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Turin ( , Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. It consists of eight administrative regions ...
. It is the capital city of
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...
and of the
Metropolitan City of Turin The Metropolitan City of Turin ( it, Città metropolitana di Torino, Piedmontese: ''Sità metropolitan-a 'd Turin'') is a metropolitan city in the Piedmont region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Turin. It replaced the Province of Turin and c ...
, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the western bank of the
Po River The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps. The river's length is either or , if the Maira, a right bank tributary, is included. Th ...
, below its Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 847,287 (31 January 2022) while the population of the urban area is estimated by
Eurostat Eurostat ('European Statistical Office'; DG ESTAT) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Eurostat's main responsibilities are to provide statistical information t ...
to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The
Turin metropolitan area The Turin metropolitan area is the urban agglomeration centred on the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy. It is defined statistically and does not correspond to a single area of local government. Administratively it compris ...
is estimated by the
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, ''OCDE'') is an intergovernmental organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate e ...
to have a population of 2.2 million. The city used to be a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the
Duchy of Savoy The Duchy of Savoy ( it, Ducato di Savoia; french: Duché de Savoie) was a country in Western Europe that existed from 1416. It was created when Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, raised the County of Savoy into a duchy for Amadeus VIII. The ...
, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy, and the first capital of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and ...
from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the political and intellectual centre of the ''
Risorgimento The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; ), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single ...
'' as well as the birthplace of notable individuals who contributed to it, such as Cavour. Although much of its political influence had been lost by
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing ...
(having been a center of
anti-fascist Anti-fascism is a political movement in opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals. Beginning in European countries in the 1920s, it was at its most significant shortly before and during World War II, where the Axis powers were ...
movements during the '' Ventennio'' including the Italian resistance), Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the "industrial triangle" along with
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its metropolitan city ...
and
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of G ...
. It is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, the city is the world's 78th richest by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma-level global city. Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry, hosting the headquarters of
FIAT Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
,
Lancia Lancia () is an Italian car manufacturer and a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is currently a Stellantis division. The present legal entity of Lancia was formed in January 2007 when its corporate parent reorganised its businesses, but its ...
and Alfa Romeo. The city has a rich culture and history, and it is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces,
opera house An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera. It usually includes a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and building sets. While some venues are constructed specifically fo ...
s,
piazza A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or ''piazza'') is an open public space, commonly found in the heart of a traditional town but not necessarily a true geometric square, used for community gatherings. ...
s, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1750s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including t ...
,
Rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colours, sculpted moulding, ...
, Neo-classical, and
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also known as the Moder ...
architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant '' palazzi'', such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the
Museo Egizio The Museo Egizio ( Italian for Egyptian Museum) is an archaeological museum in Turin, Piedmont, Italy, specializing in Egyptian archaeology and anthropology. It houses one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities, with more than 3 ...
and the
Mole Antonelliana The Mole Antonelliana () is a major landmark building in Turin, Italy, named after its architect, Alessandro Antonelli. A ''mole'' in Italian is a building of monumental proportions. Construction began in 1863, soon after Italian unification, ...
, the city's architectonical symbol, which in turn hosts the Museo Nazionale del Cinema. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. The city also hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the
Turin Polytechnic The Polytechnic University of Turin ( it, Politecnico di Torino) is the oldest Italian public technical university. The university offers several courses in the fields of Engineering, Architecture, Urban Planning and Industrial Design, and is ...
. Turin is also worldwide famous for
icons An icon () is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Catholic churches. They are not simply artworks; "an icon is a sacred image used in religious devotion". The most ...
like the gianduja, the Holy Shroud, the automobile brand FIAT and the
association football Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 Football player, players who primarily use their feet to propel the Ball (association football), ball around a rectangular field ca ...
club Juventus, which competes with its rival
Torino Turin ( , Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The ...
in the '' Derby della Mole'', the city's
derby Derby ( ) is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, which is in the East Midlands Region. It was traditionally the county town of Derbyshire. Derby ga ...
. The city, among other events, was one of the host cities of the
1934 Events January–February * January 1 – The International Telecommunication Union, a specialist agency of the League of Nations, is established. * January 15 – The 8.0 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake, Nepal–Bihar earthquake strik ...
and
1990 FIFA World Cup The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial football tournament for men's senior national teams. It was held from 8 June to 8 July 1990 in Italy, the second country to host the event for a second time (the first being M ...
s, along with hosting the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and also known as Torino 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Italy. This marked the second ...
; Turin hosted the
Eurovision Song Contest 2022 The Eurovision Song Contest 2022 was the 66th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Turin, Italy, following the country's victory at the with the song "" by Måneskin. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and ...
and is hosting the tennis ATP Finals from 2021 until 2025.


