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Wellington ( mi,
Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the N ...
) is the capital city of
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
. It is located at the south-western tip of the
North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language ...

North Island
, between
Cook Strait Cook Strait ( mi, Te Moana-o-Raukawa) separates the and s of . The connects the on the northwest with the on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, . It is wide at its narrowest point,McLintock, A H, Ed. (1966''Cook Strait''from ...

Cook Strait
and the
Remutaka Range The Remutaka Range (spelled Rimutaka Range before 2017) is the southernmost range of a mountain chain in the lower North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated ...
. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, and is the administrative centre of the
Wellington Region The Wellington Region (also known as Greater Wellington) is a local-government region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), ...
, which also includes the
Kapiti Coast The Kapiti Coast (formerly known as the ''Golden Coast'') is the name of the section of the coast of the south-western North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand ...
and the
Wairarapa Wairarapa electorate boundaries used since the Wairarapa (; ), a geographical region of New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Isl ...
. It is the world's southernmost capital of a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average
wind speed In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mode ...

wind speed
. Wellington was originally designed by Captain
William Mein Smith William Mein Smith (1798 – 3 January 1869) was a key figure in the European settlement of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, bet ...

William Mein Smith
the first Surveyor General for Edward Wakefield's
New Zealand Company The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...
in 1840. The city has served as New Zealand's capital since 1865, a position that is not defined in legislation, but established by convention. The
New Zealand Government The New Zealand Government ( mi, Te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa), formally termed ''Her Majesty's Government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_ ...

New Zealand Government
and
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
, and most of the public service are based in the city. Its
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
comprises four
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
:
Wellington City Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of ...

Wellington City
, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and
Wellington Harbour Wellington Harbour is the large natural harbour on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on its western side. The harbour, the sea area bounded by a line between Pencarrow Head to Peton ...

Wellington Harbour
, contains the central business district;
Porirua City Porirua, a list of cities in New Zealand, city in the Wellington Region of the North Island of New Zealand, is one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington, Wellington metropolitan area; thus it is considered a part of Wellington as ...
on
Porirua Harbour Te Awarua-o-Porirua Harbour, commonly known as Porirua Harbour, is a natural inlet in the south-western coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The city of Porirua, one of the four cities in the Wellington conurbation, surrounds it. The city cent ...

Porirua Harbour
to the north is notable for its large Māori and
Pacific Island This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of islands in the Pacific Ocean are Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Depending on the context, ''Pacific Islands'' may refer to countrie ...
communities; Lower Hutt City and are largely suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the
Hutt ValleyImage:Wellington landsat labelled.jpg, 280px, Lower and Upper Hutt cities are marked as 2 and 3 in this satellite image of the Wellington area (composite landsat-7 image) The Hutt Valley (or 'The Hutt') is the large area of fairly flat land in the ...
. These four cities are considered large parts of Wellington, but are governed separately. The Wellington
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
, which only includes urbanised areas within Wellington City, has a population of residents as of . The urban areas of the four local authorities have a combined population of residents as of . As well as governmental institutions, Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation, such as the National Archives, the
National Library A national library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's need ...
, New Zealand's national museum
Te Papa The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is New Zealand's national museum, located in Wellington. Known as ''Te Papa'', or 'Our Place', it opened in 1998 after the merging of the National Museum and the National Art Gallery. More than 1.5 mill ...
and numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the
New Zealand Symphony Orchestra The New Zealand Symphony Orchestra (NZSO) is a symphony orchestra based in Wellington, New Zealand. The national orchestra of New Zealand, the NZSO is an autonomous Crown entity owned by the Government of New Zealand, per the New Zealand Symphon ...
and
Royal New Zealand Ballet The Royal New Zealand Ballet is a ballet company based in Wellington, New Zealand. It was originally known as The New Zealand Ballet Company. History New Zealand Ballet was established in 1953 as an independent charitable trust by Royal Danish B ...
. Architectural sights include the – one of the largest wooden buildings in the world – as well as the iconic
Beehive A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus. In the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a subgeneric name can b ...
, the executive wing of as well as internationally renowned Futuna Chapel. The city has a strong art scene, with hundreds of art galleries. Most of these are small and independent, but the four major ones are Te Papa,
City Gallery Wellington The City Gallery Wellington ( mi, Te Whare Toi) is an art gallery in Wellington, New Zealand. The gallery was first opened in 1980 in a different building. Features Located in Civic Square, Wellington, Civic Square, the Gallery is recognised as ...

City Gallery Wellington
, Pātaka and the Dowse. Wellington also leads in large summer festivals, such as CubaDupa and the Newtown Festival. Wellington's economy is primarily
service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of university faculty * Civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of gove ...
-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealand's
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
and special effects industries, and increasingly a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by
Wellington International Airport Wellington Airport (formerly known as Rongotai Airport) is an international airport located in the suburb of Rongotai in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It lies 3 NM or 5.5 km south-east from the city centre. It is a airline h ...
, the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the
Kapiti Coast The Kapiti Coast (formerly known as the ''Golden Coast'') is the name of the section of the coast of the south-western North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand ...
and the Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the
South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous . It is bordered to the north by , to the west by the , and to the south and east by the . The South Island ...

South Island
. The culture of Wellington is a diverse and often youth-driven one which has yielded influence across
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
. One of the
world's most liveable cities The world's most livable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities This is a list of lists of places: Cities proper * List of largest cities * Lists of cities by country * List of cities by continent (or continental region) ** Li ...
, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, and was first in the world for both liveability and non-pollution by
Deutsche Bank Deutsche Bank AG () is a German multinational investment bank To invest is to allocate money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the ...

Deutsche Bank
, from 2017 to 2018. Cultural precincts such as Cuba Street and Newtown are renowned for creative innovation, " op shops", historic character, and
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...
. The city is known for its coffee scene, with now-globally common foods and drinks such as the
flat white A flat white is a coffee drink common in Australasia consisting of espresso with microfoam (steamed milk with small, fine bubbles and a glossy or velvety consistency). It is comparable to a latte, but smaller in volume and with less microfoam, ...

flat white
perfected here. Coffee culture in Wellington is vastly overrepresented – the city has more cafés per capita than
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
– and was pioneered by
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
immigrants to areas such as Mount Victoria,
Island Bay Island Bay is a coastal suburb of Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, situated 5 km south of the city centre. Island Bay lies on the bay which shares its name, one of numerous small bays off Cook Strait and west of Lyall Bay. 500m offs ...
and
MiramarMiramar is a place name of Portuguese and Spanish origin. It means "sea-view" or "sea sight" from ''mirar'' ("to look at, to watch") and ''mar'' ("sea"). It may refer to: Places Africa *Miramar, Port Elizabeth, see St Dominic's Priory School A ...
. Nascent influence is derived from
Ethiopian Ethiopians are the native inhabitants of Ethiopia, as well as the global diaspora of Ethiopia. Ethiopians constitute Ethiopians#Component Ethnicities, several component ethnic groups, many of which are closely related to ethnic groups in neighb ...
migrants. Wellington's cultural vibrance and diversity is well-known across the world. It is New Zealand's second most ethnically diverse city, bested only by Auckland, and boasts a "
melting pot The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languag ...

melting pot
" culture of significant minorities such as Malaysian,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
,
Samoan Samoan may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean ** Something of, from, or related to Samoa, a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands ** Something of, from, o ...
and indigenous Taranaki Whānui communities as a result. Described by
Lonely Planet Lonely Planet is an Australian travel guide book A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants ...

Lonely Planet
in 2013 as "the coolest little capital in the world", the
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...
has grown from a bustling Māori settlement, to a remote colonial outpost, and from there to an
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Australasia
n capital that has experienced a "remarkable creative resurgence".


