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The United States Capitol, often called The Capitol or the Capitol Building, is the meeting place of the and the of the of the . It is located on at the eastern end of the in Though no longer at the geographic center of the , the Capitol forms the origin point for the district's street-numbering system and the . The original building was completed in 1800. It was partly destroyed in the 1814 , then was fully restored within five years. The building was later enlarged, with the addition of a massive , and extended wings with expanded chambers for the legislature, the in the south wing and the in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the and branches, the Capitol is built in the and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as ''fronts'', though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries.


History


Background

Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.C., the and its predecessors had met in ( and ), New York City (), and a number of other locations (; ; the in ; and in ). In September 1774, the brought together delegates from the in Philadelphia, followed by the , which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the in , the was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon , demanding payment for their service during the . Congress requested that , the , call up the to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the , Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to , on June 21, 1783, and met in , and , before ending up in New York City. The was established upon of the and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. The decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from for locating the capital along the . As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years (until December 1800), until the nation's capital in Washington, D.C., would be ready. was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" (now , NW) connecting it with the , and a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" (now the National Mall) stretching westward to the Potomac River (see: ). ''At'' .


Name

In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from and is associated with the on , one of the . The connection between the two is not clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; however, he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol. The word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions also for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital". The former refers to a building which houses government institutions; the latter refers to the entire city.


Design competition

In spring 1792, proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the , and set a four-month deadline. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City. At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol; however the drawings were regarded as crude and amateurish, reflecting the level of architectural skill present in the United States at the time. The most promising of the submissions was by , a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, and were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the , as well as the for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was officially approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, and Thornton served as the first (and later first Superintendent of the ). In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, and serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes to Thornton's design, which he saw as costly to build and problematic. In July 1793, Jefferson convened a five-member commission, bringing Hallet and Thornton together, along with (winning architect of the ) to address problems with and revise Thornton's plan. Hallet suggested changes to the floor plan, which could be fitted within the exterior design by Thornton.Allen (2001), p. 23 The revised plan was accepted, except that and insisted on an open in the center of the East front, which was part of Thornton's original plan. The original design by Thornton was later modified by the British-American architects , and then . The and the and new northern wing were designed by and , a immigrant, in the 1850s, and were completed under the supervision of .


Construction

L'Enfant secured the lease of at and along in for use in the s and outer walls of the Capitol in November 1791. Surveying was under way soon after the Jefferson conference plan for the Capitol was accepted. On September 18, 1793, , along with eight other Freemasons dressed in regalia, , which was made by . Construction proceeded with Hallet working under supervision of , who was also busy working on construction of the (also later known as the "Executive Mansion"). Despite the wishes of Jefferson and the President, Hallet went ahead anyway and modified Thornton's design for the East Front and created a square central court that projected from the center, with flanking wings which would house the legislative bodies. Hallet was dismissed by Secretary Jefferson on November 15, 1794. was hired on October 15, 1795, as Superintendent of Construction, but resigned three years later in May 1798, because of his dissatisfaction with Thornton's plan and quality of work done thus far. The (north) wing was completed in 1800. The Senate and House shared quarters in the north wing until a temporary wooden pavilion was erected on the future site of the House wing which served for a few years for the Representatives to meet in, until the (south) wing was finally completed in 1811, with a covered wooden temporary walkway connecting the two wings with the Congressional chambers where the future center section with rotunda and dome would eventually be. However, the House of Representatives moved early into their House wing in 1807. Though the Senate wing building was incomplete, the Capitol held its of the with both chambers in session on November 17, 1800. The National Legislature was moved to prematurely, at the urging of President , in hopes of securing enough votes in the to be re-elected for a second term as president.