History


Ancient origins

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the
Po River The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps. The river's length is either or , if the Maira, a right bank tributary, is included. Th ...
, in the center of modern
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...
. In 218 BC, they were attacked by
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage in their battle against the Roman Republic during the Second Pun ...
as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The Taurini chief town (''Taurasia'') was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established after 28 BC under the name of ''Julia Augusta Taurinorum'' (modern Turin). Both
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in ...
and
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see ...
mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Swi ...
, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.


Roman era

In the first century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans founded ''Augusta Taurinorum''. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the ''Porta Decumani'', later incorporated into the ''Castello'' or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The perfor ...
are preserved in the area of the ''Manica Nuova''. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.


Middle Ages

After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprised the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period fr ...
, the town, along with the rest of the Italian peninsula, was conquered by the
Heruli The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans and the Aegean Sea, attacking ...
and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written between 787 an ...
whose territory then fell into the hands of the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Too ...
under
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; german: Karl der Große; 2 April 747 – 28 January 814), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and the first E ...
(773). The '' Contea di Torino'' (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.


Early modern

Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of ''Iron Head'' (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the ''Palazzo Reale'' (
Royal Palace of Turin The Royal Palace of Turin ( it, Palazzo Reale di Torino) is a historic palace of the House of Savoy in the city of Turin in Northern Italy. It was originally built in the 16th century and was later modernized by Christine Marie of France (1606 ...
) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the
Treaty of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht between April 1713 and February 1715. The war involved three contenders for the vacant throne ...
the Duke of Savoy acquired
Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia , ) is the list of islands in the Mediterranean, largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy, regions of Italy. The Strait of Messina divides it from the region of Calabria in Southern Italy. I ...
, soon traded for
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna, label=Italian language, Italian, Corsican language, Corsican and Tabarchino ; sc, Sardigna , sdc, Sardhigna; french: Sardaigne; sdn, Saldigna; ca, Sardenya, label=Algherese dialect, Algherese and Catalan languag ...
, and part of the former
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan ( it, Ducato di Milano; lmo, Ducaa de Milan) was a state in northern Italy, created in 1395 by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, then the lord of Milan, and a member of the important Visconti of Milan, Visconti family, which had been r ...
, and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.


