" approaches as "Neats vs. scruffies, scruffy" (as opposed to the "neats vs. scruffies, neat" paradigms at CMU and Stanford). Commonsense knowledge bases (such as Doug Lenat's
Cyc Cyc (pronounced ) is a long-term artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process wher ...
) are an example of "scruffy" AI, since they must be built by hand, one complicated concept at a time.


Knowledge-based

When computers with large memories became available around 1970, researchers from all three traditions began to build knowledge representation, knowledge into AI applications. This "knowledge revolution" led to the development and deployment of
expert system In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=posse ...
s (introduced by Edward Feigenbaum), the first truly successful form of AI software. A key component of the system architecture for all expert systems is the knowledge base, which stores facts and rules that illustrate AI. The knowledge revolution was also driven by the realization that enormous amounts of knowledge would be required by many simple AI applications.


Sub-symbolic

By the 1980s, progress in symbolic AI seemed to stall and many believed that symbolic systems would never be able to imitate all the processes of human cognition, especially
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...
, robotics,
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Under ...

learning
and pattern recognition. A number of researchers began to look into "sub-symbolic" approaches to specific AI problems. Sub-symbolic methods manage to approach intelligence without specific representations of knowledge.


Embodied intelligence

This includes embodied agent, embodied, situated, behavior-based AI, behavior-based, and nouvelle AI. Researchers from the related field of robotics, such as Rodney Brooks, rejected symbolic AI and focused on the basic engineering problems that would allow robots to move and survive. Their work revived the non-symbolic point of view of the early cybernetics researchers of the 1950s and reintroduced the use of control theory in AI. This coincided with the development of the embodied mind thesis in the related field of cognitive science: the idea that aspects of the body (such as movement, perception and visualization) are required for higher intelligence. Within developmental robotics, developmental learning approaches are elaborated upon to allow robots to accumulate repertoires of novel skills through autonomous self-exploration, social interaction with human teachers, and the use of guidance mechanisms (active learning, maturation, motor synergies, etc.).


Computational intelligence and soft computing

Interest in
neural networks#REDIRECT Artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ ( ...

neural networks
and "connectionism" was revived by David Rumelhart and others in the middle of the 1980s. Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing—they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. Other soft computing approaches to AI include fuzzy systems, Grey system theory, evolutionary computation and many statistical tools. The application of soft computing to AI is studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence.


Statistical

Much of traditional Symbolic artificial intelligence, GOFAI got bogged down on ''ad hoc'' patches to symbolic computation that worked on their own toy models but failed to generalize to real-world results. However, around the 1990s, AI researchers adopted sophisticated mathematical tools, such as hidden Markov models (HMM),
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, and normative Bayesian decision theory to compare or to unify competing architectures. The shared mathematical language permitted a high level of collaboration with more established fields (like
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, economics or operations research). Compared with GOFAI, new "statistical learning" techniques such as HMM and neural networks were gaining higher levels of accuracy in many practical domains such as
data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...
, without necessarily acquiring a semantic understanding of the datasets. The increased successes with real-world data led to increasing emphasis on comparing different approaches against shared test data to see which approach performed best in a broader context than that provided by idiosyncratic toy models; AI research was becoming more scientific method, scientific. Nowadays results of experiments are often rigorously measurable, and are sometimes (with difficulty) reproducible. Different statistical learning techniques have different limitations; for example, basic HMM cannot model the infinite possible combinations of natural language. Critics note that the shift from GOFAI to statistical learning is often also a shift away from explainable AI. In AGI research, some scholars caution against over-reliance on statistical learning, and argue that continuing research into GOFAI will still be necessary to attain general intelligence.


Integrating the approaches

;Intelligent agent paradigm: An
intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotio ...
is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. The simplest intelligent agents are programs that solve specific problems. More complicated agents include human beings and organizations of human beings (such as firms). The paradigm allows researchers to directly compare or even combine different approaches to isolated problems, by asking which agent is best at maximizing a given "goal function". An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works—some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic
artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nod ...

artificial neural network
s and others may use new approaches. The paradigm also gives researchers a common language to communicate with other fields—such as decision theory and economics—that also use concepts of abstract agents. Building a complete agent requires researchers to address realistic problems of integration; for example, because sensory systems give uncertain information about the environment, planning systems must be able to function in the presence of uncertainty. The intelligent agent paradigm became widely accepted during the 1990s. ;Agent architectures and cognitive architectures:Researchers have designed systems to build intelligent systems out of interacting
intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotio ...
s in a multi-agent system. A hierarchical control system provides a bridge between sub-symbolic AI at its lowest, reactive levels and traditional symbolic AI at its highest levels, where relaxed time constraints permit planning and world modeling. Some cognitive architectures are custom-built to solve a narrow problem; others, such as Soar (cognitive architecture), Soar, are designed to mimic human cognition and to provide insight into general intelligence. Modern extensions of Soar are hybrid intelligent systems that include both symbolic and sub-symbolic components.


Tools


Applications

AI is relevant to any intellectual task. Modern artificial intelligence techniques are pervasive and are too numerous to list here. Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the
AI effect The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal ...
. High-profile examples of AI include autonomous vehicles (such as Unmanned aerial vehicle, drones and self-driving cars), medical diagnosis, creating art (such as poetry), proving mathematical theorems, playing games (such as Chess or Go), search engines (such as Google Search), online assistants (such as Siri), image recognition in photographs, spam filtering, predicting flight delays, prediction of judicial decisions, targeting online advertisements, and energy storage With social media sites overtaking TV as a source for news for young people and news organizations increasingly reliant on social media platforms for generating distribution, major publishers now use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to post stories more effectively and generate higher volumes of traffic. AI can also produce Deepfakes, a content-altering technology. ZDNet reports, "It presents something that did not actually occur," Though 88% of Americans believe Deepfakes can cause more harm than good, only 47% of them believe they can be targeted. The boom of election year also opens public discourse to threats of videos of falsified politician media.


Philosophy and ethics

There are three philosophical questions related to AI: # Whether
artificial general intelligence Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of an intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligenc ...
is possible; whether a machine can solve any problem that a human being can solve using intelligence, or if there are hard limits to what a machine can accomplish. # Whether intelligent machines are dangerous; how humans can ensure that machines behave ethically and that they are used ethically. # Whether a machine can have a mind, consciousness and philosophy of mind, mental states in the same sense that human beings do; if a machine can be Sentience, sentient, and thus deserve certain rights − and if a machine can intentionally cause harm.


The limits of artificial general intelligence

;''Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing's "polite convention"'': One need not decide if a machine can "think"; one need only decide if a machine can act as intelligently as a human being. This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. ;''The Dartmouth Workshop, Dartmouth proposal'': "Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." This conjecture was printed in the proposal for the Dartmouth Conference of 1956. ;''Physical symbol system, Newell and Simon's physical symbol system hypothesis'': "A physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means of general intelligent action." Newell and Simon argue that intelligence consists of formal operations on symbols. Hubert Dreyfus argues that, on the contrary, human expertise depends on unconscious instinct rather than conscious symbol manipulation, and on having a "feel" for the situation, rather than explicit symbolic knowledge. (See Dreyfus' critique of AI.) ;''Gödelian arguments'': Gödel himself, John Lucas (philosopher), John Lucas (in 1961) and Roger Penrose (in a more detailed argument from 1989 onwards) made highly technical arguments that human mathematicians can consistently see the truth of their own "Gödel statements" and therefore have computational abilities beyond that of mechanical Turing machines. However, some people do not agree with the "Gödelian arguments". ;''The
artificial brain An artificial brain (or artificial mind) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardwa ...
argument'': An argument asserting that the brain can be simulated by machines and, because brains exhibit intelligence, these simulated brains must also exhibit intelligence − ergo, machines can be intelligent.
Hans Moravec Hans Peter Moravec (born November 30, 1948, Kautzen, Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the ...
, Ray Kurzweil and others have argued that it is technologically feasible to copy the brain directly into hardware and software, and that such a simulation will be essentially identical to the original. ;''The
AI effect The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal ...
'': A hypothesis claiming that machines are ''already'' intelligent, but observers have failed to recognize it. For example, when Deep Blue beat
Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian language, Russian: Гарри Кимович Каспаров, Russian pronunciation: Help:IPA/Russian, ɡarʲɪ ˈkʲiməvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsparəf born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, Гарик Кимович Ва ...