Toponymy

Wellington takes its name from , the first
Duke of Wellington Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political f ...
and victor of the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
(1815): his title comes from the town of
Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It i ...
in the
English county The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The term 'county' is defined in several ways and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each ...
of
Somerset ( en, All The People of Somerset) , locator_map = , coordinates = , region = South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the ...

Somerset
. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the
New Zealand Company The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...
on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted".Wakefield, Edward Jerningham (1845). ''Adventure in New Zealand'', Vol. 1, pub. John Murray. In the
Māori language Māori (), also known as ('the language'), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people The Māori (, ) are the of mainland (). Māori originated with settlers from East , who arrived in New Zealand in several waves ...
, Wellington has three names. ''
Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the N ...
'' refers to
Wellington Harbour Wellington Harbour is the large natural harbour on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on its western side. The harbour, the sea area bounded by a line between Pencarrow Head to Peton ...

Wellington Harbour
and means "the great harbour of Tara"; ''Pōneke'' is a transliteration of ''Port Nick'', short for ''Port Nicholson'' (the city's central
marae A ' (in New Zealand Māori, Cook Islands Māori, Tahitian), ' (in Tongan), ' (in Marquesan The Marquesas Islands (; french: Îles Marquises or ' or '; Marquesan language, Marquesan: ' (North Marquesan language, North Marquesan) and ' (S ...
, the community supporting it and its ''
kapa haka Kapa haka is the term for Māori people, Māori action songs and the groups who perform them. It literally means 'group' () and 'dance' (). Kapa haka is an important avenue for Māori people to express and showcase their heritage and cultural Po ...
'' have the pseudo-tribal name of Ngāti Pōneke); ''Te Upoko-o-te-Ika-a-Māui'', meaning 'The Head of the Fish of Māui' (often shortened to ''Te Upoko-o-te-Ika''), a traditional name for the southernmost part of the North Island, deriving from the legend of the fishing up of the island by the demi-god Māui. The legendary Maori explorer
Kupe Kupe was a semi-legendary Polynesian Polynesian is the adjectival form of Polynesia. It may refer to: * Polynesians, an ethnic group * Polynesian culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia * Polynesian mythology, the oral tradi ...

Kupe
, a chief from
Hawaiki In Polynesian mythology, (also rendered as in Cook Islands Māori, in Samoan, in Tahitian) is the original home of the Polynesians Polynesians form an ethnolinguistic group of closely related people who are native to Polynesia Po ...
(the homeland of Polynesian explorers, of unconfirmed geographical location, not to be confused with
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
), was said to have stayed in the harbour prior to 1000 CE. Here, it is said he had a notable impact on the area, with local mythology stating he named the two islands in the harbour after his daughters, Matiu (Somes Island), and Mākaro (Ward Island). However, the primary settlement of Wellington is said to have been executed by Tara, the son of Whatonga, a chief from the , who told his son to travel south, to find more fertile lands to settle. In
New Zealand Sign Language New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL ( mi, te reo Turi) is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the No ...
, the name is signed by raising the index, middle and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", and shaking it slightly from side to side twice. The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leaves it vulnerable to strong gales, leading to the
nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be used to express defamation of character De ...
of "Windy Wellington".


History


Māori settlement

Legends recount that
Kupe Kupe was a semi-legendary Polynesian Polynesian is the adjectival form of Polynesia. It may refer to: * Polynesians, an ethnic group * Polynesian culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia * Polynesian mythology, the oral tradi ...

Kupe
discovered and explored the region in about the 10th century. Before European colonisation, the area in which the city of Wellington would eventually be founded was seasonally inhabited by indigenous Māori. The earliest date with hard evidence for human activity in New Zealand is about 1280. Wellington and its environs have been occupied by various Māori groups from the 12th century. The legendary Polynesian explorer
Kupe Kupe was a semi-legendary Polynesian Polynesian is the adjectival form of Polynesia. It may refer to: * Polynesians, an ethnic group * Polynesian culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia * Polynesian mythology, the oral tradi ...

Kupe
, a chief from
Hawaiki In Polynesian mythology, (also rendered as in Cook Islands Māori, in Samoan, in Tahitian) is the original home of the Polynesians Polynesians form an ethnolinguistic group of closely related people who are native to Polynesia Po ...
(the homeland of Polynesian explorers, of unconfirmed geographical location, not to be confused with
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
), was said to have stayed in the harbour from . A later Māori explorer, Whatonga, named the harbour ''
Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the N ...
'' after his son Tara. Before the 1820s, most of the inhabitants of the Wellington region were Whatonga's descendants. At about 1820, the people living there were Ngāti Ira and other groups who traced their descent from the explorer Whatonga, including
Rangitāne Rangitāne is a Māori people, Māori iwi (tribe). Their rohe (territory) is in the Manawatū, Horowhenua, Wairarapa and Marlborough Region, Marlborough areas of New Zealand.Muaūpoko. However, these groups were eventually forced out of ''Te Whanganui-a-Tara'' by a series of migrations other
iwi Iwi () are the largest social units in Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of ...
(Māori tribes) from the north. The migrating groups were
Ngāti Toa Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Toarangatira or Ngāti Toa Rangatira, is a Māori ''iwi Iwi () are the largest social units in Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English i ...
, which came from Kāwhia, Ngāti Rangatahi, from near
Taumarunui Taumarunui is a small town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an or ...
, and
Te Atiawa Te or TE may refer to: Businesses * TE Connectivity, a connectivity and sensor component company * Air New Zealand (former IATA airline code TE, from 1965 to 1990) * FlyLal (IATA airline code TE) * Tasman Empire Airways Limited (former IATA air ...
, Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga, Taranaki and Ngāti Ruanui from
Taranaki Taranaki is a regions of New Zealand, region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki, also known as Mount Egmont. The main centre is the city of New Plymout ...

Taranaki
. Ngāti Mutunga later moved on to the
Chatham Islands The Chatham Islands ( ) (Moriori The Moriori are the native Polynesian people of the Chatham Islands (''Rēkohu'' in Moriori language, Moriori; ' in Māori language, Māori), New Zealand. Moriori originated from Māori people, Māori ...
. The Waitangi Tribunal has found that at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, Te Atiawa, Taranaki, Ngati Ruanui, Ngati Tama, and Ngati Toa held mana whenua interests in the area, through conquest and occupation.


Early European settlement

Steps towards Pākehā settlers, Pākehā (European) settlement in the area began in 1839, when Colonel William Wakefield arrived to purchase land for the
New Zealand Company The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...
to sell to prospective British settlers. Prior to this time, the Māori inhabitants had had contact with Pākehā whalers and traders. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship ''New Zealand Company ships#Tory, Tory'' on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the ''New Zealand Company ships#Aurora, Aurora'' on 22 January 1840. Thus the Wellington settlement preceded the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (on 6 February 1840). The 1840 settlers constructed their first homes at Petone (which they called Britannia for a time) on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River (New Zealand), Hutt River. Within months that area proved swampy and flood-prone, and most of the newcomers transplanted their settlement across Wellington Harbour to Thorndon, New Zealand, Thorndon in the present-day site of Wellington city.


National capital

Wellington was declared a city in 1840, and was chosen to be the capital city of New Zealand in timeline of New Zealand history#1860s, 1865. Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in timeline of New Zealand history#1840s, 1841. The New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis; in November 1863, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Alfred Domett, placed a resolution before Parliament in Auckland that "... it has become necessary that the seat of government ... should be transferred to some suitable locality in
Cook Strait Cook Strait ( mi, Te Moana-o-Raukawa) separates the and s of . The connects the on the northwest with the on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, . It is wide at its narrowest point,McLintock, A H, Ed. (1966''Cook Strait''from ...

Cook Strait
[region]." There had been some concerns that the more populous
South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous . It is bordered to the north by , to the west by the , and to the south and east by the . The South Island ...