Late modern and contemporary

Turin, like the rest of
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...
, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain internationa ...
of
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military * Department (administrative division), a geographical and administrative division within a country, ...
until the fall of
Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader wh ...
in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the
unification of Italy The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; ), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single ...
. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and ...
having been the political and intellectual centre of the ''Risorgimento'' movement, until 1865, when the capital was moved to
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.Bilancio demografico ...
, and then to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus ( legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption ...
after the 1870 conquest of the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio, ), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus;), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from ...
. The 1871 opening of the Fréjus Tunnel made Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the
Mole Antonelliana The Mole Antonelliana () is a major landmark building in Turin, Italy, named after its architect, Alessandro Antonelli. A ''mole'' in Italian is a building of monumental proportions. Construction began in 1863, soon after Italian unification, ...
, the
Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or the Cairo Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display ...
, the Gran Madre di Dio church and ''Piazza Vittorio Veneto'' were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899
Fiat Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
was established in the city, followed by
Lancia Lancia () is an Italian car manufacturer and a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is currently a Stellantis division. The present legal entity of Lancia was formed in January 2007 when its corporate parent reorganised its businesses, but its ...
in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also known as the Moder ...
design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants. After
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, the United States, and the Ottoman Empire, with fight ...
, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci. On the other hand,
Benito Mussolini Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (; 29 July 188328 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party. He was Prime Minister of Italy from the March on Rome in 1922 until his deposition in 19 ...
largely subsidised the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged by the air raids in its industrial areas as well as in the city centre. Along with
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its metropolitan city ...
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of G ...
, and
La Spezia La Spezia (, or , ; in the local Spezzino dialect) is the capital city of the province of La Spezia and is located at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Italy. La Spezia is the second largest ci ...
, Turin was one of Italy's four cities that experienced area bombing by the RAF; the heaviest raid took place on 13 July 1943, when 295 bombers dropped 763 tons of bombs, killing 792 people. Overall, these raids killed 2,069 inhabitants of Turin, and destroyed or damaged 54% of all buildings in the city. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for several years. Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians. In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundreds of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 909,048 within the city's admin ...
and
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ) is a city in southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo, the city's surrounding metropolitan province. The city is noted for its ...
". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of ''Capitale dell'automobile'' (Automobile Capital), being often compared with
Detroit Detroit ( , ; , ) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is also the largest U.S. city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of government of Wayne County. The City of Detroit had a population of 639,111 at ...
, the major centre of the U.S. automobile industry (both cities has been "twinned" in 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the
Winter Olympic Games The Winter Olympic Games (french: link=no, Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were he ...
.


Geography

Turin is in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (once known as ''Duria Minor'' by the Romans, from the Celtic noun ''duria'' meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone.


Climate

Located in northwestern Italy at the foot of the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Swi ...
, Turin features a mid-latitude, four seasons
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents (except Antarctica), generally between latitudes 25° and 40 ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author a ...
: ''Cfa''), similar to that of Grenoble, located not far away in the French Alps although Turin's average annual rainfall is lower. Winters are moderately cold and dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley. Snowfalls are not uncommon during the winter months, although substantial accumulation is quite uncommon. Its position on the east side of the Alps makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the föhn wind effect. The highest temperature ever recorded was , and the lowest was .


Administration

Turin is split up into 8
borough A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History In the Middle A ...
s, locally called '' circoscrizioni''; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called '' quartieri'', '' rioni'', ''borghi'', ''borgate'' or ''zone''. The "circoscrizioni" system originally comprised 10 of them, that were reduced to 8 by merging borough 9 into 8, and 10 into 2. The following list numerates the boroughs and the location of the historical districts inside them: * Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta * Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord – Mirafiori Sud * Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna * Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella * Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna – Lucento – Vallette * Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto * Circoscrizione 7: Aurora – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone * Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po – Nizza Millefonti – Lingotto – Filadelfia The Mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is
Stefano Lo Russo Stefano Lo Russo (born 15 October 1975) is an Italian academic and politician, incumbent mayor of Turin. Biography His father comes from Foggia and his mother from Villafranca Piemonte. University professor of applied geology at the Polytechni ...
( PD), elected in 2021.