Garry Kasparov
in chess, the machine could be described as exhibiting intelligence. However, onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not "real" intelligence, with "real" intelligence being in effect defined as whatever behavior machines cannot do.


Ethical machines

Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to prevent harm and minimize the risks; they may have the ability to use ethics, ethical reasoning to better choose their actions in the world. As such, there is a need for policy making to devise policies for and regulate artificial intelligence and robotics. Research in this area includes machine ethics, artificial moral agents, friendly AI and discussion towards building a human rights framework is also in talks. Joseph Weizenbaum in ''Computer Power and Human Reason'' wrote that AI applications cannot, by definition, successfully simulate genuine human empathy and that the use of AI technology in fields such as customer service or psychotherapy was deeply misguided. Weizenbaum was also bothered that AI researchers (and some philosophers) were willing to view the human mind as nothing more than a computer program (a position now known as computationalism). To Weizenbaum these points suggest that AI research devalues human life.


Artificial moral agents

Wendell Wallach introduced the concept of artificial moral agents (AMA) in his book ''Moral Machines'' For Wallach, AMAs have become a part of the research landscape of artificial intelligence as guided by its two central questions which he identifies as "Does Humanity Want Computers Making Moral Decisions" and "Can (Ro)bots Really Be Moral". For Wallach, the question is not centered on the issue of ''whether'' machines can demonstrate the equivalent of moral behavior, unlike the ''constraints'' which society may place on the development of AMAs.


Machine ethics

The field of machine ethics is concerned with giving machines ethical principles, or a procedure for discovering a way to resolve the ethical dilemmas they might encounter, enabling them to function in an ethically responsible manner through their own ethical decision making. The field was delineated in the AAAI Fall 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics: "Past research concerning the relationship between technology and ethics has largely focused on responsible and irresponsible use of technology by human beings, with a few people being interested in how human beings ought to treat machines. In all cases, only human beings have engaged in ethical reasoning. The time has come for adding an ethical dimension to at least some machines. Recognition of the ethical ramifications of behavior involving machines, as well as recent and potential developments in machine autonomy, necessitate this. In contrast to computer hacking, software property issues, privacy issues and other topics normally ascribed to computer ethics, machine ethics is concerned with the behavior of machines towards human users and other machines. Research in machine ethics is key to alleviating concerns with autonomous systems—it could be argued that the notion of autonomous machines without such a dimension is at the root of all fear concerning machine intelligence. Further, investigation of machine ethics could enable the discovery of problems with current ethical theories, advancing our thinking about Ethics." Machine ethics is sometimes referred to as machine morality, computational ethics or computational morality. A variety of perspectives of this nascent field can be found in the collected edition "Machine Ethics" that stems from the AAAI Fall 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics.


Malevolent and friendly AI

Political scientist Charles T. Rubin believes that AI can be neither designed nor guaranteed to be benevolent. He argues that "any sufficiently advanced benevolence may be indistinguishable from malevolence." Humans should not assume machines or robots would treat us favorably because there is no ''a priori'' reason to believe that they would be sympathetic to our system of morality, which has evolved along with our particular biology (which AIs would not share). Hyper-intelligent software may not necessarily decide to support the continued existence of humanity and would be extremely difficult to stop. This topic has also recently begun to be discussed in academic publications as a real source of risks to civilization, humans, and planet Earth. One proposal to deal with this is to ensure that the first generally intelligent AI is 'Friendly AI' and will be able to control subsequently developed AIs. Some question whether this kind of check could actually remain in place. Leading AI researcher Rodney Brooks writes, "I think it is a mistake to be worrying about us developing malevolent AI anytime in the next few hundred years. I think the worry stems from a fundamental error in not distinguishing the difference between the very real recent advances in a particular aspect of AI and the enormity and complexity of building sentient volitional intelligence." Lethal autonomous weapons are of concern. Currently, 50+ countries are researching battlefield robots, including the United States, China, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers and drones.


Machine consciousness, sentience and mind

If an AI system replicates all key aspects of human intelligence, will that system also be Sentience, sentient—will it have a mind which has consciousness, conscious experiences? This question is closely related to the philosophical problem as to the nature of human consciousness, generally referred to as the hard problem of consciousness.


Consciousness

David Chalmers identified two problems in understanding the mind, which he named the "hard" and "easy" problems of consciousness. The easy problem is understanding how the brain processes signals, makes plans and controls behavior. The hard problem is explaining how this ''feels'' or why it should feel like anything at all. Human information processing is easy to explain, however human subjective experience is difficult to explain. For example, consider what happens when a person is shown a color swatch and identifies it, saying "it's red". The easy problem only requires understanding the machinery in the brain that makes it possible for a person to know that the color swatch is red. The hard problem is that people also know something else—they also know ''what red looks like''. (Consider that a person born blind can know that something is red without knowing what red looks like.) Everyone knows subjective experience exists, because they do it every day (e.g., all sighted people know what red looks like). The hard problem is explaining how the brain creates it, why it exists, and how it is different from knowledge and other aspects of the brain.


Computationalism and functionalism

Computationalism is the position in the philosophy of mind that the human mind or the human brain (or both) is an information processing system and that thinking is a form of computing. Computationalism argues that the relationship between mind and body is similar or identical to the relationship between software and hardware and thus may be a solution to the mind-body problem. This philosophical position was inspired by the work of AI researchers and cognitive scientists in the 1960s and was originally proposed by philosophers Jerry Fodor and Hilary Putnam.


Strong AI hypothesis

The philosophical position that John Searle has named strong AI hypothesis, "strong AI" states: "The appropriately programmed computer with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense human beings have minds." Searle counters this assertion with his Chinese room argument, which asks us to look ''inside'' the computer and try to find where the "mind" might be.


Robot rights

If a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also ''sentience, feel''? If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? This issue, now known as "robot rights", is currently being considered by, for example, California's Institute for the Future, although many critics believe that the discussion is premature. Some critics of transhumanism argue that any hypothetical robot rights would lie on a spectrum with animal rights and human rights. The subject is profoundly discussed in the 2010 documentary film ''Plug & Pray'', and many sci fi media such as Star Trek Next Generation, with the character of Commander Data, who fought being disassembled for research, and wanted to "become human", and the robotic holograms in Voyager.


Superintelligence

Are there limits to how intelligent machines—or human-machine hybrids—can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind. ''Superintelligence'' may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent.


Technological singularity

If research into artificial general intelligence, Strong AI produced sufficiently intelligent software, it might be able to reprogram and improve itself. The improved software would be even better at improving itself, leading to Intelligence explosion, recursive self-improvement. The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. Science fiction writer Vernor Vinge named this scenario "technological singularity, singularity". Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events are unpredictable or even unfathomable. Ray Kurzweil has used
Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that Transistor count, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit (IC) doubles about every two years. Moore's law is an observation and Forecasting, projection of a historical trend. Rather than a ph ...
(which describes the relentless exponential improvement in digital technology) to calculate that desktop computers will have the same processing power as human brains by the year 2029 and predicts that the singularity will occur in 2045.


Transhumanism

Robot designer
Hans Moravec Hans Peter Moravec (born November 30, 1948, Kautzen, Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the ...
, cyberneticist Kevin Warwick, and inventor Ray Kurzweil have predicted that humans and machines will merge in the future into cyborgs that are more capable and powerful than either. This idea, called transhumanism, has roots in Aldous Huxley and Robert Ettinger. Edward Fredkin argues that "artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution", an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler (novelist), Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" as far back as 1863, and expanded upon by George Dyson (science historian), George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998.