South Island
(where the goldfields were located) would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several commissioners (delegates) invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that the city was a suitable location because of its central location in New Zealand and its good Wellington Harbour, harbour; it was believed that the whole Royal Navy fleet could fit into the harbour. Wellington's status as capital is a result of Constitutional convention (political custom), constitutional convention rather than statute. Wellington is New Zealand's politics of New Zealand, political centre, housing the nation's major government institutions. The New Zealand Parliament relocated to the new capital city, having spent the first ten years of its existence in Auckland. A session of parliament officially met in the capital for the first time on 26 July 1865. At that time, the population of Wellington was just 4,900. The Old Government Buildings, Wellington, Government Buildings were constructed at Lambton Quay in 1876. The site housed the original public sector organisations in New Zealand, government departments in New Zealand. The public service rapidly expanded beyond the capacity of the building, with the first department leaving shortly after it was opened; by 1975 only the Education Department remained, and by 1990 the building was empty. The capital city is also the location of the highest court, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, and the historic former High Court building (opened 1881) has been enlarged and restored for its use. The Governor-General's residence, Government House, Wellington, Government House (the current building completed in 1910) is situated in Newtown, opposite the Basin Reserve. Premier House (built in 1843 for Wellington's first mayor, George Hunter (mayor), George Hunter), the official residence of the Prime Minister of New Zealand, prime minister, is in Thorndon, New Zealand, Thorndon on Tinakori Road. Over six months in 1939 and 1940 Wellington hosted the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition, celebrating a century since the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Held on 55 acres of land at Rongotai it featured three exhibition courts, grand Art Deco-style edifices and a hugely popular three-acre amusement park. Wellington attracted more than 2.5 million visitors at a time when New Zealand's population was 1.6 million.


Geography

Wellington is at the south-western tip of the
North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language ...

North Island
on
Cook Strait Cook Strait ( mi, Te Moana-o-Raukawa) separates the and s of . The connects the on the northwest with the on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, . It is wide at its narrowest point,McLintock, A H, Ed. (1966''Cook Strait''from ...

Cook Strait
, separating the North and South Islands. On a clear day the snowcapped Kaikoura Ranges are visible to the south across the strait. To the north stretch the golden beaches of the
Kapiti Coast The Kapiti Coast (formerly known as the ''Golden Coast'') is the name of the section of the coast of the south-western North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand ...
. On the east the
Remutaka Range The Remutaka Range (spelled Rimutaka Range before 2017) is the southernmost range of a mountain chain in the lower North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated ...
divides Wellington from the broad plains of the
Wairarapa Wairarapa electorate boundaries used since the Wairarapa (; ), a geographical region of New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Isl ...
, a list of wine-producing regions, wine region of national notability. With a latitude of 41° 17' South, Wellington is the List of southernmost items, southernmost capital city in the world. It is also the extreme points of Earth#Remoteness, most remote capital city, the farthest away from any other capital. Wellington is more densely populated than most other cities in New Zealand due to the restricted amount of land that is available between its harbour and the surrounding hills. It has very few open areas in which to expand, and this has brought about the development of the suburban towns. Because of its location in the Roaring Forties and its exposure to the winds blowing through
Cook Strait Cook Strait ( mi, Te Moana-o-Raukawa) separates the and s of . The connects the on the northwest with the on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, . It is wide at its narrowest point,McLintock, A H, Ed. (1966''Cook Strait''from ...

Cook Strait
, Wellington is the world's windiest city, with an average wind speed of . The urban area stretches across the areas administered by the city councils of Wellington, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt and Porirua. The suburb of Porirua lies on Porirua Harbour to the north. Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt, collectively referred to as the
Hutt ValleyImage:Wellington landsat labelled.jpg, 280px, Lower and Upper Hutt cities are marked as 2 and 3 in this satellite image of the Wellington area (composite landsat-7 image) The Hutt Valley (or 'The Hutt') is the large area of fairly flat land in the ...
, are suburban areas to the northeast of Wellington City. Wellington's scenic natural harbour and green hillsides adorned with tiered suburbs of colonial villas are popular with tourists. The central business district (CBD) is close to Lambton Harbour, an arm of
Wellington Harbour Wellington Harbour is the large natural harbour on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on its western side. The harbour, the sea area bounded by a line between Pencarrow Head to Peton ...

Wellington Harbour
, which lies along an active Fault (geology), geological fault, clearly evident on its straight western shore. The land to the west of this rises abruptly, meaning that many suburbs sit high above the centre of the city. There is a network of bush walks and reserves maintained by the Wellington City, Wellington City Council and local volunteers. These include Otari-Wilton's Bush, dedicated to the protection and propagation of native plants. The Wellington region has of regional parks and forests. In the east is the Miramar Peninsula, connected to the rest of the city by a low-lying isthmus at Rongotai, the site of
Wellington International Airport Wellington Airport (formerly known as Rongotai Airport) is an international airport located in the suburb of Rongotai in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It lies 3 NM or 5.5 km south-east from the city centre. It is a airline h ...
. Industry has developed mainly in the Hutt Valley, where there are food-processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries. The narrow entrance to the harbour is to the east of the Miramar Peninsula, and contains the dangerous shallows of Barrett Reef, where many ships have been wrecked (notably the inter-island ferry in Timeline of New Zealand history#1960s, 1968). The harbour has three islands: Matiu/Somes Island, Makaro/Ward Island and Mokopuna Island. Only Matiu/Somes Island is large enough for habitation. It has been used as a quarantine station for people and animals, and was an internment, internment camp during World War I and World War II. It is a conservation island, providing refuge for endangered species, much like Kapiti Island farther up the coast. There is access during daylight hours by the Dominion Post Ferry. Wellington is primarily surrounded by water, but some of the nearby locations are listed below.


Relief

Steep landforms shape and constrain much of Wellington city. Notable hills in and around Wellington include: * Mount Victoria – 196 m. Mt Vic is a popular walk for tourists and Wellingtonians alike, as from the summit one can see most of Wellington. There are numerous mountain bike and walking tracks on the hill. * Mount Albert – 178 m * Mount Cook, Wellington, Mount Cook * Mount Alfred (west of Evans Bay) – 122 m * Mount Kaukau – 445 m * Mount Crawford * Brooklyn Hill – 299 m * Wrights Hill Fortress, Wrights Hill * Mākara Peak - summit (412m) is within the 250ha Makara Peak Mountain Bike Park that includes 45km of trails * Te Ahumairangi Hill, Te Ahumairangi (Tinakori) Hill