Cityscape


City centre

Turin's historical architecture is predominantly
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1750s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including t ...
and was developed under the Kingdom of Savoy. Nonetheless, the main street of the city centre, ''Via Roma'', was built during the Fascist era (from 1931 to 1937) as an example of Italian Rationalism, replacing former buildings already present in this area. Via Roma runs between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza Castello. Buildings on the portion between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza San Carlo were designed by rationalist architect
Marcello Piacentini Marcello Piacentini (8 December 1881 – 19 May 1960) was an Italian urban theorist and one of the main proponents of Italian Fascist architecture. Biography Born in Rome, he was the son of architect Pio Piacentini. When he was only 26, he wa ...
. These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive ''Hotel Principi di Piemonte'' and the former ''Hotel Nazionale'' in ''Piazza CLN''. Porches are built in a continuous
entablature An entablature (; nativization of Italian , from "in" and "table") is the superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, a ...
and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in an eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana-type arches. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city. Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: the pedestrianized Piazza San Carlo, built by Carlo di Castellamonte in the 17th century. In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert, also known as ''Caval ëd Brons'' in the local dialect ("Bronze Horse"); the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the Battle of St. Quentin. Piazza San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafés of the city, such as ''Caffé Torino'' and ''Caffé San Carlo''. On the northern edge of Via Roma stands ''Piazza Castello'', regarded as the heart of the city. The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as ''Palazzo Reale'' (Former Savoy Royal House), the ''Palazzo Madama'' (which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification), the former Baroque
Teatro Regio di Torino The Teatro Regio (Royal Theatre) is a prominent opera house and opera company in Turin, Piedmont, Italy. Its season runs from October to June with the presentation of eight or nine operas given from five to twelve performances of each. Several b ...
(rebuilt in modern style in the 1960s, after being destroyed by fire), the Royal Library of Turin which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait, and the baroque Royal Church of San Lorenzo. Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the
Torre Littoria Torre Littoria, or Grattacielo Reale Mutua, is the first high-rise building in Turin, and one of the most renowned rationalist buildings in Italy. It is located in the city centre, on Via Giovanni Battista Viotti, near Piazza Castello. Torre ...
, a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque style of Piazza Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included. As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in ''Piazza Carlo Felice'' and in its ''Giardino Sambuy'', a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square. Across from Piazza Carlo Felice stands the monumental façade of Porta Nuova railway station, the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti. The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque sights, such as the ''Sala Reale'' (the former Royal waiting room). In ''Piazza Castello'' converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Among them, one of the most significant is the arcaded ''Via Po'', built by Amedeo di Castellamonte in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the University of Turin and the historical Caffè Fiorio, which was the favourite café of the 19th-century politicians. Via Po ends in Piazza Vittorio Veneto (simply called Piazza Vittorio locally), the largest Baroque square in Europe and today heart of Turin nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the ''Murazzi'' quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open until the morning until a few years ago. Parallel to Via Roma, the other two popular pedestrian streets, namely ''Via Lagrange'' and ''Via Carlo Alberto'', cross the old town from Via Po to ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II''. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin, home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses ''Piazza Carignano'', well known mainly for the undulating “concave – convex-concave” Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano. This building used to host the ''Parlamento Subalpino'' (the “Subalpine Parliament”, Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia which also became the Italian Parliament for a few years, after the Italian unification) and today houses the Museum of the Risorgimento. The square also features the Teatro Carignano, a well-conserved Baroque theatre. Via Carlo Alberto crosses ''Piazza Carlo Alberto'', a big square hosting the rear façade of Palazzo Carignano, in eclectic style. On the other side stands the monumental ''Biblioteca Nazionale'' (National Library). Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the
Mole Antonelliana The Mole Antonelliana () is a major landmark building in Turin, Italy, named after its architect, Alessandro Antonelli. A ''mole'' in Italian is a building of monumental proportions. Construction began in 1863, soon after Italian unification, ...
, so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish
synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish: ''shul'', Ladino: or ' (from synagogue); or ', "community". sometimes referred to as shul, and interchangeably used with the word temple, is a Jewish house of wors ...
. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at . The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin. Just behind ''Piazza Castello'' stands the Turin Cathedral, dedicated to Saint
John the Baptist John the Baptist or , , or , ;Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history''. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1994. syc, ܝܘܿܚܲܢܵܢ ܡܲܥܡܕ݂ܵܢܵܐ, Yoḥanān Maʿmḏānā; he, יוחנן המטביל, Yohanān HaMatbil; la, Ioannes Bapti ...
, which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491–1498 and is adjacent to an earlier
bell tower A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a Christian church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell tow ...
(1470). Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin. The chapel was added to the structure in 1668–1694, designed by Guarini. The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off a
monstrance A monstrance, also known as an ostensorium (or an ostensory), is a vessel used in Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, High Church Lutheran and Anglican churches for the display on an altar of some object of piety, such as the consecrated Eucharistic ...
containing the Blessed Sacrament; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the
host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places * Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks County People * Jim Host (born 1937), American businessman * Michel Hos ...
remained suspended in air. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi. Next to the Turin Cathedral stand the
Palatine Towers The Palatine Gate (; Piedmontese: ''Pòrta Palatin-a'') is a Roman Age city gate located in Turin, Italy. The gate provided access through the city walls of ''Julia Augusta Taurinorum'' (modern Turin) from the North side and, as a result, it con ...
, an ancient Roman-medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the ''
cardo A cardo (plural ''cardines'') was a north–south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning. The cardo maximus, or most often the ''cardo'', was the main or central north–south-oriented street. ...
maximus'', the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in Northern Italy. Close to this site, the ''Piazza della Repubblica'' plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as ''mercato di Porta Palazzo'' (''Porta Palazzo'' or ''Porta Pila'' are the historical and local names of this area). West of the Porte Palatine stands the ''Quadrilatero Romano'' (Roman Quadrilateral), the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its '' aperitivo'' bars and its small shops run by local artisans. The hub of the Quadrilatero is ''Piazza Emanuele Filiberto''. South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands ''Via Garibaldi'', another popular street of the city. It is a pedestrian street between Piazza Castello and ''Piazza Statuto'' which features some of the old shops of the city. Large ''Piazza Statuto'' is another example of Baroque square with arcades. Another main street of downtown is ''Via Pietro Micca'', which starts in Piazza Castello and ends in the large ''Piazza Solferino''. The street continues in ''Via Cernaia'' up to ''Piazza XXV Dicembre'', which features the former Porta Susa passengers building, relocated in 2012 a little more southward. The new and larger passengers building is situated between ''Corso Bolzano'' and ''Corso Inghilterra'' and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a and glass and steel structure. Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city (high speed trains to Paris) and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains (so-called ''Ferrovie Metropolitane''), national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge. Close to Via Cernaia stands the ''Cittadella'' (Citadel), in the ''Andrea Guglielminetti garden''. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old tunnels below the city.


