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Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
during the
European exploration of Australia The European exploration of Australia first began in February 1606, when Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed in Cape York Peninsula and on October that year when Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, and navigated, Torres Strai ...
in the 19th century. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land in 1803 before it became a separate colony in 1825. Its
penal colonies A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
became notorious destinations for the transportation of convicts due to the harsh environment, isolation and reputation for being inescapable.
Macquarie Harbour Macquarie Harbour is a shallow fjord located in the West Coast, Tasmania, West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. It is approximately 315 sq.km, and has an average depth of 15m, with deeper places up to 50m. It is navigable by shallow-draft v ...
and Port Arthur are among the most well-known penal settlements on the island. With the passing of the
Australian Constitutions Act 1850 The Australian Constitutions Act 1850, or Australian Colonies Government Act, formally known as the Act for the Better Government of Her Majesty's Australian Colonies (1850) (13 and 14 Vict. c. 59 of 1850), was legislation Legislation is the ...
, Van Diemen's Land (along with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
,
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
,
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
) was granted responsible self-government with its own elected representative and parliament. On 1 January 1856, the colony of Van Diemen's Land was officially changed to Tasmania. The last penal settlement was closed in Tasmania in 1877.


Toponym

The island was named in honour of
Anthony van Diemen Anthony van Diemen (also ''Antonie'', ''Antonio'', ''Anton'', ''Antonius'') (1593 – 19 April 1645) was a Dutch colonial governor. He was born in Culemborg Culemborg () is a Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality and a city in the cent ...

Anthony van Diemen
,
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies ( nl, Gouverneur-generaal van Nederlands Indië) represented Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch languag ...
who had sent the Dutch explorer
Abel Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (; 160310 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are relate ...

Abel Tasman
on his voyage of discovery in the 1640s. In 1642 Tasman became the first known European to land on the shores of Tasmania. After landing at
Blackman Bay Blackman Bay is located on the south-east coast of Tasmania. It extends from the bay's inlet at the southern peninsula of Marion Bay, Tasmania, Marion Bay to the village of Dunalley, Tasmania, Dunalley. Historically this bay was referred to as "F ...
and later raising the Dutch flag at North Bay, Tasman named the island ''Anthoonij van Diemenslandt'' (Anthony Van Diemen's land) in his patron's honour. The
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
for inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling "Vandemonian".
Anthony Trollope Anthony Trollope (; 24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist and civil servant of the Victorian era. Among his best-known works is a series of novels collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, which revolves around t ...

Anthony Trollope
used the latter term; "They are (the Vandemonians) united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin." In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed ''
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
''; removing the unsavoury link the name Van Diemen's Land had with its penal settlements (and the "
demon A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in Media (communication), media such as comics, video games, movies, an ...

demon
" connotation). Tasmania was chosen as it honoured the explorer Abel Tasman, the first European to visit the island. Within 21 years the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur was permanently closed in 1877.


History


Exploration

Between 1772 and 1798, recorded European visits were only to the southeastern portion of the island and it was not known to be an island until
Matthew Flinders Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was a British navigator and cartographer who led the first littoral zone, inshore circumnavigate, circumnavigation of the landmass that is now known as Australia. ...

Matthew Flinders
and
George Bass George Bass (; 30 January 1771 – after 5 February 1803) was a British naval surgeon and explorer of Australia. Early years Bass was born on 30 January 1771 at Aswarby, a hamlet near Sleaford, Lincolnshire, the son of a tenant farmer, George ...

George Bass
circumnavigated it in the sloop in 1798–1799. In 1773,
Tobias Furneaux Captain Tobias Furneaux (21 August 173518 September 1781) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early ...