Earthquakes

Wellington suffered serious damage in a series of 1848 Marlborough earthquake, earthquakes in Timeline of New Zealand history#1840s, 1848 and from another earthquake in Timeline of New Zealand history#1850s, 1855. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault to the north and east of Wellington. It was probably the most powerful earthquake in recorded New Zealand history, with an estimated magnitude of at least 8.2 on the Moment magnitude scale. It caused vertical movements of two to three metres over a large area, including raising land out of the harbour and turning it into a tidal swamp. Much of this land was subsequently Reclamation of Wellington Harbour, reclaimed and is now part of the central business district. For this reason, the street named Lambton Quay is 100 to 200 metres (325 to 650 ft) from the harbour – plaques set into the footpath mark the shoreline in Timeline of New Zealand history#1840s, 1840, indicating the extent of reclamation. The 1942 Wairarapa earthquakes caused considerable damage in Wellington. The area has high seismic activity even by New Zealand standards, with a major fault, the Wellington Fault, running through the centre of the city and several others nearby. Several hundred minor faults lines have been identified within the urban area. Inhabitants, particularly in high-rise buildings, typically notice several earthquakes every year. For many years after the 1855 earthquake, the majority of buildings were made entirely from wood. The 1996-restored Government Buildings (Wellington, New Zealand), Government Buildings near Parliament is the largest wooden building in the Southern Hemisphere. While masonry and structural steel have subsequently been used in building construction, especially for office buildings, timber framing remains the primary structural component of almost all residential construction. Residents place their confidence in good building code, building regulations, which became more stringent in the 20th century. Since the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 Canterbury earthquake, 2010 and 2011 Christchurch earthquake, 2011, earthquake readiness has become even more of an issue, with buildings declared by Wellington City Council to be earthquake-prone, and the costs of meeting new standards. Every five years a year-long slow quake occurs beneath Wellington, stretching from Kapiti to the Marlborough Sounds. It was first measured in 2003, and reappeared in 2008 and 2013. It releases as much energy as a magnitude 7 quake, but as it happens slowly there is no damage. During July and August 2013 there were many earthquakes, mostly in Cook Strait near Seddon. The sequence started at 5:09 pm on Sunday 21 July 2013 when the magnitude 6.5 2013 Seddon earthquake, Seddon earthquake hit the city, but no tsunami report was confirmed nor any major damage. At 2:31 pm on Friday 16 August 2013 the 2013 Lake Grassmere earthquake, Lake Grassmere earthquake struck, this time magnitude 6.6, but again no major damage occurred, though many buildings were evacuated. On Monday 20 January 2014 at 3:52 pm 2014 Eketahuna earthquake, a rolling 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck the lower North Island 15 km east of Eketahuna and was felt in Wellington, but little damage was reported initially, except at Wellington Airport where one of the two giant eagle sculptures commemorating The Hobbit became detached from the ceiling. At two minutes after midnight on Monday 14 November 2016, the 7.8 magnitude 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, Kaikoura earthquake, which was centred between Culverden and Kaikoura in the South Island, caused the Wellington CBD, Victoria University of Wellington, and the Public transport in the Wellington Region#Trains, Wellington suburban rail network to be largely closed for the day to allow inspections. The earthquake damaged a considerable number of buildings, with 65% of the damage being in Wellington. Subsequently, a number of recent buildings were demolished rather than being rebuilt, often a decision made by the insurer. Two of the buildings demolished were about eleven years old – the seven-storey NZDF headquarters and Statistics House at Centreport on the waterfront. The docks were closed for several weeks after the earthquake.


Climate

Averaging 2,055 hours of sunshine per year, the climate of Wellington is temperate Oceanic climate, marine, (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb''), generally moderate all year round with warm summers and mild winters, and rarely sees temperatures above or below . The hottest recorded temperature in the city is , while is the coldest. The city is notorious for its southerly blasts in winter, which may make the temperature feel much colder. It is generally very windy all year round with high rainfall; average annual rainfall is , June and July being the wettest months. Frosts are quite common in the hill suburbs and the
Hutt ValleyImage:Wellington landsat labelled.jpg, 280px, Lower and Upper Hutt cities are marked as 2 and 3 in this satellite image of the Wellington area (composite landsat-7 image) The Hutt Valley (or 'The Hutt') is the large area of fairly flat land in the ...
between May and September. Snow is very rare at low altitudes, although snow fell on the city and many other parts of the Wellington region during separate 2011 New Zealand snowstorms, events on 25 July 2011 and 15 August 2011. On 29 January 2019, the suburb of Kelburn reached , the highest temperature since records began in 1927.


Demographics

The four cities comprising the Wellington metropolitan area have a total population of with the urban area containing % of that population. The remaining areas are largely mountainous and sparsely farmed or parkland and are outside the urban area boundary. More than most cities, life is dominated by its central business district (CBD). Approximately 62,000 people work in the CBD, only 4,000 fewer than work in Auckland's CBD, despite that city having four times the population. The Waikanae-Paraparaumu-Paekākāriki combined urban area in the Kapiti Coast district is sometimes included in the Wellington metro area due to its exurban nature and strong transport links with Wellington. If included as part of Wellington metro, Waikanae-Paraparaumu-Paekākāriki would add to the population (as of ). Featherston, New Zealand, Featherston and Greytown, New Zealand, Greytown in the Wairarapa are almost never considered part of the Wellington metropolitan area, being physically separated from the rest of the metropolitan area by the
Remutaka Range The Remutaka Range (spelled Rimutaka Range before 2017) is the southernmost range of a mountain chain in the lower North Island The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated ...
. However, both have significant proportions of their employed population working in Wellington city and the Hutt Valley (36.1% and 17.1% in 2006 respectively) and are considered part of the Wellington functional urban area by Statistics New Zealand. The four urban areas combined had a usual resident population of 401,850 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 26,307 people (7.0%) since the 2013 New Zealand census, 2013 census, and an increase of 42,726 people (11.9%) since the 2006 New Zealand census, 2006 census. There were 196,911 males and 204,936 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.961 males per female. Of the total population, 74,892 people (18.6%) were aged up to 15 years, 93,966 (23.4%) were 15 to 29, 185,052 (46.1%) were 30 to 64, and 47,952 (11.9%) were 65 or older.


Quality of living

Wellington ranks 12th in the world for quality of living, according to a 2014 study by consulting company Mercer; of cities in the Asia–Pacific region, Wellington ranked third behind Auckland and Sydney (). In 2009, Wellington was ranked as a highly affordable city in terms of cost of living, coming in at 139th most expensive city out of 143 cities in the Mercer worldwide Cost of Living Survey. Between 2009 and 2020 the cost of living in Wellington increased, and it is now ranked 123rd most expensive city out of a total of 209 cities.


Religion and identity

An increasing number of Wellingtonians profess no religious belief, with the 2013 census showing 44% in that category. The largest religious group was Christians at 39%. The latter figure represented a significant decline from seven years earlier at the previous census, when over 50% of the population identified as Christian. At the 2013 Census, just over 27% of Wellington's population was born overseas. The most common overseas birthplace is the United Kingdom, place of origin of 7.1% of the urban area's population. The next most-common countries of origin were Samoa (2.0%), India (1.8%), China (1.7%), Australia (1.6%), the Philippines (1.2%), South Africa (1.1%), Fiji (1.0%), the United States (0.8%) and Malaysia (0.6%).