San Salvario

Southeast of the city centre stands ''San Salvario'' district, which extends from ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'' to ''Corso Bramante'' and is delimited by the Turin-Genoa railway on the west side and by the Po river on the east side. Home to an increasing immigrants' community, the district is an example of integration among different cultures; it also features an incremented nightlife after the opening of several low-cost bars and restaurants. San Salvario is crossed by two main roads, ''Via Nizza'' and ''Via Madama Cristina'', and just as the city centre it is characterised by the
grid plan In urban planning, the grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan, frequent intersections and orth ...
typical of Turin's old neighbourhoods. The hub of the district is ''Piazza Madama Cristina'' which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it. The celebrated Parco del Valentino is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin. Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here. From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated. In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino, built in the 17th century. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four rectangular towers, one at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in ''transalpino'' (i.e. French) style. The façade sports the huge coat of arms of the House of Savoy. Today, Castello del Valentino serves as the faculty of Architecture of the '' Polytechnic University of Turin''. Another cluster of buildings in the park is the '' Borgo Medioevale'' (Medieval village), a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the 1884 International Exhibition. Other buildings in ''Corso Massimo d'Azeglio'' include the Torino Esposizioni complex (Turin's exhibition hall built in the 1930s) featuring a monumental entrance with a large full height porch, a main hall designed by
Pier Luigi Nervi Pier Luigi Nervi (21 June 1891 – 9 January 1979) was an Italian engineer and architect. He studied at the University of Bologna graduating in 1913. Nervi taught as a professor of engineering at Rome University from 1946 to 1961 and is known wo ...
in reinforced concrete, and the ''Teatro Nuovo'', a theatre mostly focused on ballet exhibitions. Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, in ''Piazzetta Primo Levi'', a square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers – high – topped by four onion-shaped domes.