Impact

The long-term economic effects of AI are uncertain. A survey of economists showed disagreement about whether the increasing use of robots and AI will cause a substantial increase in long-term unemployment, but they generally agree that it could be a net benefit, if productivity gains are Redistribution of income and wealth, redistributed. A 2017 study by PricewaterhouseCoopers sees the People’s Republic of China gaining economically the most out of AI with 26,1% of GDP until 2030. A February 2020 European Union white paper on artificial intelligence advocated for artificial intelligence for economic benefits, including "improving healthcare (e.g. making diagnosis more precise, enabling better prevention of diseases), increasing the efficiency of farming, contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, [and] improving the efficiency of production systems through predictive maintenance", while acknowledging potential risks. The Technological unemployment, relationship between automation and employment is complicated. While automation eliminates old jobs, it also creates new jobs through micro-economic and macro-economic effects. Unlike previous waves of automation, many middle-class jobs may be eliminated by artificial intelligence; ''The Economist'' states that "the worry that AI could do to white-collar jobs what steam power did to blue-collar ones during the Industrial Revolution" is "worth taking seriously". Subjective estimates of the risk vary widely; for example, Michael Osborne and Carl Benedikt Frey estimate 47% of U.S. jobs are at "high risk" of potential automation, while an OECD report classifies only 9% of U.S. jobs as "high risk". Jobs at extreme risk range from paralegals to fast food cooks, while job demand is likely to increase for care-related professions ranging from personal healthcare to the clergy. Author Martin Ford (author), Martin Ford and others go further and argue that many jobs are routine, repetitive and (to an AI) predictable; Ford warns that these jobs may be automated in the next couple of decades, and that many of the new jobs may not be "accessible to people with average capability", even with retraining. Economists point out that in the past technology has tended to increase rather than reduce total employment, but acknowledge that "we're in uncharted territory" with AI. The potential negative effects of AI and automation were a major issue for Andrew Yang's Andrew Yang 2020 presidential campaign, 2020 presidential campaign in the United States. Irakli Beridze, Head of the Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics at UNICRI, United Nations, has expressed that "I think the dangerous applications for AI, from my point of view, would be criminals or large terrorist organizations using it to disrupt large processes or simply do pure harm. [Terrorists could cause harm] via digital warfare, or it could be a combination of robotics, drones, with AI and other things as well that could be really dangerous. And, of course, other risks come from things like job losses. If we have massive numbers of people losing jobs and don't find a solution, it will be extremely dangerous. Things like lethal autonomous weapons systems should be properly governed — otherwise there's massive potential of misuse."


Risks of narrow AI

Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. Scientists from the Future of Life Institute, among others, described some short-term research goals to see how AI influences the economy, the laws and ethics that are involved with AI and how to minimize AI security risks. In the long-term, the scientists have proposed to continue optimizing function while minimizing possible security risks that come along with new technologies. Some are concerned about algorithmic bias, that AI programs may unintentionally become biased after processing data that exhibits bias. Algorithms already have numerous applications in legal systems. An example of this is COMPAS (software), COMPAS, a commercial program widely used by U.S. courts to assess the likelihood of a defendant becoming a recidivist. ProPublica claims that the average COMPAS-assigned recidivism risk level of black defendants is significantly higher than the average COMPAS-assigned risk level of white defendants.


Risks of general AI

Physicist Stephen Hawking, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, history professor Yuval Noah Harari, and SpaceX founder Elon Musk have expressed concerns about the possibility that AI could evolve to the point that humans could not control it, with Hawking theorizing that this could "Global catastrophic risk, spell the end of the human race". In his book ''Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, Superintelligence'', philosopher Nick Bostrom provides an argument that artificial intelligence will pose a threat to humankind. He argues that sufficiently intelligent AI, if it chooses actions based on achieving some goal, will exhibit Instrumental convergence, convergent behavior such as acquiring resources or protecting itself from being shut down. If this AI's goals do not fully reflect humanity's—one example is an AI told to compute as many digits of pi as possible—it might harm humanity in order to acquire more resources or prevent itself from being shut down, ultimately to better achieve its goal. Bostrom also emphasizes the difficulty of fully conveying humanity's values to an advanced AI. He uses the hypothetical example of giving an AI the goal to make humans smile to illustrate a misguided attempt. If the AI in that scenario were to become superintelligent, Bostrom argues, it may resort to methods that most humans would find horrifying, such as inserting "electrodes into the facial muscles of humans to cause constant, beaming grins" because that would be an efficient way to achieve its goal of making humans smile. In his book ''Human Compatible'', AI researcher Stuart J. Russell echoes some of Bostrom's concerns while also proposing Human Compatible#Russell's three principles, an approach to developing provably beneficial machines focused on uncertainty and deference to humans, possibly involving Reinforcement learning#Inverse reinforcement learning, inverse reinforcement learning. Concern over risk from artificial intelligence has led to some high-profile donations and investments. A group of prominent tech titans including Peter Thiel, Amazon Web Services and Musk have committed $1 billion to OpenAI, a nonprofit company aimed at championing responsible AI development. The opinion of experts within the field of artificial intelligence is mixed, with sizable fractions both concerned and unconcerned by risk from eventual superhumanly-capable AI. Other technology industry leaders believe that artificial intelligence is helpful in its current form and will continue to assist humans. Oracle CEO Mark Hurd has stated that AI "will actually create more jobs, not less jobs" as humans will be needed to manage AI systems. Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg believes AI will "unlock a huge amount of positive things," such as curing disease and increasing the safety of autonomous cars. In January 2015, Musk donated $10 million to the Future of Life Institute to fund research on understanding AI decision making. The goal of the institute is to "grow wisdom with which we manage" the growing power of technology. Musk also funds companies developing artificial intelligence such as
DeepMind DeepMind Technologies is a British artificial intelligence subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. and research laboratory founded in September 2010. DeepMind was List of mergers and acquisitions by Google, acquired by Google in 2014. The company is based ...
and Vicarious (company), Vicarious to "just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence. I think there is potentially a dangerous outcome there." For the danger of uncontrolled advanced AI to be realized, the hypothetical AI would have to overpower or out-think all of humanity, which a minority of experts argue is a possibility far enough in the future to not be worth researching. Other counterarguments revolve around humans being either intrinsically or convergently valuable from the perspective of an artificial intelligence.


Regulation

The regulation of artificial intelligence is the development of public sector policies and laws for promoting and regulating artificial intelligence (AI); it is therefore related to the broader regulation of algorithms. The regulatory and policy landscape for AI is an emerging issue in jurisdictions globally, including in the European Union. Regulation is considered necessary to both encourage AI and manage associated risks. Regulation of AI through mechanisms such as review boards can also be seen as social means to approach the AI control problem.


In fiction

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity, and have been a persistent theme in science fiction. A common Trope (literature), trope in these works began with
Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (, ; ; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist who wrote the Gothic fiction, Gothic novel ''Frankenstein, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818), which is considered an History of sci ...
's ''
Frankenstein ''Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' is an 1818 novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also ...

Frankenstein
'', where a human creation becomes a threat to its masters. This includes such works as 2001: A Space Odyssey (novel), Arthur C. Clarke's and 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), Stanley Kubrick's ''2001: A Space Odyssey'' (both 1968), with HAL 9000, the murderous computer in charge of the ''Discovery One'' spaceship, as well as ''The Terminator'' (1984) and ''The Matrix'' (1999). In contrast, the rare loyal robots such as Gort from ''The Day the Earth Stood Still'' (1951) and Bishop from ''Aliens (film), Aliens'' (1986) are less prominent in popular culture. Isaac Asimov introduced the Three Laws of Robotics in many books and stories, most notably the "Multivac" series about a super-intelligent computer of the same name. Asimov's laws are often brought up during lay discussions of machine ethics; while almost all artificial intelligence researchers are familiar with Asimov's laws through popular culture, they generally consider the laws useless for many reasons, one of which is their ambiguity. Transhumanism (the merging of humans and machines) is explored in the manga ''Ghost in the Shell'' and the science-fiction series ''Dune (novel), Dune''. In the 1980s, artist Hajime Sorayama's Sexy Robots series were painted and published in Japan depicting the actual organic human form with lifelike muscular metallic skins and later "the Gynoids" book followed that was used by or influenced movie makers including George Lucas and other creatives. Sorayama never considered these organic robots to be real part of nature but always an unnatural product of the human mind, a fantasy existing in the mind even when realized in actual form. Several works use AI to force us to confront the fundamental question of what makes us human, showing us artificial beings that have sentience, the ability to feel, and thus to suffer. This appears in
Karel Čapek Karel Čapek (; 9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer, playwright and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel ''War with the Newts'' (1936) and play ''R.U.R.'' (''Rossum's Universal Ro ...

Karel Čapek
's ''
R.U.R. ''R.U.R.'' is a 1920 science-fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) i ...
'', the films ''A.I. Artificial Intelligence'' and ''Ex Machina (film), Ex Machina'', as well as the novel ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?'', by Philip K. Dick. Dick considers the idea that our understanding of human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence.