Early religious use

For several decades, beginning when the federal government moved to Washington in the fall of 1800, the Capitol building was used for Sunday religious services as well as for governmental functions. The first services were conducted in the "hall" of the House in the north wing of the building. In 1801 the House moved to temporary quarters in the south wing, called the "Oven", which it vacated in 1804, returning to the north wing for three years. Then, from 1807 to 1857, they were held in the then-House Chamber (now called ). When held in the House chamber, the Speaker's podium was used as the preacher's pulpit. According to the exhibit ''Religion and the Founding of the American Republic'':


War of 1812

Not long after the completion of both wings, the Capitol was by the on August 24, 1814, during the . and , both military engineers, were called upon to help rebuild the Capitol. Reconstruction began in 1815 and included redesigned chambers for both Senate and House wings (now sides), which were completed by 1819. During the reconstruction, Congress met in the , a temporary structure financed by local investors. Construction continued through to 1826, with the addition of the center section with front steps and columned portico and an interior rising above the first low dome of the Capitol. Latrobe is principally connected with the original construction and many innovative interior features; his successor Bulfinch also played a major role, such as design of the first low dome covered in copper.


The House and Senate Wings

By 1850, it became clear that the Capitol could not accommodate the growing number of legislators arriving from newly admitted states. A new design competition was held, and President appointed Philadelphia architect to carry out the expansion. Two new wings were added: a new chamber for the House of Representatives on the south side, and a new chamber for the Senate on the north. When the Capitol was expanded in the 1850s, some of the construction labor was carried out by "who cut the logs, laid the stones and baked the bricks". The original plan was to use workers brought in from Europe; however, there was a poor response to recruitment efforts, and African Americans, some free and some enslaved, composed the majority of the work force.


Capitol dome

The 1850 expansion more than doubled the length of the Capitol, and dwarfed the original, timber-framed, copper-sheeted, low dome of 1818, designed by which was no longer in proportion with the increased size of the building. In 1855, the decision was made to tear it down and replace it with the "" cast-iron dome that stands today. Also designed by , the new dome would stand three times the height of the original dome and in diameter, yet had to be supported on the existing masonry piers. Like 's dome at "" (which he had visited in 1838), Walter's dome is double, with a large in the inner dome, through which is seen ''""'' painted on a shell suspended from the supporting ribs, which also support the visible exterior structure and the that supports The "", a colossal statue that was raised to the top of the dome in 1863. The statue invokes the goddesses Minerva or Athena. The weight of the for the dome has been published as . The dome's cast iron frame was supplied and constructed by the iron foundry


Later expansion

When the Capitol's new dome was finally completed, its massive visual weight, in turn, overpowered the proportions of the columns of the East , built in 1828. The East Front of the Capitol building was rebuilt in 1904, following a design of the architects , who also designed the and office buildings. The next major expansion to the Capitol started in 1958, with a extension of the East Portico. During this project, in 1960 the dome underwent a restoration. A marble duplicate of the East Front was built from the old Front. (In 1962, a connecting extension incorporated what had been an outside wall as an inside wall.) In the process, the original sandstone s were removed and replaced with marble. It was not until 1984 that landscape designer created a suitable setting for them in a large meadow at the in northeast Washington as the , where they are combined with a reflecting pool in an ensemble that reminds some visitors of the ruins of , in . Besides the columns, hundreds of blocks of the original stone were removed and are stored behind a maintenance yard in . On December 19, 1960, the Capitol was declared a by the National Park Service. The building was ranked #6 in a 2007 survey conducted for the ' "" list. The Capitol draws heavily from other notable buildings, especially churches and landmarks in Europe, including the dome of in the and in London. On the roofs of the Senate and House Chambers are flagpoles that fly the when either is in session. On September 18, 1993, to commemorate the Capitol's bicentennial, the Masonic ritual cornerstone laying with George Washington was reenacted. U.S. Senator was one of the Freemason politicians who took part in the ceremony. On June 20, 2000, ground was broken for the , which opened on December 2, 2008. From 2001 through 2008, the East Front of the Capitol (site of most until began a new tradition in 1981) was the site of construction for this massive underground complex, designed to facilitate a more orderly entrance for visitors to the Capitol. Prior to the center being built, visitors to the Capitol had to line up in the basement of the Cannon House Office Building or the Russell Senate Office Building. The new underground facility provides a grand entrance hall, a visitors theater, room for exhibits, and dining and restroom facilities, in addition to space for building necessities such as a . A large-scale Capitol dome restoration project, the first extensive such work since 1959–1960, began in 2014, with completion scheduled before the 2017 presidential inauguration. As of 2012, $20 million in work around the skirt of the dome had been completed, but other deterioration, including at least 1,300 cracks in the brittle iron that have led to rusting and seepage inside, needed to be addressed. Before the August 2012 recess, the voted to spend $61 million to repair the exterior of the dome. The House wanted to spend less on government operations, but in late 2013, it was announced that renovations would take place over two years, starting in spring 2014. Extensive scaffolding was erected in 2014, enclosing and obscuring the dome. All exterior scaffolding was removed by mid-September 2016. With the increased use of technologies such as the internet, a bid tendering process was approved in 2001/2002 for a contract to install the multidirectional radio communication network for and mobile-phone within the Capitol Building and annexes, followed by the new Capitol Visitor Center. The winning bidder was an called Foxcom which has since changed its name and been acquired by .