Architecture

Wellington showcases a variety of architectural styles from the past 150 years – 19th-century wooden cottages (Painted Ladies), such as the Italianate Katherine Mansfield Birthplace in Thorndon; streamlined Art Deco structures such as the old Wellington Free Ambulance headquarters, the Central Fire Station, Fountain Court Apartments, the City Gallery Wellington, City Gallery, and the former Post and Telegraph Building; and the curves and vibrant colours of post-modern architecture in the CBD. The oldest building is the 1858 The Colonial Cottage Museum, Colonial Cottage in Mount Cook, Wellington, Mount Cook. The tallest building is the Majestic Centre on Willis Street at 116 metres high, the second tallest being the structural expressionist Aon Centre (Wellington) at 103 metres. Futuna Chapel in Karori is an iconic building designed by Māori architect John Scott and is architecturally considered one of the most significant New Zealand buildings of the 20th century. Old St Paul's, Wellington, Old St Paul's is an example of 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture adapted to colonial conditions and materials, as is St Mary of the Angels, Wellington, St Mary of the Angels. Sacred Heart Cathedral, Wellington, Sacred Heart Cathedral is a Palladian architecture, Palladian Revival Basilica with the Portico of a Roman Temple, Roman or Greek temple. The Museum of Wellington City & Sea in the Wellington Harbour Board Head Office and Bond Store, Bond Store is in the Second French Empire style, and the Wellington Harbour Board Wharf Office Building is in a late English Classical style. There are several restored theatre buildings: the St. James Theatre, Wellington, St James Theatre, the Opera House, Wellington, Opera House and the Embassy Theatre, Wellington, Embassy Theatre. Civic Square, Wellington, Te Ngākau Civic Square is surrounded by the Wellington Town Hall, Town Hall and council offices, the Michael Fowler Centre, the Wellington Central Library, Capital E (home of the National Theatre for Children), the City-to-Sea bridge, Wellington, City-to-Sea Bridge, and the City Gallery Wellington, City Gallery. As it is the capital city, there are many notable government buildings. The Executive Wing of New Zealand Parliament Buildings, on the corner of Lambton Quay and Molesworth Street, was constructed between 1969 and 1981 and is commonly referred to as Beehive (New Zealand), the Beehive. Across the road is the largest wooden building in the Southern Hemisphere, part of the Government Buildings (Wellington, NZ), old Government Buildings which now houses part of Victoria University of Wellington's Law Faculty. A modernist building housing the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa lies on the waterfront, on Cable Street. It is strengthened using base isolation – essentially seating the entire building on supports made from lead, steel and rubber that slow down the effect of an earthquake. Other notable buildings include Wellington Town Hall, Wellington railway station, Dominion Museum (now Massey University), Aon Centre (Wellington), Wellington Regional Stadium, and Wellington Airport at Rongotai. Leading architects include Frederick Thatcher, Frederick de Jersey Clere, W. Gray Young, William Alington (architect), Bill Alington, Ian Athfield, Roger Walker (architect), Roger Walker.Wellington contains many iconic sculptures and structures, such as the Bucket Fountain in Cuba Street and ''Invisible City'' by Anton Parsons on Lambton Quay. Kinetic sculptures have been commissioned, such as the Zephyrometer. This 26-metre orange spike built for movement by artist Phil Price has been described as "tall, soaring and elegantly simple", which "reflects the swaying of the yacht masts in the Evans Bay Marina behind it" and "moves like the needle on the dial of a nautical instrument, measuring the speed of the sea or wind or vessel." Wellington has many different architectural styles, such as classic Painted ladies, Painted Ladies in Mount Victoria (more basic versions pictured above), Newtown and Oriental Bay, Wooden Art Deco houses spread throughout (especially further north in the
Hutt ValleyImage:Wellington landsat labelled.jpg, 280px, Lower and Upper Hutt cities are marked as 2 and 3 in this satellite image of the Wellington area (composite landsat-7 image) The Hutt Valley (or 'The Hutt') is the large area of fairly flat land in the ...
), the classic masonry buildings in Cuba Street, State housing, state houses particularly in the Hutt and Wellington's southern suburbs, Railways Department's Housing Scheme, railway houses in Ngaio, New Zealand, Ngaio and other railway-side suburbs, large modern buildings in the city centre (such as the distinctive skyscraper called the Majestic Centre) and grand Victorian buildings common in the inner city as well.


Housing and real estate


House prices


Historic

Wellington experienced a real estate boom in the early 2000s and the effects of the international property bust at the start of 2007. In 2005, the market was described as "robust". By 2008, property values had declined by about 9.3% over a 12-month period, according to one estimate. More expensive properties declined more steeply, sometimes by as much as 20%. "From 2004 to early 2007, rental yields were eroded and positive cash flow property investments disappeared as house values climbed faster than rents. Then that trend reversed and yields slowly began improving," according to two ''The New Zealand Herald'' reporters writing in May 2009. In the middle of 2009 house prices had dropped, interest rates were low, and buy-to-let property investment was again looking attractive, particularly in the Lambton precinct, according to these two reporters.


Current

Since 2009, house prices in Wellington have increased significantly. In May 2021, the Real Estate Institute of New Zealand (REINZ) reported the median house price was $1,057,000 in Wellington City, $930,000 in Porirua, $873,500 in Lower Hutt and $828,000 in Upper Hutt, compared to a national median house price of $820,000. The substantial increase in house prices has made it difficult for first home buyers to purchase a home in the city and is also credited with pushing up the house prices in neighbouring cities like Porirua. Housing costs have been identified making it difficult for some professions, like nurses, to afford to live in Wellington. The median rent in Wellington has also increased significantly in recent years to $600 per week, higher even than Auckland.


Housing quality

Despite the high cost of housing in the capital, the quality of housing in Wellington has been criticised as being poor. 18.4% of houses in Wellington City are sometimes or always mouldy and 24% are sometimes or always damp. Both of these are higher than the New Zealand average.


Demographics

A Wellington City Council survey conducted in March 2009 found the typical central city apartment dweller was a New Zealand native aged 24 to 35 with a professional job in the downtown area, with household income higher than surrounding areas. Three-quarters (73%) walked to work or university, 13% travelled by car, 6% by bus, 2% bicycled (although 31% own bicycles), and did not travel very far since 73% worked or studied in the central city. The large majority (88%) did not have children in their apartments; 39% were couples without children; 32% were single-person households; 15% were groups of people flatting together. Most (56%) owned their apartment; 42% rented. The report continued: "The four most important reasons for living in an apartment were given as lifestyle and city living (23%), close to work (20%), close to shops and cafes (11%) and low maintenance (11%) ... City noise and noise from neighbours were the main turnoffs for apartment dwellers (27%), followed by a lack of outdoor space (17%), living close to neighbours (9%) and apartment size and a lack of storage space (8%)." Households are primarily one-family, making up 66.9% of households, followed by single-person households (24.7%); there were fewer multiperson households and even fewer households containing two or more families. These counts are from the 2013 census for the Wellington region (which includes the surrounding area in addition to the four cities).


Economy

Wellington Harbour Wellington Harbour is the large natural harbour on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on its western side. The harbour, the sea area bounded by a line between Pencarrow Head to Peton ...

Wellington Harbour
ranks as one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The port handles approximately 10.5 million tonnes of cargo on an annual basis, importing petroleum products, motor vehicles, minerals and exporting meats, wood products, dairy products, wool, and fruit. Many cruise ships also use the port. The Government sector has long been a mainstay of the economy, which has typically risen and fallen with it. Traditionally, its central location meant it was the location of many head offices of various sectors – particularly finance, technology and heavy industry – many of which have since relocated to Auckland following economic deregulation and privatisation. In recent years, tourism, arts and culture, film, and information and communications technology, ICT have played a bigger role in the economy. Wellington's median income is well above the average in New Zealand, and the highest of all New Zealand cities. It has a much higher proportion of people with tertiary qualifications than the national average. Major companies with their headquarters in Wellington include: * Wellington Harbour, Centreport * Chorus Limited, Chorus Networks * Contact Energy * The Co-operative Bank (New Zealand), The Cooperative Bank * Datacom Group * Infratil * Kiwibank * Meridian Energy * NZ Post * NZX * Todd Corporation * Trade Me * Weta Digital *
Wellington International Airport Wellington Airport (formerly known as Rongotai Airport) is an international airport located in the suburb of Rongotai in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It lies 3 NM or 5.5 km south-east from the city centre. It is a airline h ...
* Xero (software), Xero * Z Energy At the 2013 census, the largest employment industries for Wellington residents were professional, scientific and technical services (25,836 people), public administration and safety (24,336 people), health care and social assistance (17,446 people), education and training (16,550 people) and retail trade (16,203 people). In addition, Wellington is an important centre of the New Zealand film and theatre industry, and second to Auckland in terms of numbers of screen industry businesses.


Tourism

Tourism is a major contributor to the city's economy, injecting approximately NZ$1.3 billion into the region annually and accounting for 9% of total FTE employment. The city is consistently named as New Zealanders' favourite destination in the quarterly FlyBuys Colmar Brunton Mood of the Traveller survey and it was ranked fourth in
Lonely Planet Lonely Planet is an Australian travel guide book A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants ...