See also

* ''A.I. Rising'' * AI control problem * Artificial intelligence arms race * Behavior selection algorithm * Business process automation * Case-based reasoning * Citizen science#Plastics and pollution, Citizen Science * Emergent algorithm * Female gendering of AI technologies * Glossary of artificial intelligence * Regulation of artificial intelligence * Robotic process automation * Synthetic intelligence * Universal basic income * Weak AI


Explanatory notes


References

{{reflist, refs= Pamela {{Harvtxt, McCorduck, 2004, p=424 writes of "the rough shattering of AI in subfields—vision, natural language, decision theory, genetic algorithms, robotics ... and these with own sub-subfield—that would hardly have anything to say to each other." This list of intelligent traits is based on the topics covered by the major AI textbooks, including: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003 * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004 * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998 * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998 General intelligence (artificial general intelligence, strong AI) is discussed in popular introductions to AI: * {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 1999 and {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 2005 AI in myth: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=4–5 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=939 AI in early science fiction. * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=17–25 Formal reasoning: * {{cite book , first = David , last = Berlinski , year = 2000 , title = The Advent of the Algorithm , publisher = Harcourt Books , author-link = David Berlinski , isbn = 978-0-15-601391-8 , oclc = 46890682 , url = https://archive.org/details/adventofalgorith0000berl , access-date = 22 August 2020 , archive-date = 26 July 2020 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20200726215744/https://archive.org/details/adventofalgorith0000berl , url-status = live AI's immediate precursors: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=51–107 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=27–32 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=15, 940 * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988, p=3 Dartmouth Workshop, Dartmouth conference: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=111–136 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=47–49, who writes "the conference is generally recognized as the official birthdate of the new science." * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=17, who call the conference "the birth of artificial intelligence." * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=200–201 Hegemony of the Dartmouth conference attendees: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=17, who write "for the next 20 years the field would be dominated by these people and their students." * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=129–130 "History of AI#The golden years 1956–1974, Golden years" of AI (successful symbolic reasoning programs 1956–1973): * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=243–252 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=52–107 * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988, p=9 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=18–21 The programs described are
Arthur Samuel Arthur Lee Samuel (December 5, 1901 – July 29, 1990) was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity ...
's checkers program for the IBM 701, Daniel Bobrow's STUDENT (computer program), STUDENT, Allen Newell, Newell and Herbert A. Simon, Simon's
Logic Theorist Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw. It was the first program deliberately engineered to perform automated reasoning and is called "the first artificial intelligence program". It w ...
and Terry Winograd's SHRDLU.
DARPA pours money into undirected pure research into AI during the 1960s: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, p=131 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=51, 64–65 * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=204–205 AI in England: * {{Harvnb, Howe, 1994 Optimism of early AI: * Herbert Simon quote: {{Harvnb, Simon, 1965, p=96 quoted in {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, p=109. *
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many ...

Marvin Minsky
quote: {{Harvnb, Minsky, 1967, p=2 quoted in {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, p=109.
First AI Winter, Mansfield Amendment, Lighthill report * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=115–117 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=22 * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=212–213 * {{Harvnb, Howe, 1994 * {{Harvnb, Newquist, 1994, pp=189–201 Expert systems: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.1 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=22–24 * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=227–331 * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 17.4 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=327–335, 434–435 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=145–62, 197–203 * {{Harvnb, Newquist, 1994, pp=155–183 Boom of the 1980s: rise of expert systems, Fifth generation computer, Fifth Generation Project, Alvey, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, MCC, Strategic Computing Initiative, SCI: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=426–441 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=161–162,197–203, 211, 240 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=24 * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=210–211 * {{Harvnb, Newquist, 1994, pp=235–248 Second AI winter: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=430–435 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=209–210 * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=214–216 * {{Harvnb, Newquist, 1994, pp=301–318 Formal methods are now preferred ("Victory of the neats vs. scruffies, neats"): * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=25–26 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=486–487 AI applications widely used behind the scenes: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=28 * {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 2005, p=265 * {{Harvnb, NRC, 1999, pp=216–222 * {{Harvnb, Newquist, 1994, pp=189–201 AI becomes hugely successful in the early 21st century * {{Harvnb, Clark, 2015b Problem solving, puzzle solving, game playing and deduction: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, loc=chpt. 3–9, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, loc=chpt. 2,3,7,9, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, loc=chpt. 3,4,6,8, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 7–12 Uncertain reasoning: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=452–644, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=345–395, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=333–381, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 19 Intractably, Intractability and efficiency and the
combinatorial explosion In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=9, 21–22
Psychological evidence of sub-symbolic reasoning: * {{Harvtxt, Wason, Shapiro, 1966 showed that people do poorly on completely abstract problems, but if the problem is restated to allow the use of intuitive social intelligence, performance dramatically improves. (See Wason selection task) * {{Harvtxt, Kahneman, Slovic, Tversky, 1982 have shown that people are terrible at elementary problems that involve uncertain reasoning. (See list of cognitive biases for several examples). * {{Harvtxt, Lakoff, Núñez, 2000 have controversially argued that even our skills at mathematics depend on knowledge and skills that come from "the body", i.e. sensorimotor and perceptual skills. (See Where Mathematics Comes From)
Knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.4, * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=320–363, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=23–46, 69–81, 169–196, 235–277, 281–298, 319–345, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=227–243, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 18
Knowledge engineering: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=260–266, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=199–233, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. ≈17.1–17.4 Representing categories and relations: Semantic networks,
description logic Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike ...
s, inheritance (computer science), inheritance (including frame (artificial intelligence), frames and scripts (artificial intelligence), scripts): * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=349–354, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=174–177, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=248–258, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 18.3
Representing events and time:Situation calculus, event calculus, fluent calculus (including solving the frame problem): * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=328–341, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=281–298, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 18.2 Causality#Causal calculus, Causal calculus: * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=335–337 Representing knowledge about knowledge: Belief calculus, modal logics: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=341–344, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=275–277 Ontology (computer science), Ontology: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=320–328 Qualification problem: * {{Harvnb, McCarthy, Hayes, 1969 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003{{Page needed, date=February 2011 While McCarthy was primarily concerned with issues in the logical representation of actions, {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003 apply the term to the more general issue of default reasoning in the vast network of assumptions underlying all our commonsense knowledge. Default reasoning and default logic, non-monotonic logics, circumscription (logic), circumscription, closed world assumption, abductive reasoning, abduction (Poole ''et al.'' places abduction under "default reasoning". Luger ''et al.'' places this under "uncertain reasoning"): * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=354–360, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=248–256, 323–335, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=335–363, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=~18.3.3 Breadth of commonsense knowledge: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=21, * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=113–114, * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988, p=13, * {{Harvnb, Lenat, Guha, 1989 (Introduction) Expert knowledge as embodied cognition, embodied intuition: * {{Harvnb, Dreyfus, Dreyfus, 1986 (Hubert Dreyfus is a philosopher and critic of AI who was among the first to argue that most useful human knowledge was encoded sub-symbolically. See Dreyfus' critique of AI) * {{Harvnb, Gladwell, 2005 (Gladwell's ''Blink (book), Blink'' is a popular introduction to sub-symbolic reasoning and knowledge.) * {{Harvnb, Hawkins, Blakeslee, 2005 (Hawkins argues that sub-symbolic knowledge should be the primary focus of AI research.) automated planning and scheduling, Planning: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=~I.2.8, * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp= 375–459, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=281–316, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=314–329, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 10.1–2, 22 Applied information economics, Information value theory: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=600–604 Classical planning: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=375–430, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=281–315, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=314–329, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 10.1–2, 22 Planning and acting in non-deterministic domains: conditional planning, execution monitoring, replanning and continuous planning: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=430–449 Multi-agent planning and emergent behavior: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=449–455 machine learning, Learning: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.6, * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=649–788, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=397–438, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=385–542, * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 3.3, 10.3, 17.5, 20 Reinforcement learning: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=763–788 * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=442–449
Natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.7 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=790–831 * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=91–104 * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=591–632
Applications of natural language processing, including
information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ...
(i.e.
text mining Text mining, also referred to as ''text data mining'', similar to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or ...
) and
machine translation Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation Computer-aided translation (CAT), also referred to as machine-assisted translation (MAT) or machine-aided human translation (M ...
: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=840–857, * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=623–630
Robotics: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.9, * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=901–942, * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=443–460 Moving and Configuration space (physics), configuration space: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=916–932 Robotic mapping (localization, etc): * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=908–915
Machine perceptionMachine perception is the capability of a computer system to interpret data in a manner that is similar to the way humans use their senses to relate to the world around them. The basic method that the computers take in and respond to their environmen ...
: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=537–581, 863–898 * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=~chpt. 6
Computer vision Computer vision is an interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ge ...
: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=I.2.10 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=863–898 * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 6
Speech recognition: * {{Harvnb, ACM, 1998, loc=~I.2.7 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=568–578 Object recognition: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=885–892 Emotion and affective computing: * {{Harvnb, Minsky, 2006 Artificial brain arguments: AI requires a simulation of the operation of the human brain * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=957 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=271 & 279 A few of the people who make some form of the argument: * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988 * {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 2005, p=262 * {{Harvnb, Hawkins, Blakeslee, 2005 The most extreme form of this argument (the brain replacement scenario) was put forward by Clark Glymour in the mid-1970s and was touched on by Zenon Pylyshyn and John Searle in 1980. Neats vs. scruffies: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=421–424, 486–489 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, p=168 * {{Harvnb, Nilsson, 1983, pp=10–11 Symbolic vs. sub-symbolic AI: * {{Harvtxt, Nilsson, 1998, p=7, who uses the term "sub-symbolic". {{Harvnb, Haugeland, 1985, pp=112–117 Cognitive simulation, Allen Newell, Newell and Herbert A. Simon, Simon, AI at CMU (then called Carnegie Tech): * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=139–179, 245–250, 322–323 (EPAM) * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=145–149 Soar (cognitive architecture), Soar (history): * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=450–451 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=258–263 John McCarthy (computer scientist), McCarthy and AI research at Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, SAIL and SRI International: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=251–259 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993 AI research at University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh and in France, birth of Prolog: * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=193–196 * {{Harvnb, Howe, 1994 AI at MIT under
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many ...