Tobias Furneaux
in HMS , explored a great part of the south and east coasts of Van Diemen's Land and made the earliest British chart of the island. He discovered the opening to
D'Entrecasteaux Channel The D'Entrecasteaux Channel is a body of water located between Bruny Island and the south-east of the mainland of Tasmania, Australia. The channel is the river mouth, mouth for the estuaries of the Derwent River (Tasmania), Derwent and the Huon ...
and, at
Bruny Island Bruny Island ( Nuenonne: Lunawanna-alonnah ) is a island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features o ...
, named Adventure Bay for his ship. In 1777,
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
took on water and wood in Tasmania and became cursorily acquainted with some aborigines on his third voyage of discovery. Cook named the
Furneaux Group The Furneaux Group is a group of approximately 100 island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features ...
of islands at the eastern entrance to
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
and the group now known as the Low Archipelago. From at least the settlement of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, sealers and whalers operated in the surrounding waters and explored parts. In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of
Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni, chevalier d'Entrecasteaux () (8 November 1737 – 21 July 1793) was a France, French naval officer, explorer and French colonial empire, colonial governor. He is perhaps best known for his exploration of the A ...
anchored in
Recherche Bay Recherche Bay ( ) is an oceanic embayment, part of which is listed on the Australian National Heritage List, National Heritage Register, located on the extreme south-eastern corner of Tasmania, Australia. It was a landing place of the Bruni d'Ent ...
and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both
natural history Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...

natural history
and
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
. A few months later, British East India Company Captain John Hayes, with the ships ''Duke of Clarence'' and ''Duchess'', resupplied with wood and water at Adventure Bay and explored and named the Derwent River and many surrounding features. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by
Nicolas Baudin Nicolas Thomas Baudin (; 17 February 1754 – 16 September 1803) was a France, French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer. Biography Early career Born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré on 17 February 175 ...
explored
D'Entrecasteaux Channel The D'Entrecasteaux Channel is a body of water located between Bruny Island and the south-east of the mainland of Tasmania, Australia. The channel is the river mouth, mouth for the estuaries of the Derwent River (Tasmania), Derwent and the Huon ...
and
Maria Island Maria Island (or ''Toarra-Marra-Monah'' or ''Tiarra-Marra-Monah'' in Paredarerme language, Paredarerme) is a mountainous island located in the Tasman Sea, off the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. The island is contained within the Maria Island ...

Maria Island
and carried out charting of
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
. Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the
Acadians The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French who settled A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisat ...
from French Canada – mostly from what is now called the New Brunswick–Nova Scotia area to Louisiana.


Early colonisation

Around 1784–1785, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, a serial entrepreneur in colonial schemes, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Diemen's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen" but nothing came of his scheme. Sealers and whalers based themselves on the Tasmanian islands from 1798. In August 1803,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. From 24 September 1804 until 4 February 1813 there were two administrative divisions in Van Diemen's Land, Cornwall County in the north and Buckingham County in the south. The border between the counties was defined as the 42nd parallel (now between
Trial Harbour Trial Harbour is a rural locality in the local government area (LGA) of West Coast Council, West Coast in the North-west and west LGA Region, North-west and west LGA region of Tasmania. The locality is about south-west of the town of Zeehan, Tasm ...
and Friendly Beaches). Cornwall County was administered by William Paterson while Buckingham County was administered by
David CollinsDavid Collins may refer to: Sports * David Collins (Hampshire cricketer), 18th-century cricketer associated with Hampshire * David Collins (New Zealand cricketer) (1887–1967), played for Wellington and Cambridge University * David Collins (Scottis ...
. Major-General
Ralph Darling General (United Kingdom), General Sir Ralph Darling, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, GCH (1772 – 2 April 1858) was a British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831. He is popularly described as ...

Ralph Darling
was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, and in the same year he visited
Hobart Town Hobart () is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Home to almost half of all Tasmanians, it is the least-populated Australian state capital city, and second-smallest i ...

Hobart Town
, and on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, and the name of the island and colony was officially changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856.