Interior

The Capitol building is marked by its central above a in the central section of the structure (which also includes the older original smaller center flanked by the two original (designed 1793, occupied 1800) smaller two wings (inner north and inner south) containing the two original smaller for the Senate and the House of Representatives (between 1800 and late 1850s) and then flanked by two further extended (newer) wings, one also for each chamber of the larger, more populous Congress: the new north wing is the Senate chamber and the new south wing is the House of Representatives chamber. Above these newer chambers are galleries where visitors can watch the Senate and House of Representatives. It is an example of . Tunnels and internal connect the Capitol building with the in the . All rooms in the Capitol are designated as either S (for Senate) or H (for House), depending on whether they are in the Senate or House wing of the Capitol.


Art

The Capitol has a long history in , beginning in 1856 with / artist and his s in the hallways of the first floor of the Senate side of the Capitol. The murals, known as the , reflect great moments and people in . Among the original works are those depicting , , , and events such as the . Also decorating the walls are animals, insects and natural indigenous to the United States. Brumidi's design left many spaces open so future events in United States history could be added. Among those added are the ', the , and the . Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of ' beneath the top of the dome, and also the '. ''The Apotheosis of Washington'' was completed in 11 months and painted by Brumidi while suspended nearly in the air. It is said to be the first attempt by the United States to deify a . Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 in an inner ring with many and below him in a second ring. The is located around the inside of the base of the dome and is a chronological, pictorial history of the United States from the landing of to the 's flight in , . The frieze was started in 1878 and was not completed until 1953. The frieze was therefore painted by four different artists: Brumidi, , , and . The final scenes depicted in the fresco had not yet occurred when Brumidi began his ''Frieze of the United States History''. Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America. On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States. The east side paintings include ''The Baptism of '' by , ''The Embarkation of the '' by , ''The Discovery of the '' by , and ''The Landing of Columbus'' by . The paintings on the west side are by : ', ', ', and '. Trumbull was a contemporary of the United States' founding fathers and a participant in the ; he painted a self-portrait into ''Surrender of Lord Cornwallis''. ', an 1864 painting by , hangs over the west staircase in the Senate wing. The Capitol also houses the , comprising two statues donated by each of the to honor persons notable in their histories. One of the most notable statues in the is a donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959. The statue's extraordinary weight of raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center. The 100th, and last statue for the collection, that of from the state of , was added on September 22, 2005. It was the first statue moved into the Emancipation Hall.


Crypt

On the ground floor is an area known as . It was intended to be the burial place of George Washington, with a ringed at the center of the Rotunda above looking down to his tomb. However, under the stipulations of his last , Washington was buried at . The Crypt houses exhibits on the history of the Capitol. A inlaid in the floor marks the point at which Washington, D.C. is divided into its four quadrants and is the basis for how , are designated (, , , or ). Within the Crypt is 's massive '. The sculptor had a fascination with large-scale art and themes of heroic nationalism, and carved the piece from a six-ton block of . Borglum carved the bust in 1908, and it was donated to the Congress by , and accepted by the , in the same year. The pedestal was specially designed by the sculptor and installed in 1911. The bust and pedestal were on display in the Rotunda for many years until 1979 when, after a rearrangement of all sculpture in the Rotunda, they were placed in the Crypt. Borglum was a patriot; believing the "monuments we have built are not our own", he looked to create art that was "American, drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement", according to a 1908 interview article. Borglum's depiction of Lincoln was so accurate, that , the president's son, praised the bust as "the most extraordinarily good portrait of my father I have ever seen". Supposedly, according to legend, the marble head remains unfinished (missing the left ear) to symbolize Lincoln's .