Lonely Planet
Best in Travel 2011's Top 10 Cities to Visit in 2011. New Zealanders make up the largest visitor market, with 3.6 million visits each year; New Zealand visitors spend on average NZ$2.4 million a day. There are approximately 540,000 international visitors each year, who spend 3.7 million nights and NZ$436 million. The largest international visitor market is Australia, with over 210,000 visitors spending approximately NZ$334 million annually. It has been argued that the construction of the
Te Papa The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is New Zealand's national museum, located in Wellington. Known as ''Te Papa'', or 'Our Place', it opened in 1998 after the merging of the National Museum and the National Art Gallery. More than 1.5 mill ...
museum helped transform Wellington into a tourist destination. Wellington is marketed as the 'coolest little capital in the world' by Positively Wellington Tourism, an award-winning regional tourism organisation set up as a council controlled organisation by Wellington City Council in 1997. The organisation's council funding comes through the Downtown Levy commercial rate. In the decade to 2010, the city saw growth of over 60% in commercial guest nights. It has been promoted through a variety of campaigns and taglines, starting with the iconic Absolutely Positively Wellington advertisements. The long-term domestic marketing strategy was a finalist in the 2011 CAANZ Media Awards. Popular tourist attractions include Museum of Wellington City & Sea, Wellington Museum, Wellington Zoo, Zealandia (wildlife sanctuary), Zealandia and Wellington Cable Car. Cruise ship, Cruise tourism is experiencing a major boom in line with nationwide development. The 2010/11 season saw 125,000 passengers and crew visit on 60 liners. There were 80 vessels booked for visits in the 2011/12 season – estimated to inject more than NZ$31 million into the economy and representing a 74% increase in the space of two years. Wellington is a popular conference tourism destination due to its compact nature, cultural attractions, award-winning restaurants and access to government agencies. In the year ending March 2011, there were 6495 conference events involving nearly 800,000 delegate days; this injected approximately NZ$100 million into the economy.


Arts and culture


Culture

Wellington's culture has been befamed across the world since the 1990s for being notably "cool", incongruous and influential given the city's relatively small size (near half a million). It has been traditionally acclaimed as New Zealand's "cultural and creative capital". In particular, Wellington is noted for is contributions to art, cuisine (particularly coffee; Wellington has more cafés per head than
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, and is likely the birthplace of the Flat white, Flat White), and international filmmaking (with Avatar (2009 film), Avatar and The Lord of the Rings (film series), The Lord of the Rings, the second-highest grossing film of all time and one of the most successful film series of all time respectively, being largely produced in the city), among many other factors listed below.


Museums and cultural institutions

Wellington is home to many cultural institutions, including Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Te Papa (the Museum of New Zealand), the National Library of New Zealand, Archives New Zealand, Wellington Museum (formerly the Wellington Museum of City and Sea), the Katherine Mansfield House and Garden (formerly Katherine Mansfield Birthplace), Colonial Cottage, the Wellington Cable Car Museum, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, Reserve Bank Museum, Old St Paul's, Wellington, Old St Paul's, the New Zealand National War Memorial, National War Memorial and the City Gallery Wellington, Wellington City Gallery.


Festivals

Wellington is home to many high-profile events and cultural celebrations, including the biennial New Zealand Festival of the Arts, biennial Wellington Jazz Festival, biennial Capital E National Arts Festival for Children and major events such as Brancott Estate World of Wearable Art, TEDxWellington, Cuba Street Carnival, Visa Wellington on a Plate, New Zealand Fringe Festival, New Zealand International Comedy Festival (also hosted in Auckland), Summer City, The Wellington Folk Festival (in Wainuiomata), New Zealand Affordable Art Show, the New Zealand Sevens Weekend and Parade, Out In The Square, Homegrown Music Festival (New Zealand), Vodafone Homegrown, the Couch Soup theatre festival, Camp A Low Hum and numerous film festivals. The annual children's Artsplash Festival brings together hundreds of students from across the region. The week-long festival includes music and dance performances and the presentation of visual arts.


Film

Filmmakers Peter Jackson, Sir Peter Jackson, Richard Taylor (filmmaker), Sir Richard Taylor and a growing team of creative professionals have turned the eastern suburb of
MiramarMiramar is a place name of Portuguese and Spanish origin. It means "sea-view" or "sea sight" from ''mirar'' ("to look at, to watch") and ''mar'' ("sea"). It may refer to: Places Africa *Miramar, Port Elizabeth, see St Dominic's Priory School A ...
into a film-making, post-production and special effects infrastructure centre, giving rise to the moniker 'Wellywood'. Jackson's companies include Weta Workshop, Weta Digital, Camperdown Studios, post-production house Park Road Post, and Stone Street Studios near Wellington Airport. Recent films shot partly or wholly in Wellington include the The Lord of the Rings (film series), Lord of The Rings trilogy, King Kong (2005 film), King Kong and Avatar (2009 film), Avatar. Jackson described Wellington: "Well, it's windy. But it's actually a lovely place, where you're pretty much surrounded by water and the bay. The city itself is quite small, but the surrounding areas are very reminiscent of the hills up in northern California, like Marin County, California, Marin County near San Francisco and the Bay Area climate and some of the architecture. Kind of a cross between that and Hawaii." Sometime Wellington directors Jane Campion and Geoff Murphy have reached the world's screens with their independent spirit. Emerging Kiwi filmmakers, like Robert Sarkies, Taika Waititi, Costa Botes and Jennifer Bush-Daumec, are extending the Wellington-based lineage and cinematic scope. There are agencies to assist film-makers with tasks such as securing permits and scouting locations. Wellington has a large number of independent cinemas, including the Embassy Theatre, Wellington, Embassy Theatre, Penthouse, the Roxy and Light House, which participate in film festivals throughout the year. Wellington has one of the country's highest turn-outs for the annual New Zealand International Film Festivals, New Zealand International Film Festival.


Music

The music scene has produced bands such as The Warratahs, The Mockers, The Phoenix Foundation, Shihad, Beastwars (band), Beastwars, Fly My Pretties, Rhian Sheehan, Birchville Cat Motel, Black Boned Angel, Fat Freddy's Drop, The Black Seeds, Fur Patrol, Flight of the Conchords, Connan Mockasin, Rhombus (band), Rhombus and Module (musician), Module, Weta (band), Weta, Demoniac. The New Zealand School of Music was established in 2005 through a merger of the conservatory and theory programmes at Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington.
New Zealand Symphony Orchestra The New Zealand Symphony Orchestra (NZSO) is a symphony orchestra based in Wellington, New Zealand. The national orchestra of New Zealand, the NZSO is an autonomous Crown entity owned by the Government of New Zealand, per the New Zealand Symphon ...
, Nevine String Quartet and Chamber music New Zealand are based in Wellington. The city is also home to the Rodger Fox, Rodger Fox Big Band and the Internationally renowned men's Barbershop music, A Cappella chorus Vocal FX.


Theatre and the dramatic arts

Wellington is home to BATS Theatre, Circa Theatre, the National Maori Theatre company Taki Rua, Whitireia Performance Centre, National Dance & Drama School Toi Whakaari and the National Theatre for Children at Capital E. St. James Theatre (Wellington), St James' Theatre on Courtenay Place is a popular venue for artistic performances, closed for earthquake strengthening until 2022. Wellington is home to groups that perform Improvised Theatre and Improvisational comedy, including Wellington Improvisation Troupe (WIT) an Improvisors and youth group, Joe Improv. Te Whaea National Dance & Drama Centre, houses New Zealand's University-level school of Dance and Drama, Toi Whakaari: NZ Drama School & New Zealand School of Dance, these are separate entities that share the building's facilities. Whitireia New Zealand, Te Auaha the Whitireia Performing Arts Centre is downtown off Cuba Street. File:St James Theatre.jpg, St. James Theatre, Wellington, St. James Theatre on Courtenay Place, Wellington, Courtenay Place, the main street of Wellington's entertainment district File:Te Auaha.tif, Te Auaha, venue and performing arts school, Wellington File:Te Whaea.tif, Te Whaea, venue and home to the New Zealand School of Dance and Toi Whakaari: NZ Drama School File:BATS Theatre foyer 03 (cropped).jpg, BATS Theatre foyer File:Circa Theatre.jpg, Circa Theatre


Dance

Wellington is the home for the
Royal New Zealand Ballet The Royal New Zealand Ballet is a ballet company based in Wellington, New Zealand. It was originally known as The New Zealand Ballet Company. History New Zealand Ballet was established in 1953 as an independent charitable trust by Royal Danish B ...
, the New Zealand School of Dance and contemporary dance company Footnote Dance, Footnote.