Crocetta

South of ''Centro'' stands the ''Crocetta'' district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of highly rated residential buildings. At the heart of the district is the partially pedestrianised area crossed by ''Corso Trieste'', ''Corso Trento'' and ''Corso Duca D'Aosta'', plenty of some notable residential buildings in eclectic,
neo-Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
and
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also known as the Moder ...
style. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old parade ground, which was moved in the Southern part of the city. North of this area stands the ''GAM (Galleria d'Arte Moderna)'', one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro area (the second and largest one is hosted in ''Castello di Rivoli'', a former Savoy Royal castle in the suburbs). The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'' and ''Corso Galileo Ferraris'': the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39-meters high column. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building previously hosted the head office of Juventus, one of the two main Turin football clubs. West of this area, the main building of Polytechnic University of Turin stands along ''Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi''. The 1958 building, a complex, hosts approximately 30,000 students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country – mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialisation, pushed by the automotive sector. This institute recently expanded in the western district of ''Cenisia'' with additional modern buildings. Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as ''Corso Duca degli Abruzzi'', ''Corso Galileo Ferraris'', and ''Corso Einaudi''. These avenues feature long rows of trees, symbolic of Turin's typical urbanity. However, the most popular avenue is ''Corso De Gasperi'', which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called ''Mercato della Crocetta'', in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones. The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of ''Corso Mediterraneo'' and ''Corso Castelfidardo'', is part of ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard and was recently built over the old railway (now undergrounded): as a result, the avenue is very large (up to ) and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as Mario Merz's ''Igloo'' fountain or the Per Kirkeby's ''Opera per Torino'' monument in ''Largo Orbassano''. The East side of the district is also known as ''Borgo San Secondo'' named after the church of the same name standing in ''Via San Secondo'', a major street in the neighbourhood. This is near ''Porta Nuova'' railway station and is older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century, to include the birthplace and home of author
Primo Levi Primo Michele Levi (; 31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian chemist, partisan, writer, and Jewish Holocaust survivor. He was the author of several books, collections of short stories, essays, poems and one novel. His best-known works ...
on Corso Re Umberto. A local open market is held in ''Piazza San Secondo'' and along ''Via Legnano''. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin (1905). One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is ''Via Sacchi'', which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street (the east side is enclosed by ''Porta Nuova'' railway station service buildings) host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic ''Pfatisch'' pastry shop and the ''Turin Palace Hotel'' (totally refurbished and reopened in 2015). South of ''Via Sacchi'', ''Ospedale Mauriziano'' is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around ''Via Arquata''.


Cenisia

Bordered by ''Corso Castelfidardo'', ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'', ''Corso Trapani'' and ''Corso Peschiera'', this small district is mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese
Institute of Technology An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of te ...
'' Politecnico''. The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under ''Corso Castelfidardo'' and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area (so-called ''Officine Grandi Riparazioni'' or ''OGR''). ''Politecnico'' expanded its facilities through two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style. The main building on the west side hosts a
General Motors The General Motors Company (GM) is an American multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It is the largest automaker in the United States and was the largest in the world for 77 years bef ...
research centre, the ''General Motors Global Propulsion Systems'' (formerly known as ''General Motors Powertrain Europe''). ''Politecnico'' area extends until ''Via Boggio'' with further facilities hosted in the former ''OGR'' facilities. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area. North of ''Politecnico'' facilities, the main building of the ''OGR'' former cluster, which consists in three 180-meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian '' aperitivo''. North of ''OGR'', a former prison complex called ''Le Nuove'' is a significant example of old European prison building. The complex was built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the 1990s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities. An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in ''Corso Ferrucci'', which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building (19th century), now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in ''Via Borsellino''. The residential and business zone of the district sprawls westward, beyond the former - now demolished - customs wall (''cinta daziaria''), which previously separated the city from the mainly rural landscape that marked the outskirts of Turin until the late 19th century. Urban planning outside the local city gate (so-called ''barriera di San Paolo'') led to the construction of an industrial and working class neighborhood in the early 20th century, although factories have long been discontinued, torn down or converted to other uses nowadays. Together with ''San Paolo'' district, ''Cenisia'' hosts an extensive street market along ''Corso Racconigi'', which is locally known as the longest street market in Europe.