Features

At one end of the room near the is a statue of . On the right leg of the statue, a mark from a bullet fired during the is clearly visible. The bullet also left a mark on the cape, located on the back right side of the statue. Twelve presidents have in the Rotunda for public viewing, most recently . The tomb meant for Washington stored the which is used to support s lying in state or honor in the Capitol. The catafalque now on display in the Exhibition Hall of the Capitol Visitor Center was used for President Lincoln. The is located on the House side of the Capitol, home to twenty-eight fluted columns and statues from the National Statuary Hall Collection. In the basement of the Capitol building in a utility room are two marble bathtubs, which are all that remain of the once elaborate Senate baths. These baths were a -like facility designed for members of Congress and their guests before many buildings in the city had modern plumbing. The facilities included several bathtubs, a barbershop, and a . A steep, metal staircase, totaling 365 steps, leads from the basement to an outdoor walkway on top of the Capitol's dome. The number of steps represents each day of the year. Also in the basement, the weekly prayer is held on Fridays by Muslim staffers.


Height

Contrary to a popular myth, have never referred to the height of the Capitol building, which rises to . Indeed, the Capitol is only the .


House Chamber

The Chamber has 448 permanent seats. Unlike senators, representatives do not have assigned seats. The chamber is large enough to accommodate members of all three branches of the federal government and invited guests for of Congress such as the speech and other events. The Chamber is adorned with of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history. The "" is written over the tribune below the clock and above the United States flag. Of the twenty-three relief portraits only Moses is sculpted from a full front view and is located across from the dais where the Speaker of the House ceremonially sits. In order clockwise around the chamber: There is also a quote etched in the marble of the chamber, as stated by venerable statesman : "Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered."


Senate Chamber

The current Chamber opened in 1859 and is adorned with of the former (Vice Presidents).


Old Chambers


Statuary Hall (Old Hall of the House)

The National is a chamber in the United States Capitol devoted to sculptures of prominent Americans. The hall, also known as the Old Hall of the House, is a large, two-story, semicircular room with a second story gallery along the curved perimeter. It is located immediately south of the Rotunda. It was the meeting place of the U.S. House of Representatives for nearly 50 years (1807–1857). After a few years of disuse, in 1864, it was repurposed as a statuary hall.


Old Senate Chamber

The is a room in the United States Capitol that was the legislative chamber of the United States Senate from 1810 to 1859, and served as the Supreme Court chamber from 1860 until 1935.


Old Supreme Court Chamber

This room was originally the lower half of the from 1800 to 1806. After division of the chamber in two levels, this room was used from 1806 until 1860 as the Supreme Court Chamber. In 1860, the began using the newly vacated Old Senate Chamber. In 1935, the Supreme Court vacated the Capitol Building and began meeting in the newly constructed across the street.


Floor plans


Exterior


Grounds

The cover approximately 274 acres (1.11 km2), with the grounds proper consisting mostly of lawns, walkways, streets, drives, and planting areas. Several monumental sculptures used to be located on the east facade and lawn of the Capitol including ' and '. The current grounds were designed by noted American , who planned the expansion and landscaping performed from 1874 to 1892. In 1875, as one of his first recommendations, Olmsted proposed the construction of the on the north, west, and south sides of the building that exist today. Olmsted also designed the Summerhouse, the open-air brick building that sits just north of the Capitol. Three es open into the al structure, which encloses a fountain and twenty-two brick chairs. A fourth wall holds a small window which looks onto an artificial . Built between 1879 and 1881, the Summerhouse was intended to answer complaints that visitors to the Capitol had no place to sit and no place to obtain water for their horses and themselves. Modern s have since replaced Olmsted's fountain for the latter purpose. Olmsted intended to build a second, matching Summerhouse on the southern side of the Capitol, but congressional objections led to the project's cancellation.