Penal colony

From the early 1800s to the 1853 abolition of
penal transportation Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convict A convict is "a person found guilty Guilty or The Guilty may refer to: * Guilt (emotion), an experience that occurs when a person believes they have violated a moral st ...
(known simply as "transportation"), Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts (mostly re-offenders) were sent to the
Tasman Peninsula The Tasman Peninsula / Turrakana is a peninsula located in south-east Tasmania, Australia, approximately by the Arthur Highway, south-east of Hobart. The Tasman Peninsula / Turrakana lies south and west of Forestier Peninsula, to which it conn ...
prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were assigned as servants in free settler households or sent to a female factory (women's workhouse prison). There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land. Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave often promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
. On 6 August 1829, the
brig A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged Square rig is a generic type of Sail-plan, sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spar (sailing), spars which are perpendicular, or wikt:sq ...

brig
, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods, people, and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in
Recherche Bay Recherche Bay ( ) is an oceanic embayment, part of which is listed on the Australian National Heritage List, National Heritage Register, located on the extreme south-eastern corner of Tasmania, Australia. It was a landing place of the Bruni d'Ent ...
, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig. The mutineers marooned officers, soldiers, and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts then sailed the ''Cyprus'' to
Canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division) A canton is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative r ...

Canton
, China, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, ''Cyprus'' visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed, particularly during the
Victorian gold rush The Victorian gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious ...
when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields. Complaints from Victorians about recently released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853.Fletcher, B. H. (1994). 1770–1850. In S. Bambrick (Ed.), ''The Cambridge encyclopedia of Australia'' (pp. 86–94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Popular culture


Film

* The 2011 Australian drama film '' The Hunter,'' about a shadowy corporation that sends a mercenary to
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
to track down a
thylacine The thylacine ( , or , also ) (''Thylacinus cynocephalus'') is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including t ...

thylacine
, a supposedly extinct animal whose genetic code holds the secret to a dangerous weapon. *The 2008 film ''
The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce ''The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce'' is a 2008 Australian-Irish film directed by Michael James Rowland starring Irish actors Adrian Dunbar as Philip Conolly and Ciarán McMenamin as bushranger Alexander Pearce and an ensemble Australian cas ...
'' tells the true story of
Alexander Pearce Alexander Pearce (1790 – 19 July 1824) was an Irish convicts in Australia, convict who was transported to the penal colony in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), Australia for seven years for theft. He escaped from prison several times. During ...
through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly. The film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an
Irish Film and Television Award The Irish Film & Television Academy (IFTA) is an all-Ireland organisation focused on film and television. It has about 1000 members, and is based in Dublin, with branches in London and Los Angeles. The IFTA now holds separate ceremonies for the I ...
, an
Australian Film Institute Award The Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards, known as the AACTA Awards, are presented annually by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA). The awards recognise excellence in the cinema of Australia, film and ...
and won an
IF Award
IF Award
in 2009. * The 2009 film ''
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania during the European exploration of Australia in the 19th century. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land in 1803 before it became a separate colony in 1825. ...
'' follows the story of the infamous Irish convict, Alexander Pearce, and his escape with seven other convicts. * The 2013 ABC telemovie ''
The Outlaw Michael Howe ''The Outlaw Michael Howe'' is a 2013 Australian historical drama film written and directed by Brendan Cowell. Set in the early 19th century, the film is based on the exploits of Michael Howe (bushranger), Michael Howe, an Englishman who was t ...
'' is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion. * The 2018 film '' Black '47'' directed by Lance Daly and set in the 1847 period of the '' Great Famine of Ireland'' depicts a particularly harsh judgement imposed on an Irish farmer for a minor theft by a British Judge in ''
Connemara Connemara ( ga, Conamara ) is a region on the Atlantic coast of western County Galway County Galway ( ; gle, Contae na Gaillimhe) is a in . It is in the , taking up the south of the of . There are several in the west of the count ...

Connemara
'', which includes six months hard labor, then transport to the Penal Colony in Van Diemen's Land. * The 2018 film '' The Nightingale'' is set in 1825 during the
Black War The Black War was the period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, a ...
and depicts the revenge taken by an Irish female
convict A convict is "a person found guilty Guilty or The Guilty may refer to: * Guilt (emotion), an experience that occurs when a person believes they have violated a moral standard Law *Culpability, the degree to which an agent can be held respon ...
for the murder of her family by British soldiers.