Cit Turin

The smallest district of the city is ''Cit Turin'' ("Little Turin" in
Piedmontese language Piedmontese (; autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 2,000,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. Although considered by most linguists a separate language, in Italy it is often mistakenly regard ...
). This small triangle surrounded by ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'', ''Corso Francia'' and ''Corso Inghilterra'' hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people. The district features many buildings in
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also known as the Moder ...
,
Art Deco Art Deco, short for the French ''Arts Décoratifs'', and sometimes just called Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture, and product design, that first appeared in France in the 1910s (just before World War I), and flourished in the Unite ...
and
Neo-Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well known is the '' Casa della Vittoria'' (architect ''Gottardo Gussoni''). Another notable example is Casa Fenoglio-Lafleur. Both buildings face Corso Francia. The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, ''Via Duchessa Jolanda'' and ''Via Principi d'Acaja'', ideally crossing each other among the gardens ''Giardino Luigi Martini'', locally called ''Piazza Benefica'', which hosts a popular open market. The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: the ''Palazzo di Giustizia'', Turin's new courthouse built in the 1990s (in a 350-metre long facility), and the first real skyscraper of Turin, the Torre Intesa Sanpaolo, which house the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks.


San Donato

''San Donato'' district is between ''Corso Francia'', ''Corso Lecce'', ''Corso Potenza'', ''Via Nole'', the ''Parco Dora'' and ''Corso Principe Oddone''. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal ''Canale di San Donato'', which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, ''Via San Donato''. Buildings in the district are relatively recent (around 1820), except for the oldest group of small houses in the ''Brusachœr'' neighbourhood (''Palazzo Forneris'' building) along ''Via Pacinotti'' near the small ''Piazza Paravia''. The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of ''Via San Donato'', which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with ''Via Pacinotti'' before ending in central ''Piazza Statuto'' square. Main church of the district is the ''Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita'', which with its height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the
Mole Antonelliana The Mole Antonelliana () is a major landmark building in Turin, Italy, named after its architect, Alessandro Antonelli. A ''mole'' in Italian is a building of monumental proportions. Construction began in 1863, soon after Italian unification, ...
, the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper, the
Torre Littoria Torre Littoria, or Grattacielo Reale Mutua, is the first high-rise building in Turin, and one of the most renowned rationalist buildings in Italy. It is located in the city centre, on Via Giovanni Battista Viotti, near Piazza Castello. Torre ...
and the two pennons of the
Juventus Stadium Juventus Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as the Allianz Stadium since July 2017, sometimes simply known in Italy as the Stadium ( it, Lo Stadium), is an all-seater football stadium in the Vallette borough of Turin, Italy, and the home ...
. The church is hosting the ''Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio'' and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Faà di Bruno. The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free. The small building near the church is what remains of ''Casa Tartaglino'', a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno. ''Villino Cibrario'' in ''Via Saccarelli'' is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio (among the others, the prestigious ''Villino Raby'' in Corso Francia 8). Other significant buildings are the ''Villa Boringhieri'' in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic buildings are situated in ''Via Piffetti'' and ''Via Durandi''. Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is, of course, the ''Torre BBPR'' Tower (which took the name from the architecture office who designed it). The building is representing the ''post-rationalism Italian architecture'' (same style of the better known Torre Velasca tower in the city of Milan). The tower is facing the central ''Piazza Statuto'' square. The district is crossed by some significant avenues: on ''Corso Svizzera'', which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre ''Piero Della Francesca'', where the offices of ''Tuttosport'', one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on ''Corso Svizzera'', stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the ''Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia'', specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are ''Corso Umbria'' and ''Corso Tassoni''. Another big avenue, which borders the district on its East, is ''Corso Principe Oddone'', which in the past was along the railway to Milan. Currently the railway has been under-grounded: the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern ''Corso Inghilterra'' in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin. The northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called ''Parco Dora''. Mainly, in ''San Donato'' the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of
Michelin Michelin (; ; full name: ) is a French multinational tyre manufacturing company based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes '' région'' of France. It is the second largest tyre manufacturer in the world behind Bridgestone and la ...
(west of ''Via Livorno'') and
FIAT Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
ironwork plants (on the East). Differently for other portions of ''Parco Dora'', this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along ''Corso Umbria'' and became a symbol of the park. Works are completed in the western area, where ''Corso Mortara'' has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the ''Dora'' river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called ''Centro Commerciale Parco Dora''. East of ''Via Livorno'', works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the
FIAT Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
plants used to stand). West of ''Via Livorno'', the ''Environment Park'' is a research centre for renewable energy.