Marvin Minsky
in the 1960s : * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=259–305 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=83–102, 163–176 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=19
Cyc Cyc (pronounced ) is a long-term artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process wher ...
: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, p=489, who calls it "a determinedly scruffy enterprise" * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=239–243 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=363−365 * {{Harvnb, Lenat, Guha, 1989
Knowledge revolution: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=266–276, 298–300, 314, 421 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=22–23 Embodied agent, Embodied approaches to AI: * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=454–462 * {{Harvnb, Brooks, 1990 * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988 Revival of connectionism: * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=214–215 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=25 Computational intelligence
IEEE Computational Intelligence Society
{{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080509191840/http://www.ieee-cis.org/ , date=9 May 2008
The
intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence human intelligence, displayed by humans and animal cognition, animals, which involves consciousness and emotio ...
paradigm: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=27, 32–58, 968–972 * {{Harvnb, Poole, Mackworth, Goebel, 1998, pp=7–21 * {{Harvnb, Luger, Stubblefield, 2004, pp=235–240 * {{Harvnb, Hutter, 2005, pp=125–126 The definition used in this article, in terms of goals, actions, perception and environment, is due to {{Harvtxt, Russell, Norvig, 2003. Other definitions also include knowledge and learning as additional criteria.
Agent architectures, hybrid intelligent systems: * {{Harvtxt, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=27, 932, 970–972 * {{Harvtxt, Nilsson, 1998, loc=chpt. 25 Hierarchical control system: * {{Harvnb, Albus, 2002 The Turing test:
Turing's original publication: * {{Harvnb, Turing, 1950 Historical influence and philosophical implications: * {{Harvnb, Haugeland, 1985, pp=6–9 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, p=24 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=70–71 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=2–3 and 948
Dartmouth proposal: * {{Harvnb, McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester, Shannon, 1955 (the original proposal) * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, p=49 (historical significance) The physical symbol systems hypothesis: * {{Harvnb, Newell, Simon, 1976, p=116 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, p=153 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=18 Dreyfus' critique of artificial intelligence: * {{Harvnb, Dreyfus, 1972, {{Harvnb, Dreyfus, Dreyfus, 1986 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=120–132 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=211–239 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=950–952, {{Harvnb, Gödel, 1951: in this lecture, Kurt Gödel uses the incompleteness theorem to arrive at the following disjunction: (a) the human mind is not a consistent finite machine, or (b) there exist Diophantine equations for which it cannot decide whether solutions exist. Gödel finds (b) implausible, and thus seems to have believed the human mind was not equivalent to a finite machine, i.e., its power exceeded that of any finite machine. He recognized that this was only a conjecture, since one could never disprove (b). Yet he considered the disjunctive conclusion to be a "certain fact". The Mathematical Objection: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=949 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=448–449 Making the Mathematical Objection: * {{Harvnb, Lucas, 1961 * {{Harvnb, Penrose, 1989 Refuting Mathematical Objection: * {{Harvnb, Turing, 1950 under "(2) The Mathematical Objection" * {{Harvnb, Hofstadter, 1979 Background: * {{Harvnb, Ref=none, Gödel, 1931, {{Harvnb, Ref=none, Church, 1936, {{Harvnb, Ref=none, Kleene, 1935, {{Harvnb, Ref=none, Turing, 1937 Searle's Chinese room argument: * {{Harvnb, Searle, 1980. Searle's original presentation of the thought experiment. * {{Harvnb, Searle, 1999. Discussion: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, pp=958–960 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=443–445 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=269–271 Robot rights: * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=964 Prematurity of: * {{Harvnb, Henderson, 2007 In fiction: * {{Harvtxt, McCorduck, 2004, pp=190–25 discusses ''
Frankenstein ''Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'' is an 1818 novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also ...

Frankenstein
'' and identifies the key ethical issues as scientific hubris and the suffering of the monster, i.e. robot rights.
{{cite news, date=21 December 2006, title=Robots could demand legal rights, work=BBC News, url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6200005.stm, access-date=3 February 2011, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191015042628/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6200005.stm , archive-date=15 October 2019, url-status=live Joseph Weizenbaum's critique of AI: * {{Harvnb, Weizenbaum, 1976 * {{Harvnb, Crevier, 1993, pp=132–144 * {{Harvnb, McCorduck, 2004, pp=356–373 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=961 Weizenbaum (the AI researcher who developed the first chatterbot program, ELIZA) argued in 1976 that the misuse of artificial intelligence has the potential to devalue human life. Technological singularity: * {{Harvnb, Vinge, 1993 * {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 2005 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=963 {{Cite conference , last = Omohundro, first= Steve, author-link= Steve Omohundro , year = 2008, title= The Nature of Self-Improving Artificial Intelligence, publisher=presented and distributed at the 2007 Singularity Summit, San Francisco, CA. Transhumanism: * {{Harvnb, Moravec, 1988 * {{Harvnb, Kurzweil, 2005 * {{Harvnb, Russell, Norvig, 2003, p=963 AI as evolution: * Edward Fredkin is quoted in {{Harvtxt, McCorduck, 2004, p=401. * {{Harvnb, Butler, 1863 * {{Harvnb, Dyson, 1998 {{cite news, last1=Ford, first1=Martin, last2=Colvin, first2=Geoff, date=6 September 2015, title=Will robots create more jobs than they destroy?, work=The Guardian, url=https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/06/will-robots-create-destroy-jobs, access-date=13 January 2018, archive-date=16 June 2018, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180616204119/https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/06/will-robots-create-destroy-jobs, url-status=live {{cite web, url=https://deepmind.com/alpha-go.html, title=AlphaGo – Google DeepMind , url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160310191926/https://www.deepmind.com/alpha-go.html , archive-date=10 March 2016 {{Harvnb, Clark, 2015b. "After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, 2015 has been a landmark year. Computers are smarter and learning faster than ever." {{cite magazine, last1=Roberts, first1=Jacob, title=Thinking Machines: The Search for Artificial Intelligence, magazine=Distillations, date=2016, volume=2, issue=2, pages=14–23, url=https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/magazine/thinking-machines-the-search-for-artificial-intelligence, access-date=20 March 2018, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180819152455/https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/magazine/thinking-machines-the-search-for-artificial-intelligence, archive-date=19 August 2018, url-status=dead {{Cite book, url=https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/commission-white-paper-artificial-intelligence-feb2020_en.pdf, title=White Paper: On Artificial Intelligence - A European approach to excellence and trust, publisher=European Commission, year=2020, location=Brussels, pages=1, access-date=20 February 2020, archive-date=20 February 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200220173419/https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/commission-white-paper-artificial-intelligence-feb2020_en.pdf, url-status=live Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson (2011), Machine Ethics, Cambridge University Press. {{cite web, url=http://www.aaai.org/Library/Symposia/Fall/fs05-06 , title=Machine Ethics , work=aaai.org , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141129044821/http://www.aaai.org/Library/Symposia/Fall/fs05-06 , archive-date=29 November 2014 {{cite book, last=Russell, first=Stuart, title=Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control, title-link=Human Compatible, date=October 8, 2019, publisher=Viking, isbn=978-0-525-55861-3, location=United States, oclc=1083694322, author-link=Stuart J. Russell {{cite news , title=AI set to exceed human brain power , work=CNN , date=9 August 2006 , url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/TECH/science/07/24/ai.bostrom/ , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080219001624/http://www.cnn.com/2006/TECH/science/07/24/ai.bostrom/ , archive-date=19 February 2008 , url-status=live {{cite web, title=Kismet, publisher=MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Humanoid Robotics Group, url=http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/kismet.html, access-date=25 October 2014, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141017040432/http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/kismet.html, archive-date=17 October 2014, url-status=live