Music

*
U2
U2
recorded the song "Van Diemen's Land" for their 1988 album ''
Rattle and Hum#REDIRECT Rattle and Hum ''Rattle and Hum'' is a hybrid live/studio album by Irish rock band U2, and a companion rockumentary film directed by Phil Joanou. The album was produced by Jimmy Iovine and was released on 10 October 1988, while the f ...
''. * Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac Lewis" on the album "Modern Art". * In the traditional
Irish folk song Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland. In ''A History of Irish Music'' (1905), W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that, in Gaelic Ireland, there were ...
"
The Black Velvet Band "The Black Velvet Band" (Roud Folk Song Index, Roud number 2146) is a traditional Folk music, folk song collected from singers in Ireland, Australia, England, Canada and the United States describing how a young man is tricked and then sentenced t ...
", the protagonist is found guilty of stealing a watch and is sent to Van Diemen's Land as punishment. * The song "Van Diemen's Land" in the album titled "Parcel of Rogues" with vocals by
Barbara Dickson Barbara Ruth Dickson (born Dunfermline, Fife, 27 September 1947) is a Scottish singer whose hits include "I Know Him So Well", "Answer Me" and "January February". Dickson has placed fifteen albums in the UK Albums Chart from 1977 to date, and ...
is about an Irish man caught for poaching and transported to Van Diemen's Land and the hardships he has living there. *Russell Morris released an album titled "
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania during the European exploration of Australia in the 19th century. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land in 1803 before it became a separate colony in 1825. ...
" in Australia in 2014. The title track describes the voyage of a convict being transported to Van Diemen's Land and was released with a video shot in Tasmania. * The
Roud Folk Song Index The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. It is compiled by Steve Roud (born 1949), a former librarian in the London ...
includes two different English transportation ballads with the title
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania during the European exploration of Australia in the 19th century. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land in 1803 before it became a separate colony in 1825. ...
, both about a poacher sentenced to transportation to the penal colony. * The album "Fred Holstein: A Collection" includes
Fred Holstein Fred Holstein (December 9, 1942 – January 12, 2004) was an American folk music singer. Holstein was a prominent figure in the Chicago folk music scene in the 1960s through 1980s. He co owned two clubs in the Old Town, Chicago, Old Town and Linco ...
's version of the classic folk song "Maggie May" (
Maggie May (folk song) "Maggie May" (or "Maggie Mae") (Roud The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication Human communi ...

Maggie May (folk song)
, which is different from Rod Stewart's
Maggie May "Maggie May" is a song co-written by singer Rod Stewart and Martin Quittenton, and performed by Rod Stewart on his album ''Every Picture Tells a Story'', released in 1971. In 2004, ''Rolling Stone'' ranked the song number 130 on its list of T ...

Maggie May
). In his version, the prostitute and thief Maggie May is transported to "Van Diemen's cruel shore."


Literature

*The novel, '' The Broad Arrow: Being Passages from the History of Maida Gwynnham, a Lifer'' (published in 1859 in London and in 1860 in Hobart) was written in the penal colony, under the pen name Oliné Keese.Caroline Woolmer Leaky
, ''Index of Significant Tasmanian Women'', Department of Premier and Cabinet, Government of Tasmania.
*Australian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature
Patrick White Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 1912 – 30 September 1990) was an Australian writer who published 12 novels, three short-story collections, and eight plays, from 1935 to 1987. White's fiction employs humour, florid prose, shifting n ...

Patrick White
's novel ''
A Fringe of Leaves ''A Fringe of Leaves'' is the tenth published novel by the Australian novelist and Nobel Prize in Literature, 1973 Nobel Prize-winner, Patrick White. Plot A young Cornish people, Cornish woman, Mrs Ellen Roxburgh, travels to the Australian colo ...
'' places much of the novel's beginnings in Van Diemen's Land. *Van Diemen's Land is the setting of '' Gould's Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish'' by
Richard Flanagan Richard Miller Flanagan (born 1961) is an Australian writer, who has also worked as a film director and screenwriter. He won the 2014 Man Booker Prize for his novel ''The Narrow Road to the Deep North (novel), The Narrow Road to the Deep North'' ...