Comedy

Many of New Zealand's prominent comedians have either come from Wellington or got their start there, such as Ginette McDonald ("Lyn of Tawa"), Raybon Kan, Dai Henwood, Ben Hurley, Steve Wrigley, Guy Williams, the Flight of the Conchords and the satirist John Clarke (satirist), John Clarke ("Fred Dagg"). The comedy group Breaking the 5th Wall operated out of Wellington and regularly did shows around the city, performing a mix of sketch comedy and semi-improvised theatre. In 2012 the group disbanded when some of its members moved to Australia. Wellington is home to groups that perform improvised theatre and improvisational comedy, including Wellington Improvisation Troupe (WIT), The Improvisors and youth group Joe Improv. Wellington hosts shows in the annual New Zealand International Comedy Festival.


Visual arts

From 1936 to 1992 Wellington was home to the National Art Gallery of New Zealand, when it was amalgamated into Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Wellington is home to the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts and the Arts Foundation of New Zealand. The city's arts centre, Wellington Arts Centre, Toi Pōneke, is a nexus of creative projects, collaborations, and multi-disciplinary production. Arts Programmes and Services Manager Eric Vaughn Holowacz and a small team based in the Abel Smith Street facility have produced ambitious initiatives such as Opening Notes, Drive by Art, and public art projects. The city is home to experimental arts publication ''White Fungus (magazine), White Fungus''. The Learning Connexion provides art classes. Other visual art galleries include the City Gallery. File:Wellington NZ7 3363.jpg File:Wellington NZ7 3367.jpg


Cuisine

Wellington is characterised by small dining establishments, and its coffee culture, café culture is internationally recognised, being known for its large number of coffeehouses. There are a few iconic cafes that started the obsession with coffee that Wellington has. One of these is the Deluxe Expresso Bar that opened in 1988. Wellington Restaurants offer cuisines including from Europe, Asia and Polynesia; for dishes that have a distinctly cuisine of New Zealand, New Zealand style, there are lamb, pork and cervena (venison), salmon, crayfish (lobster), Bluff oysters, pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, Paphies australis, pipis and tuatua (both New Zealand shellfish); kumara (sweet potato); kiwifruit and tamarillo; and Pavlova (food), pavlova, the national dessert.


Sport

Wellington is the home to: * Hurricanes (rugby union), Hurricanes – Super Rugby team based in Wellington * Wellington Rugby Football Union, Wellington Lions – ITM Cup rugby team * Wellington Phoenix FC – Association football, football (soccer) club playing in the Australasian A-League, the only fully professional football club in New Zealand * Team Wellington – in the semi-professional New Zealand Football Championship * Central Pulse – netball team representing the Lower North Island in the ANZ Championship, primarily based in Wellington * Wellington Firebirds and Wellington Blaze – men's and women's cricket teams * Wellington Saints – basketball team in the National Basketball League (New Zealand), National Basketball League Sporting events include: * six pool games and two quarter-final games at the 2011 Rugby World Cup * the Wellington Sevens – a round of the IRB Sevens World Series held at the Wellington Regional Stadium over several days every February. * the 2011 Tae Kwon Do World Champs * The 2014 World Field Target Championships * the World Fell running, Mountain Running Championships in 2005 * the Wellington 500 Street racing, street race for touring car racing, touring cars, between 1985 and 1996


Government


Local

The Wellington urban area lies within four territorial authorities:
Wellington City Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of ...

Wellington City
, Porirua, Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt. Wellington is also part of the wider
Wellington Region The Wellington Region (also known as Greater Wellington) is a local-government region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), ...
, administered by the Greater Wellington Region Council. The local authorities are responsible for a wide variety of public services, which include management and maintenance of local roads, and land-use planning.


National

Wellington is covered by six general electorates: Hutt South, Mana (New Zealand electorate), Mana, Ōhāriu, Remutaka (New Zealand electorate), Remutaka, Rongotai (New Zealand electorate), Rongotai, and Wellington Central (New Zealand electorate), Wellington Central. It is also covered by three Māori electorates: Ikaroa-Rāwhiti, Te Tai Hauāuru, and Te Tai Tonga. Each electorate returns one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives. All electorates are held by the governing New Zealand Labour Party, Labour Party. In addition, there are a number of Wellington-based list MPs, who are elected via party lists. The Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, Speaker of the House, Trevor Mallard, is also a Wellington-based list MP having previously held Hutt South. Due to Wellington being the capital city of New Zealand, its residents are more likely to participate in politics compared to other cities in New Zealand.


Education

Wellington offers a variety of college and university programs for tertiary education in New Zealand, tertiary students: Victoria University of Wellington has four campuses and works with a three-trimester system (beginning March, July, and November). It enrolled 21,380 students in 2008; of these, 16,609 were full-time students. Of all students, 56% were female and 44% male. While the student body was primarily New Zealanders of European descent, 1,713 were Maori, 1,024 were Pacific students, 2,765 were international students. 5,751 degrees, diplomas and certificates were awarded. The university has 1,930 full-time employees. Massey University has a Wellington campus known as the "creative campus" and offers courses in communication and business, engineering and technology, health and well-being, and creative arts. Its school of design was established in 1886 and has research centres for studying public health, sleep, Maori health, small & medium enterprises, disasters, and tertiary teaching excellence. It combined with Victoria University to create the New Zealand School of Music. The University of Otago has a Wellington branch with its Wellington School of Medicine and Health. Whitireia New Zealand has large campuses in Porirua, Wellington and Kapiti; the Wellington Institute of Technology and New Zealand's National Drama school, Toi Whakaari. The Wellington area has numerous primary and secondary schools.