AI textbooks

{{refbegin, 30em * {{cite book, last=Hutter, first=Marcus, author-link=Marcus Hutter, year=2005, title=Universal Artificial Intelligence, isbn=978-3-540-22139-5, publisher=Springer, location=Berlin, title-link=AIXI * {{cite book, last=Jackson, first=Philip, author-link=Philip C. Jackson, Jr., year=1985, title=Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, isbn=978-0-486-24864-6, publisher=Dover, edition=2nd, url-access=registration, url=https://archive.org/details/introductiontoar1985jack, access-date=4 March 2020, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131713/https://archive.org/details/introductiontoar1985jack, url-status=live * {{cite book, last1=Luger, first1=George, author-link=George Luger, last2=Stubblefield, first2=William, author2-link=William Stubblefield, year=2004, title=Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, publisher=Benjamin/Cummings, edition=5th, isbn=978-0-8053-4780-7, url=https://archive.org/details/artificialintell0000luge, url-access=registration, access-date=17 December 2019, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726220613/https://archive.org/details/artificialintell0000luge, url-status=live * {{cite book, last1=Neapolitan, first1=Richard, last2=Jiang, first2=Xia, year=2018, author-link1=Richard Neapolitan, title=Artificial Intelligence: With an Introduction to Machine Learning, publisher=Chapman & Hall/CRC, isbn=978-1-138-50238-3, url=https://www.crcpress.com/Contemporary-Artificial-Intelligence-Second-Edition/Neapolitan-Jiang/p/book/9781138502383, access-date=3 January 2018, archive-date=22 August 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200822201555/https://www.routledge.com/Contemporary-Artificial-Intelligence-Second-Edition/Neapolitan-Jiang/p/book/9781138502383, url-status=live * {{cite book, last=Nilsson, first=Nils, author-link=Nils Nilsson (researcher), year=1998, title=Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis, url=https://archive.org/details/artificialintell0000nils, url-access=registration, publisher=Morgan Kaufmann, isbn=978-1-55860-467-4, access-date=18 November 2019, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131654/https://archive.org/details/artificialintell0000nils, url-status=live * {{Russell Norvig 2003. * {{Cite book, first1=Stuart J., last1=Russell, first2=Peter, last2=Norvig, title=Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach , year=2009, edition=3rd, publisher=Prentice Hall, location=Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, isbn=978-0-13-604259-4, author-link=Stuart J. Russell, author2-link=Peter Norvig. * {{cite book, first1=David, last1=Poole, author-link=David Poole (researcher), first2=Alan, last2=Mackworth, author2-link=Alan Mackworth, first3=Randy, last3=Goebel, author3-link=Randy Goebel, year=1998, title=Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach, publisher=Oxford University Press, location=New York, isbn=978-0-19-510270-3, url=https://archive.org/details/computationalint00pool, access-date=22 August 2020, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131436/https://archive.org/details/computationalint00pool, url-status=live * {{cite book, last=Winston, first=Patrick Henry, author-link=Patrick Winston, year=1984, title=Artificial Intelligence, publisher=Addison-Wesley, location=Reading, MA, isbn=978-0-201-08259-3, url=https://archive.org/details/artificialintell00wins, access-date=22 August 2020, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131500/https://archive.org/details/artificialintell00wins, url-status=live * {{cite book, last=Rich, first=Elaine, author-link=Elaine Rich, year=1983, title=Artificial Intelligence, publisher=McGraw-Hill, isbn=978-0-07-052261-9, url-access=registration, url=https://archive.org/details/ine0000unse, access-date=17 December 2019, archive-date=26 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131632/https://archive.org/details/ine0000unse, url-status=live * {{cite book, last=Bundy, first=Alan, author-link=Alan Bundy, year=1980, title=Artificial Intelligence: An Introductory Course, publisher=Edinburgh University Press, edition=2nd, isbn=978-0-85224-410-4 * {{cite book, first1=David, last1=Poole, author-link=David Poole (researcher), first2=Alan, last2=Mackworth, author2-link=Alan Mackworth, year=2017, title=Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents, publisher=Cambridge University Press, edition=2nd, isbn=978-1-107-19539-4, url=http://artint.info/index.html, access-date=6 December 2017, archive-date=7 December 2017, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171207013855/http://artint.info/index.html, url-status=live * {{cite book, last1=Auffarth, first1=Ben, year=2020, title=Artificial Intelligence with Python Cookbook: Proven recipes for applying AI algorithms and deep learning techniques using TensorFlow 2.x and PyTorch 1.6, publisher=Packt Publishing, edition=1st, isbn=978-1789133967, url=https://www.packtpub.com/product/artificial-intelligence-with-python-cookbook/9781789133967, access-date=13 January 2021 * {{cite book, last1=Gordon, first1=Cindy, year=March 2021, title=The AI Dilemma, publisher=BPB publication, edition=1st, pages=224, isbn=9788194837787, url=https://bpbonline.com/products/the-ai-dilemma, access-date= {{refend


History of AI

{{refbegin, 30em * {{Crevier 1993. * {{McCorduck 2004. * {{cite book , last=Newquist , first=HP , author-link=HP Newquist , year=1994 , title=The Brain Makers: Genius, Ego, And Greed In The Quest For Machines That Think , publisher=Macmillan/SAMS , location=New York , isbn= 978-0-672-30412-5 * {{cite book , last=Nilsson , first=Nils , author-link=Nils Nilsson (researcher) , year=2009 , title=The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements , publisher=Cambridge University Press , location=New York , isbn=978-0-521-12293-1 {{refend