Richard Flanagan
(published 2002), which tells the story of a man who is transported to the island, and runs afoul of the local authorities. *Van Diemen's Land is the setting for Flanagan's novel ''Wanting'' (2008). * Brendan Whiting's book ''Victims of Tyranny'', gives an account of the lives of the Irish rebels, the Fitzgerald convict brothers who were sent to help open up the north of Van Diemen's Land in 1805, under the leadership of the explorer Colonel William Paterson. *In
Cormac McCarthy Cormac McCarthy (born Charles Joseph McCarthy Jr., July 20, 1933) is an American writer who has written ten novels, two plays, five screenplays and two short stories, spanning the Western fiction, Western and Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic f ...
's novel ''
Blood Meridian ''Blood Meridian or The Evening Redness in the West'' is a 1985 in literature, 1985 Epic (genre), epic novel by American author Cormac McCarthy, classified under the Western (genre), Western, or sometimes the Revisionist Western, anti-Western, g ...
'', one of the characters in the
Glanton Gang John Joel Glanton (1819 – April 23, 1850) was an early settler of Mexican Texas Mexican Texas is the historiographical Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th ...
of scalpers in 1850s
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
is a "Vandiemenlander" named Bathcat. Born in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
he later went to Australia to hunt aborigines, and eventually came to Mexico, where he uses those skills on the
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...

Apache
s. *From ''The Potato Factory'' by
Bryce Courtenay Arthur Bryce Courtenay, (14 August 1933 – 22 November 2012) was a South African-Australian advertising director and novelist. He is one of Australia's best-selling authors, notable for his book '' The Power of One''. Background and early ye ...
(1995), "... subtracting till my fingers dropped; into Van Diemen's Land." This is a quote from Emily Dickinson's Poem "If You Were Coming in the Fall". Two of the main characters in Cortenay's novel are transported Van Diemen's Land as convicts and another travels there, where around half of the novel takes place. *In the novel ''The Convicts'' by Iain Lawrence, young Tom Tin is sent to Van Diemen's Land on charges of murder. *In the novel ''The Terror'' by
Dan Simmons Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948) is an American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as adva ...
(2007). In this novel about the ill-fated exploration by and to discover the
Northwest Passage The Northwest Passage (NWP) is the Sea lane, sea route between the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archi ...

Northwest Passage
. The ships left England in May 1846 and were never heard from again, although since then much has been discovered about the fate of the 129 officers and crew. References are made to Van Diemen's Land during the chapters devoted to
Francis Crozier Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (17 September 1796 – disappeared 26 April 1848) was an Irish people, Irish officer of the Royal Navy and polar explorer who participated in six expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic. In May 1845, he was s ...
. *Van Diemen's Land is the setting of the novel ''
English Passengers ''English Passengers'' () is a 2000 historical novel written by Matthew Kneale, which won that year's Whitbread Book Award and was shortlisted for the Booker Prize and the Miles Franklin Literary Award, Miles Franklin Award. It is narrated by 20 ...
'' by
Matthew Kneale Matthew Kneale (born 24 November 1960) is a British writer. He is best known for his 2000 novel ''English Passengers Image:EnglishPassengers.jpg, First edition cover, right ''English Passengers'' () is a 2000 historical novel written by Matthew ...
(2000), which tells the story of three eccentric Englishmen who in 1857 set sail for the island in search of the Garden of Eden. The story runs parallel with the narrative of a young Tasmanian who tells the struggle of the indigenous population and the desperate battle against the invading British colonists. * Christopher Koch's novel ''Out of Ireland'' describes life as a convict in Van Diemen's Land. * Richard Butler's novel ''The Men That God Forgot'' (1977) is based on the historical events of ten convicts who escaped from Van Diemen's Land to
Valdivia Valdivia (; Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are cu ...
, Chile in 1833. * Marcus Clarke used historical events as the basis for his fictional ''
For the Term of his Natural Life ''For the Term of His Natural Life'' is a story written by Marcus Clarke Marcus Andrew Hislop Clarke (24 April 1846 – 2 August 1881) was an English-born Australian novelist, journalist, poet, editor, librarian and playwright. He is best kn ...
'' (1870), the story of a gentleman, falsely convicted of murder, who is transported to Van Diemen's Land. *
Julian Stockwin Julian Stockwin (born 1944 in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England) is an author of historical action-adventure fiction. As well as the Kydd Series he has written two standalone novels ''The Silk Tree'' and ''The Powder of Death''. Biography Born i ...