Flags

Up to four can be seen flying over the Capitol. Two flagpoles are located at the base of the dome on the East and West sides. These flagpoles have flown the flag day and night since . The other two flagpoles are above the North (Senate) and South (House of Representatives) wings of the building, and fly only when the chamber below is in session. The flag above the House of Representatives is raised and lowered by . The flag above the United States Senate is raised and lowered by Senate Doorkeepers. To raise the flag, Doorkeepers access the roof of the Capitol from the 's office. Several auxiliary flagpoles, to the west of the dome and not visible from the ground, are used to meet congressional requests for flags flown over the Capitol. pay for U.S. flags flown over the Capitol to commemorate a variety of events such as the death of a family member.


Major events

The Capitol, as well as the grounds of , have played host to major events, including held every four years. During an inauguration, the front of the Capitol is outfitted with a platform and a grand staircase. Annual events at the Capitol include celebrations, and the . The general public has paid respect to a number of individuals at the Capitol, including numerous former presidents, senators, and other officials. Other Americans lying in honor include and , the two officers killed in the . Chestnut was the first African American ever to lie in honor in the Capitol. The public also paid respect to , an icon of the , at the Capitol in 2005. She was the first woman and second African American to lie in honor in the Capitol. In February 2018, the evangelical Rev. became the fourth private citizen to lie in honor in the Rotunda. On September 24, 2015, gave a joint address to Congress, the first Pope to do so.


Security

The U.S. Capitol is believed to have been the intended target of , one of the four planes that were hijacked on . The plane crashed near after passengers tried to regain control of the plane from the hijackers. Since the , the roads and grounds around the Capitol have undergone dramatic changes. The United States Capitol Police have also installed checkpoints to inspect vehicles at specific locations around Capitol Hill, and have closed a section of one street indefinitely. The level of screening employed varies. On the main east–west thoroughfares of and s, s are implanted in the roads that can be raised in the event of an emergency. Trucks larger than are interdicted by the Capitol Police and are instructed to use other routes. On the checkpoints at the shorter cross streets, the barriers are typically kept in a permanent "emergency" position, and only vehicles with special permits are allowed to pass. All Capitol visitors are screened by a , and all items that visitors may bring inside the building are screened by an . In both chambers, gas masks are located underneath the chairs in each chamber for members to use in case of emergency. Structures ranging from scores of s to hundreds of ornamental s have been erected to obstruct the path of any vehicles that might stray from the designated roadways. After the , security increased again. Additional security fences were installed around the perimeter, and troops were deployed to bolster security.