Other sources

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BibTex
{{webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/19970302014628/http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/research/neural/publications/iwann.html , date=2 March 1997 . * {{cite journal , last1=Asada , first1=M. , last2=Hosoda , first2=K. , last3=Kuniyoshi , first3=Y. , last4=Ishiguro , first4=H. , last5=Inui , first5=T. , last6=Yoshikawa , first6=Y. , last7=Ogino , first7=M. , last8=Yoshida , first8=C. , year=2009 , title=Cognitive developmental robotics: a survey , journal=IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development , volume=1 , issue=1 , pages=12–34 , doi=10.1109/tamd.2009.2021702 , s2cid=10168773 * {{cite encyclopedia , last=Bach , first=Joscha , year=2008 , pages=63–74 , title=Seven Principles of Synthetic Intelligence , editor1-last=Wang , editor1-first=Pei , editor2-last=Goertzel , editor2-first=Ben , editor3-last=Franklin , editor3-first=Stan , work=Artificial General Intelligence, 2008: Proceedings of the First AGI Conference , publisher=IOS Press , isbn=978-1-58603-833-5 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=a_ZR81Z25z0C&pg=PA63 , access-date=16 February 2016 , archive-date=8 July 2016 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160708030627/https://books.google.com/books?id=a_ZR81Z25z0C&pg=PA63 , url-status=live * {{cite journal , last=Brooks , first=Rodney , author-link=Rodney Brooks , year=1990 , title=Elephants Don't Play Chess , journal=Robotics and Autonomous Systems , volume=6 , issue=1–2 , pages=3–15 , doi=10.1016/S0921-8890(05)80025-9 , url=http://people.csail.mit.edu/brooks/papers/elephants.pdf , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809020912/http://people.csail.mit.edu/brooks/papers/elephants.pdf , archive-date=9 August 2007 , url-status=live , citeseerx=10.1.1.588.7539 * {{cite encyclopedia , last=Brooks , first=R. A. , year=1991 , pages=225–239 , title=How to build complete creatures rather than isolated cognitive simulators , editor-last=VanLehn , editor-first=K. , encyclopedia=Architectures for Intelligence , location=Hillsdale, NJ , publisher=Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , citeseerx=10.1.1.52.9510 * {{cite journal , last=Buchanan , first=Bruce G. , year=2005 , pages=53–60 , title=A (Very) Brief History of Artificial Intelligence , journal=AI Magazine , url=http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/assets/PDF/AIMag26-04-016.pdf , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070926023314/http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/assets/PDF/AIMag26-04-016.pdf , archive-date=26 September 2007 , url-status=dead * {{cite news , last=Butler , first=Samuel , author-link=Samuel Butler (novelist) , date=13 June 1863 , title=Darwin among the Machines , work=The Press , location=Christchurch, New Zealand , department=Letters to the Editor , url=http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-ButFir-t1-g1-t1-g1-t4-body.html , access-date=16 October 2014 , via=Victoria University of Wellington , archive-date=19 September 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080919172551/http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-ButFir-t1-g1-t1-g1-t4-body.html , url-status=live * {{cite web , last=Clark , first=Jack , date=1 July 2015a , title=Musk-Backed Group Probes Risks Behind Artificial Intelligence , website=Bloomberg.com, url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-07-01/musk-backed-group-probes-risks-behind-artificial-intelligence , url-access=subscription , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151030202356/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-07-01/musk-backed-group-probes-risks-behind-artificial-intelligence , archive-date=30 October 2015 , access-date=30 October 2015 * {{cite web , url = https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-08/why-2015-was-a-breakthrough-year-in-artificial-intelligence , title = Why 2015 Was a Breakthrough Year in Artificial Intelligence , last = Clark , first = Jack , website = Bloomberg.com , date = 8 December 2015b , url-access = subscription , access-date = 23 November 2016 , url-status = live , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20161123053855/https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-08/why-2015-was-a-breakthrough-year-in-artificial-intelligence , archive-date = 23 November 2016 * {{cite book , last=Dennett , first=Daniel , author-link=Daniel Dennett , year=1991 , title=Consciousness Explained , publisher=The Penguin Press , isbn= 978-0-7139-9037-9 , title-link=Consciousness Explained * {{cite book , first1=Pedro , last1=Domingos , author-link=Pedro Domingos , year=2015 , title=The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World , publisher = Basic Books , isbn=978-0-465-06192-1 , title-link=The Master Algorithm * {{cite journal , last1=Dowe , first1=D. L. , last2=Hajek , first2=A. 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Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines
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What use is a Turing chatterbox?
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200725011555/https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6G3tbmMcpR4VnpOX0xxazFNbjA/view?usp=sharing , date=25 July 2020 , Communications of the ACM, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 21–23, October 2000. * {{cite web, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PEkqAAAAMAAJ, title=Science, date=August 1982, access-date=16 February 2016, archive-date=25 July 2020, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200725013414/https://books.google.com/books?id=PEkqAAAAMAAJ, url-status=live , ref={{Harvid, Science 1982 * {{Cite journal , last=Searle , first=John , author-link=John Searle , year=1980 , title=Minds, Brains and Programs , journal=Behavioral and Brain Sciences , volume=3 , issue=3 , pages=417–457 , doi=10.1017/S0140525X00005756 , url=http://cogprints.org/7150/1/10.1.1.83.5248.pdf , access-date=22 August 2020 , archive-date=17 March 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190317230215/http://cogprints.org/7150/1/10.1.1.83.5248.pdf , url-status=live * {{cite book , last = Searle , first = John , author-link = John Searle , year = 1999 , title = Mind, language and society , publisher = Basic Books , location = New York, NY , isbn = 978-0-465-04521-1 , oclc = 231867665 , url = https://archive.org/details/mindlanguagesoci00sear , access-date = 22 August 2020 , archive-date = 26 July 2020 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20200726220615/https://archive.org/details/mindlanguagesoci00sear , url-status = live * {{cite book , last=Shapiro , first=Stuart C. , editor-first=Stuart C. , editor-last=Shapiro , year=1992 , contribution=Artificial Intelligence , title=Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence , edition=2nd , pages=54–57 , url=http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~shapiro/Papers/ai.pdf , publisher=John Wiley , location=New York , isbn=978-0-471-50306-4 , access-date=29 May 2009 , archive-date=1 February 2016 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160201014644/http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~shapiro/Papers/ai.pdf , url-status=live * {{cite book , last = Simon , first = H. A. , author-link = Herbert A. Simon , year = 1965 , title = The Shape of Automation for Men and Management , url = https://archive.org/details/shapeofautomatio00simo , url-access = registration , publisher = Harper & Row , location = New York , access-date = 18 November 2019 , archive-date = 26 July 2020 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131655/https://archive.org/details/shapeofautomatio00simo , url-status = live * {{cite web , last=Skillings , first=Jonathan , url=http://news.cnet.com/Getting-machines-to-think-like-us/2008-11394_3-6090207.html , title=Getting Machines to Think Like Us , work=cnet , date=3 July 2006 , access-date=3 February 2011 , archive-date=16 November 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111116104349/http://news.cnet.com/Getting-machines-to-think-like-us/2008-11394_3-6090207.html , url-status=live * {{cite conference , last=Solomonoff , first=Ray , author-link=Ray Solomonoff , year=1956 , title=An Inductive Inference Machine , conference=Dartmouth Summer Research Conference on Artificial Intelligence , url=http://world.std.com/~rjs/indinf56.pdf , via=std.com, pdf scanned copy of the original , access-date=22 March 2011 , archive-date=26 April 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426161749/http://world.std.com/~rjs/indinf56.pdf , url-status=live Later published as
{{cite book , last=Solomonoff , first=Ray , year=1957 , pages=56–62 , chapter=An Inductive Inference Machine , title=IRE Convention Record , volume=Section on Information Theory, part 2 * {{cite conference , last1=Tao , first1=Jianhua , first2=Tieniu , last2=Tan , year=2005 , conference=Affective Computing: A Review , book-title=Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction , volume=LNCS 3784 , pages=981–995 , publisher=Springer , doi=10.1007/11573548 * {{cite journal , last=Tecuci , first=Gheorghe , date=March–April 2012 , title=Artificial Intelligence , journal=Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics , volume=4 , issue=2 , pages=168–180 , doi=10.1002/wics.200 * {{cite book , last=Thro , first=Ellen , year=1993 , title=Robotics: The Marriage of Computers and Machines , location=New York , publisher=Facts on File , isbn=978-0-8160-2628-9 , url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780816026289 , access-date=22 August 2020 , archive-date=26 July 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131505/https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780816026289 , url-status=live * {{Turing 1950. * {{cite web , last1=van der Walt , first1=Christiaan , last2=Bernard , first2=Etienne , year=2006 , title=Data characteristics that determine classifier performance , url=http://www.patternrecognition.co.za/publications/cvdwalt_data_characteristics_classifiers.pdf , access-date=5 August 2009 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325194051/http://www.patternrecognition.co.za/publications/cvdwalt_data_characteristics_classifiers.pdf , archive-date=25 March 2009 * {{cite journal , last=Vinge , first=Vernor , author-link=Vernor Vinge , year=1993 , title=The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era , journal=Vision 21: Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering in the Era of Cyberspace , pages=11 , url=http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/misc/singularity.html , bibcode=1993vise.nasa...11V , access-date=14 November 2011 , archive-date=1 January 2007 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070101133646/http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/misc/singularity.html , url-status=dead * {{cite book , last1=Wason , first1=P. C. , author-link=Peter Cathcart Wason , last2=Shapiro , first2=D. , editor=Foss, B. M. , year=1966 , title=New horizons in psychology , chapter-url=https://archive.org/details/newhorizonsinpsy0000foss , chapter-url-access=registration , location=Harmondsworth , publisher=Penguin , chapter=Reasoning , access-date=18 November 2019 , archive-date=26 July 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726131518/https://archive.org/details/newhorizonsinpsy0000foss , url-status=live * {{cite book , last=Weizenbaum , first = Joseph , author-link=Joseph Weizenbaum , year = 1976 , title = Computer Power and Human Reason , publisher = W.H. Freeman & Company , location = San Francisco , isbn = 978-0-7167-0464-5 , title-link=Computer Power and Human Reason * {{cite journal , last1=Weng , first1=J. , last2=McClelland , last3=Pentland , first3=A. , last4=Sporns , first4=O. , last5=Stockman , first5=I. , last6=Sur , first6=M. , last7=Thelen , first7=E. , year=2001 , url=http://www.cse.msu.edu/dl/SciencePaper.pdf , via=msu.edu , doi=10.1126/science.291.5504.599 , pmid=11229402 , title=Autonomous mental development by robots and animals , journal=Science , volume=291 , issue=5504 , pages=599–600 , s2cid=54131797 , access-date=4 June 2013 , archive-date=4 September 2013 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130904235242/http://www.cse.msu.edu/dl/SciencePaper.pdf , url-status=live {{refend