Julian Stockwin
's
nautical fiction Nautical fiction, frequently also naval fiction, sea fiction, naval adventure fiction or maritime fiction, is a genre of literature with a setting on or near the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The oce ...
series, ''The Kydd Series'', includes the book ''Command'' (2006) in which Thomas Kydd takes a ship to Van Diemen's Land, at the behest of then governor of New South Wales,
Philip Gidley King Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Philip Gidley King (23 April 1758 – 3 September 1808) was the third Governor of New South Wales. When the First Fleet arrived in January 1788, King was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence and foragin ...
, for the purpose of preventing French explorers from establishing a French settlement on the island. * Kevin G. Dyer's novel ''Dark Night in Van Diemen's Land'' tells the story of a young couple transported to the Port Arthur penal settlement. * J.W. Clennett's 2015 graphic novel, ''The Diemenois'', is set during an alternate history in which
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
fakes his death and flees to West Van Diemen, an area of Tasmania colonised by France. The story takes place in the fictional city of Baudin (where modern-day
Stanley Stanley may refer to: People * Stanley (name) Stanley is a toponymic surname dating from the 11/12th century contraction of ''Stan'' (a form of "Stone") and ''wikt:leigh, Leigh'' (meadow), later also being used as a masculine given name. Pe ...

Stanley
is located), named after French
cartographer Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science Science (from the Latin word ''scienti ...

cartographer
Nicolas Baudin Nicolas Thomas Baudin (; 17 February 1754 – 16 September 1803) was a France, French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer. Biography Early career Born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré on 17 February 175 ...
. * Emily Dickinson's poem, "If you were coming in the fall" makes reference to Van Diemen's land. * “The Exiles” by Christina Baker Kline (2020) tells the story of “transportation” to Van Dieman’s Land and the hardship, oppression, opportunity and hope of three women at the centre of the story.


See also

*
Cape Grim massacre The Cape Grim massacre was an incident on 10 February 1828 in which a group of Aboriginal Tasmanians gathering food at a beach in the north-west of Tasmania is said to have been ambushed and shot by four Van Diemen's Land Company (VDLC) workers, ...
*
Cyprus mutiny The ''Cyprus'' mutiny took place in 1829 off the British Van Diemen's Land#Penal colony, penal settlement of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania, Australia). Convicts in Australia, Convicts seized the brig and sailed her to Guangzhou, Canton, China, ...
*
Colony of Tasmania The Colony of Tasmania (more commonly referred to simply as "Tasmania") was a British colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated ...
*
Governors of Tasmania The Governor of Tasmania is the representative in the Australian state of Tasmania of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as the Governor-General of Australia ...
*
Van Diemen's Land Company The Van Diemen's Land Company (also known as Van Dieman Land Company) is a farming corporation in the Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual a ...
* Apostolic Vicariate of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land (Catholic missionary jurisdiction)


Notes


References

*Alexandra, Rieck (editor) (2005) ''
The Companion to Tasmanian History ''The Companion to Tasmanian History'' was a book produced in 2005 by the Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies at the University of Tasmania, in conjunction with the Government of Tasmania, Tasmanian Government celebrations of the Bicentenary ...
'' Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart. . *Boyce, James (2008), ''Van Diemen's Land''. Black Inc., Melbourne. . *Robson, L.L. (1983) ''A history of Tasmania. Volume 1. Van Diemen's Land from the earliest times to 1855'' Melbourne, Oxford University Press. . *Robson, L.L. (1991) ''A history of Tasmania. Volume II. Colony and state from 1856 to the 1980s'' Melbourne, Oxford University Press. .


External links


Constitution Act 1855, establishing an elected parliament in the colony
{{Authority control Van Diemen's Land, Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania Former penal colonies Colonial history of Tasmania States and territories established in 1825 1825 establishments in Australia States and territories disestablished in 1856 1856 disestablishments in Oceania