List of security incidents

* On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. As President was leaving the Capitol out of the East Portico after the funeral of Representative , , an unemployed and deranged housepainter from England, either burst from a crowd or stepped out from hiding behind a column and aimed a pistol at Jackson which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol which also misfired. It has since been postulated that the moisture from the humid weather of the day contributed to the double misfiring. Lawrence was then restrained, with legend saying that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Others present, including , restrained and disarmed Lawrence. * On April 23, 1844, then House-Speaker was involved in a physical confrontation on the House floor with Democratic Congressman of New York. White was delivering a speech in defense of Senator , the nominee for President in that year's presidential election, and objected to a ruling from the Speaker denying him time to conclude his remarks. When Rathbun told White to be quiet, White confronted him and their disagreement lead to a fistfight between the two with dozens of their colleagues rushing to break up the fight. During the disturbance, an unknown visitor fired a pistol into the crowd, wounding a police officer. Both White and Rathbun subsequently apologized for their actions. * On July 2, 1915, prior to the United States' entry into , (aka Frank Holt), a German professor who wanted to stop American support of the , exploded a bomb in the reception room of the U.S. Senate. The next morning he tried to assassinate , son of , at his home on , New York. served as Great Britain's principal U.S. purchasing agent for and other war supplies. In a letter to the ' published after the explosion, Muenter, writing under an assumed name, said he hoped that the detonation would "make enough noise to be heard above the voices that clamor for war." * In the , Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire on members of Congress from the visitors' gallery, injuring five representatives. * On March 1, 1971, a bomb exploded on the ground floor of the Capitol, placed by the group the . They as a demonstration against U.S. involvement in . * In the , a group called the claimed responsibility for a bomb that detonated in the lobby outside the office of . Six people associated with the were later found in for refusing to testify about the bombing. * In 1990, three members of the Armed Resistance Unit were convicted of the bombing, which they claimed was in response to the . * In the , Russell Eugene Weston Jr. burst into the Capitol and opened fire, killing two officers, Officer Jacob Chestnut and Det. John Gibson. * In 2004, the Capitol was briefly evacuated after a plane carrying the then-governor of Kentucky strayed into restricted airspace above the district. * In 2013, Miriam Carey, 34, a dental hygienist from , attempted to drive through a security checkpoint in her black coupe, struck a officer, and was chased by the Secret Service to the United States Capitol where she was . * A shooting incident occurred in March 2016. One female bystander was wounded by police but not seriously injured; a man pointing a gun was shot and arrested, in critical but stable condition. The city police of Washington D.C. described the shooting incident as "isolated". * In the , during the counting of electoral college votes for the , a pro- rally resulted in a mob that violently stormed the Capitol. The rioters unlawfully entered the Capitol during the certifying the of President-elect and Vice President-elect , temporarily disrupting the proceedings. This triggered a lockdown in the building. Vice President , Speaker of the House , and other staff members were evacuated, while others were instructed to barricade themselves inside offices and closets. The rioters breached the Senate Chamber and multiple staff offices, including the office of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. One person was shot by law enforcement, and later succumbed to the injury. President-elect criticized the violence as "insurrection" and said democracy was "under unprecedented assault" as a result of the attack. The attack resulted in the death of four rioters, including a woman who was shot as she attempted to breach the Capitol. The events ultimately led to the of Donald Trump. It was the first time the Capitol had been violently seized since 1814, when it was taken by the British in the . * In the , an attacker rammed a car into barriers outside the Capitol, hitting several Capitol Police Officers before exiting his vehicle and attempting to attack others with a knife. An officer hit by the attacker's car died shortly thereafter. The attacker was shot by Capitol Police and later died of his injuries.


Capitol Visitor Center

The United States Capitol Visitor Center (CVC), located below the East Front of the Capitol and its plaza, between the Capitol building and 1st Street East, opened on December 2, 2008. The CVC provides a single security checkpoint for all visitors, including those with disabilities, and an expansion space for the US Congress.Philip Kopper
"A Capitol Attraction", ''American Heritage'', Spring 2009.
The complex contains of space below ground on three floors, and offers visitors a food court, restrooms, and educational exhibits, including an 11-foot scale model of the Capitol dome. It also features affording views of the actual dome. Long in the planning stages, construction began in the fall of 2001, following the killing of two Capitol police officers in 1998. The estimated final cost of constructing the CVC was 621 million.


Gallery

File:US Capitol 1922.jpg, The Capitol on a 1922 US postage stamp File:US Capitol Building at night Jan 2006.jpg, The Capitol at night in 2006


See also

* ' by , a pediment on the east front of the House of Representatives Portico * * , secret offices used by members of the Senate * * , an ornate office sometimes used by the President * , which pictures the Capitol on the back * *


Citations


References

* * * * * * Fryd, Vivien Green (1987). ' In American Art Journal (Vol. 19, pp. 16–39).


Further reading

* Aikman, Lonnelle. ''We, the People: the Story of the United States Capitol, Its Past and Its Promise''. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Capitol Historical Society, in cooperation with the National Geographic Society, 1964. * * Ovason, David
''The Secret Architecture of our Nation's Capital: the Masons and the building of Washington, D.C.''
New York City, New York: Harper Collins, 2000.


External links

* *
Capitol Visitors Center

United States Capitol Historical Society

Architect of the Capitol
*
Capitol History Project
''


U.S. Capitol Police

"Book Discussion on ''Freedom's Cap''
C-SPAN, March 20, 2012
Committee for the Preservation of the National Capitol Records, 1949–1958
{{Authority control Buildings and structures completed in 1800