Further reading

{{refbegin, 30em * DH Author, 'Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation' (2015) 29(3) Journal of Economic Perspectives 3. * Margaret Boden, Boden, Margaret, ''Mind As Machine'', Oxford University Press, 2006. * Kenneth Cukier, Cukier, Kenneth, "Ready for Robots? How to Think about the Future of AI", ''Foreign Affairs'', vol. 98, no. 4 (July/August 2019), pp. 192–98. George Dyson (science historian), George Dyson, historian of computing, writes (in what might be called "Dyson's Law") that "Any system simple enough to be understandable will not be complicated enough to behave intelligently, while any system complicated enough to behave intelligently will be too complicated to understand." (p. 197.) Computer scientist Alex Pentland writes: "Current machine learning, AI machine-learning algorithms are, at their core, dead simple stupid. They work, but they work by brute force." (p. 198.) * Pedro Domingos, Domingos, Pedro, "Our Digital Doubles: AI will serve our species, not control it", ''Scientific American'', vol. 319, no. 3 (September 2018), pp. 88–93. * Alison Gopnik, Gopnik, Alison, "Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn", ''Scientific American'', vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp. 60–65. * Johnston, John (2008) ''The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI'', MIT Press. * Christof Koch, Koch, Christof, "Proust among the Machines", ''Scientific American'', vol. 321, no. 6 (December 2019), pp. 46–49. Christof Koch doubts the possibility of "intelligent" machines attaining consciousness, because "[e]ven the most sophisticated brain simulations are unlikely to produce conscious feelings." (p. 48.) According to Koch, "Whether machines can become sentience, sentient [is important] for ethics, ethical reasons. If computers experience life through their own senses, they cease to be purely a means to an end determined by their usefulness to... humans. Per GNW [the Global Workspace Theory#Global neuronal workspace, Global Neuronal Workspace theory], they turn from mere objects into subjects... with a point of view (philosophy), point of view.... Once computers' cognitive abilities rival those of humanity, their impulse to push for legal and political rights will become irresistible – the right not to be deleted, not to have their memories wiped clean, not to suffer pain and degradation. The alternative, embodied by IIT [Integrated Information Theory], is that computers will remain only supersophisticated machinery, ghostlike empty shells, devoid of what we value most: the feeling of life itself." (p. 49.) * Gary Marcus, Marcus, Gary, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", ''Scientific American'', vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), pp. 58–63. A stumbling block to AI has been an incapacity for reliable disambiguation. An example is the "pronoun disambiguation problem": a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence refers. (p. 61.) * E McGaughey, 'Will Robots Automate Your Job Away? Full Employment, Basic Income, and Economic Democracy' (2018
SSRN, part 2(3)
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180524201340/https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3044448 , date=24 May 2018 . * George Musser, "Artificial Imagination: How machines could learn creativity and common sense, among other human qualities", ''Scientific American'', vol. 320, no. 5 (May 2019), pp. 58–63. * Myers, Courtney Boyd ed. (2009)
"The AI Report"
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170729114303/https://www.forbes.com/2009/06/22/singularity-robots-computers-opinions-contributors-artificial-intelligence-09_land.html , date=29 July 2017 . ''Forbes'' June 2009 * {{cite book , last=Raphael , first=Bertram , author-link=Bertram Raphael , year=1976 , title=The Thinking Computer , publisher=W.H.Freeman and Company , isbn=978-0-7167-0723-3 , url=https://archive.org/details/thinkingcomputer00raph , access-date=22 August 2020 , archive-date=26 July 2020 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726215746/https://archive.org/details/thinkingcomputer00raph , url-status=live * Scharre, Paul, "Killer Apps: The Real Dangers of an AI Arms Race", ''Foreign Affairs'', vol. 98, no. 3 (May/June 2019), pp. 135–44. "Today's AI technologies are powerful but unreliable. Rules-based systems cannot deal with circumstances their programmers did not anticipate. Learning systems are limited by the data on which they were trained. AI failures have already led to tragedy. Advanced autopilot features in cars, although they perform well in some circumstances, have driven cars without warning into trucks, concrete barriers, and parked cars. In the wrong situation, AI systems go from supersmart to superdumb in an instant. When an enemy is trying to manipulate and hack an AI system, the risks are even greater." (p. 140.) * {{cite journal , last1 = Serenko , first1 = Alexander , year = 2010 , title = The development of an AI journal ranking based on the revealed preference approach , url = http://www.aserenko.com/papers/JOI_Serenko_AI_Journal_Ranking_Published.pdf , journal = Journal of Informetrics , volume = 4 , issue = 4 , pages = 447–459 , doi = 10.1016/j.joi.2010.04.001 , access-date = 24 August 2013 , archive-date = 4 October 2013 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20131004215236/http://www.aserenko.com/papers/JOI_Serenko_AI_Journal_Ranking_Published.pdf , url-status = live * {{cite journal , last1 = Serenko , first1 = Alexander , author2 = Michael Dohan , year = 2011 , title = Comparing the expert survey and citation impact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of Artificial Intelligence , url = http://www.aserenko.com/papers/JOI_AI_Journal_Ranking_Serenko.pdf , journal = Journal of Informetrics , volume = 5 , issue = 4 , pages = 629–649 , doi = 10.1016/j.joi.2011.06.002 , access-date = 12 September 2013 , archive-date = 4 October 2013 , archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20131004212839/http://www.aserenko.com/papers/JOI_AI_Journal_Ranking_Serenko.pdf , url-status = live * {{cite web , url=http://www.technologyreview.com/news/533686/2014-in-computing-breakthroughs-in-artificial-intelligence/ , title=2014 in Computing: Breakthroughs in Artificial Intelligence , author=Tom Simonite , date=29 December 2014 , work=MIT Technology Review * Sun, R. & Bookman, L. (eds.), ''Computational Architectures: Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes''. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Needham, MA. 1994. * Taylor, Paul, "Insanely Complicated, Hopelessly Inadequate" (review of Brian Cantwell Smith, ''The Promise of Artificial Intelligence: Reckoning and Judgment'', MIT, October 2019, {{ISBN, 978 0 262 04304 5, 157 pp.; Gary Marcus and Ernest Davis, ''Rebooting AI: Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust'', Ballantine, September 2019, {{ISBN, 978 1 5247 4825 8, 304 pp.; Judea Pearl and Dana Mackenzie, ''The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect'', Penguin, May 2019, {{ISBN, 978 0 14 198241 0, 418 pp.), ''London Review of Books'', vol. 43, no. 2 (21 January 2021), pp. 37–39. Paul Taylor writes (p. 39): "Perhaps there is a limit to what a computer can do without knowing that it is manipulating imperfect representations of an external reality." * Adam Tooze, Tooze, Adam, "Democracy and Its Discontents", ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXVI, no. 10 (6 June 2019), pp. 52–53, 56–57. "Democracy has no clear answer for the mindless operation of bureaucracy, bureaucratic and technology, technological power. We may indeed be witnessing its extension in the form of artificial intelligence and robotics. Likewise, after decades of dire warning, the environmentalism, environmental problem remains fundamentally unaddressed.... Bureaucratic overreach and environmental catastrophe are precisely the kinds of slow-moving existential challenges that democracies deal with very badly.... Finally, there is the threat du jour: corporations and the technologies they promote." (pp. 56–57.) {{refend


External links

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Artificial Intelligence
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