Transport

Wellington is served by State Highway 1 (New Zealand), State Highway 1 in the west and State Highway 2 (New Zealand), State Highway 2 in the east, meeting at the Ngauranga Interchange north of the city centre, where SH 1 runs through the city to the airport. There are two other state highways in the region: State Highway 58 (New Zealand), State Highway 58 which provides a direct connection between the Hutt Valley and Porirua, and State Highway 59 (New Zealand), State Highway 59 which follows a coastal route between Linden and Mackays Crossing and was previously part of SH 1. Road access into the capital is constrained by the mountainous terrain – between Wellington and the Kapiti Coast, SH 1 passes through the steep and narrow Wainui Saddle, nearby SH 59 travels along the Centennial Highway, a narrow section of road between the Paekākāriki Escarpment and the Tasman Sea, and between Wellington and Wairarapa SH 2 transverses the Rimutaka Ranges on a similar narrow winding road. Wellington has two motorways: the Johnsonville–Porirua Motorway (largely part of SH 1, with the northernmost section part of SH 59) and the Wellington Urban Motorway (entirely part of SH 1), which in combination with a small non-motorway section in the Ngauranga Gorge connect Porirua with Wellington city. A third motorway in the wider region, the Transmission Gully Motorway forming part of the SH 1 route, provides an eastern bypass of Porirua and is planned to open in late 2021 or early 2022. Bus transport in Wellington is supplied by several different operators under the banner of Metlink. Buses serve almost every part of Wellington city, with most of them running along the "Golden Mile" from Wellington railway station to Courtenay Place, Wellington, Courtenay Place. Until October 2017 there were nine trolleybus routes, all other buses running on Diesel fuel, diesel. The Trolleybuses in Wellington, trolleybus network was the last public system of its kind in the southern hemisphere. Wellington lies at the southern end of the North Island Main Trunk railway (NIMT) and the Wairarapa Line, converging on Wellington railway station at the northern end of central Wellington. Two long-distance services leave from Wellington: the Capital Connection, for commuters from Palmerston North, and the Northern Explorer to Auckland. Four Railway electrification system, electrified suburban rail, suburban lines radiate from Wellington railway station to the outer suburbs to the north of Wellington – the Johnsonville Line through the hillside suburbs north of central Wellington; the Kapiti Line along the NIMT to Waikanae on the Kapiti Coast via Porirua and Paraparaumu; the Melling Line to Lower Hutt via Petone; and the Hutt Valley Line along the Wairarapa Line via Waterloo and Taitā, New Zealand, Taitā to Upper Hutt. A diesel-hauled carriage service, the Wairarapa Connection, connects several times daily to Masterton in the Wairarapa via the Rimutaka Tunnel. Combined, these five services carry 11.64 million passengers per year. Wellington is the North Island port for
Cook Strait Cook Strait ( mi, Te Moana-o-Raukawa) separates the and s of . The connects the on the northwest with the on the southeast, and runs next to the capital city, . It is wide at its narrowest point,McLintock, A H, Ed. (1966''Cook Strait''from ...

Cook Strait
ferries to Picton, New Zealand, Picton in the
South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous . It is bordered to the north by , to the west by the , and to the south and east by the . The South Island ...

South Island
, provided by state-owned Interislander and private Strait Shipping, Bluebridge. Local ferries connect Wellington city centre with Eastbourne and Seatoun.
Wellington International Airport Wellington Airport (formerly known as Rongotai Airport) is an international airport located in the suburb of Rongotai in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It lies 3 NM or 5.5 km south-east from the city centre. It is a airline h ...
is south-east of the city centre. It is serviced by flights from across New Zealand, Australia, Singapore and Fiji. Flights to other international destinations require a transfer at another airport, as larger aircraft cannot use Wellington's short () runway, which has become an issue in recent years in regards to the Wellington region's economic performance.


Infrastructure


Electric power

Wellington's first public electricity supply was established in 1904, alongside the introduction of electric trams, and was originally supplied at 105 volts 80 hertz. The conversion to the now-standard 230/400 volts 50 hertz began in 1925, the same year the city was connected to the Mangahao Power Station, Mangahao hydroelectric scheme. Between 1924 and 1968, the city's supply was supplemented by a coal-fired power station at Evans Bay. Today, Wellington is supplied from nine Transpower New Zealand Limited, Transpower substations, however the design of the transmission system means that the city is ultimately fed by only two Transpower substations: Haywards and Wilton, New Zealand, Wilton. Wellington Electricity owns and operates the local distribution network. The city is home to two large wind farms, Project West Wind, West Wind and Mill Creek Wind Farm, Mill Creek, which combined contribute up to 213 MW of electricity to the city and the national grid. Haywards substation in Lower Hutt is the site of the HVDC Inter-Island's North Island converter station; the HVDC link connects the North and South Island grids together and allows surplus South Island hydroelectricity to be transmitted the North Island's electricity demand. While Wellington experiences regular strong winds, and only 63% of Wellington Electricity's network is underground, the city has a very reliable power supply. In the year to March 2018, Wellington Electricity disclosed the average customer spent just 55 minutes without power due to unplanned outages.


Natural gas

Wellington and the Hutt Valley were two of the original nine towns and cities in New Zealand to be supplied with natural gas when the Kapuni, Kapuni gas field entered production in 1970, and a high-pressure pipeline from the field in Taranaki to the city was completed. The high-pressure transmission pipelines supplying Wellington are now owned and operated by First Gas, with Powerco owning and operating the medium- and low-pressure distribution pipelines within the urban area.


The three waters

The "three waters" – drinking water, stormwater, and wastewater services for Wellington are provided by five councils: Wellington City, Hutt, Upper Hutt and Porirua city councils, and the Wellington Region, Greater Wellington Regional Council. However, the water assets of these councils are managed by an infrastructure asset management company, Wellington Water. Wellington's first piped water supply came from a spring in 1867. Wellington Region, Greater Wellington Regional Council now supplies Lower Hutt, Porirua, Upper Hutt and Wellington with up to 220 million litres a day. The water comes from Wainuiomata River (since 1884), Hutt River (New Zealand), Hutt River (1914), Orongorongo River (1926) and the Lower Hutt aquifer. There are four wastewater treatment stations serving the region, located at: * Moa Point (serving Wellington city) * Seaview (serving Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt) * Karori (serving the suburb) * Porirua (serving northern Wellington suburbs, Tawa and Porirua city) The city faces challenges with ageing infrastructure for the three waters and there have been some significant failures, particularly in wastewater systems. The water supply is vulnerable to severe disruption during a major earthquake, although a wide range of projects are planned to improve resilience of the water supply and allow a limited water supply post-earthquake. In May 2021, the Wellington City Council approved a 10 year plan that included expenditure of $2.7billion on water pipe maintenance and upgrades in Wellington city, and an additional $147 to $208 million for plant upgrades at the Moa Point wastewater treatment plant.


Media


Radio

Wellington is List of radio stations in Wellington, served by 26 full-power radio stations: 17 on FM, four on AM, and five on both FM and AM.


Television

Television broadcasts began in Wellington on 1 July 1961 with the launch of channel WNTV1, becoming the third New Zealand city (after Auckland and Christchurch) to receive regular television broadcasts. WNTV1's main studios were in Waring Taylor Street in central Wellington and broadcast from a transmitter atop Mount Victoria. In 1967, the Mount Victoria transmitter was replaced with a more powerful transmitter at Mount Kaukau. In November 1969, WNTV1 was networked with its counterpart stations in Auckland, Christchurch and Dunedin to form NZBC TV. In 1975, the NZBC was broken up with Wellington and Dunedin studios taking over NZBC TV as TVNZ 1, Television One while Auckland and Christchurch studios launched TVNZ 2, Television Two. At the same time, the Wellington studios moved to the new purpose-built Avalon, New Zealand, Avalon Television Centre in Lower Hutt. In 1980, Televisions One and Two merged under a single company, TVNZ, Television New Zealand (TVNZ). The majority of television production moved to Auckland over the 1980s, culminating in the opening of TVNZ's new Auckland television centre in 1989. Today, digital terrestrial television (Freeview (New Zealand), Freeview) is available in the city, transmitting from Mount Kaukau plus three infill transmitters at Baxters Knob, Fitzherbert, and Haywards.


Twin cities

Wellington is twinned with the following cities: * Sydney, Australia (1983) * Xiamen, China (1987) * Sakai, Japan (1994) * Beijing, China (2006) * Canberra, Australia (2016) It also has historical ties with Chania, Greece; Harrogate, England; and Çanakkale, Turkey.


See also

* List of people from Wellington


References


Further reading

;Published in the 19th century * * ;Published in the 20th century * * *
"Wellington City Annual Economic Profile 2013"
, by Infometrics for Grow Wellington Ltd.


External links


Greater Wellington Regional Council

Official NZ Tourism website for Wellington

Wellington City Council

Wellington
in Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Notes on a New Zealand City: Wellington
{{Authority control Wellington, Capitals in Oceania Former provincial capitals of New Zealand Populated coastal places in New Zealand Populated places established in 1840 Populated places in the Wellington Region Port cities in New Zealand