Aurora

''Aurora'' is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls, north of the historical city centre. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in ''Corso Regina Margherita'' (an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin) up to ''Corso Vigevano'' and ''Corso Novara'' in the North Side (namely the old
excise file:Lincoln Beer Stamp 1871.JPG, upright=1.2, 1871 U.S. Revenue stamp for 1/6 barrel of beer. Brewers would receive the stamp sheets, cut them into individual stamps, cancel them, and paste them over the Bunghole, bung of the beer barrel so when ...
boundary until the early 20th century); the western boundary is ''Corso Principe Oddone'' (now part of the ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard) and the eastern border is the Dora river. The district was named Aurora after the so-called ''Cascina Aurora'', an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between ''Corso Giulio Cesare'' and ''Corso Emilia''. The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company ''Gruppo Finanziario Tessile'' (''GFT'') headquarters until the early 21st century. The historical hub of the district is ''Borgo Dora'' (The "Dora Borough"), a small neighbourhood next to ''Porta Palazzo'' and enclosed by ''Corso Regina Margherita'', ''Via Cigna'', the Dora river and ''Corso Giulio Cesare''. Once known as ''Borgo del Pallone'' (literally "Ball Borough") or ''Balon'' in Piedmontese dialect (), this neighbourhood is famous for its ''mercatino del Balon'' or simply ''Balon'', the Turinese flea market that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets. Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: ''Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza'' ("Little House of the Divine Providence"), also known as ''Cottolengo'', a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; ''Arsenale della Pace'' ("Arsenal of Peace"), a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of ''SERMIG'' (''Servizio Missionario Giovani''), a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; ''Caserma Cavalli'' ("Cavalli Barracks"), one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts ''Scuola Holden'', a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative ''Cortile del Maglio'' ("Mallet Courtyard"), a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a
hot air balloon A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries ...
, a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name ''Balon'': recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point. Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of ''Porta Palazzo'' open market which hosts the New Exhibition Hall, designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas. The building has replaced the ''Clothes Market'', one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately, this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture. Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is Porta Milano (a.k.a. ''stazione della Ciriè-Lanzo''), a former 19th-century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciriè-Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to ''Piazza Baldissera''. The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area. Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries. West of Borgo Dora stands ''Rione Valdocco'' ("Valdocco neighbourhood"), enclosed by ''Via Cigna'', ''Corso Regina Margherita'', ''Corso Principe Oddone'' and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of ''Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice'' ("Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary") in the homonymous square and behind the church stands ''San Pietro in Vincoli'' old cemetery. Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are ''Via Cigna'', which crosses the district from North to South, ''Corso Vercelli'', a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and ''Corso Principe Oddone'', part of the long ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard that will be built over the underground Turin-Milan railway. However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern ''San Donato'', thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts (i.e. ''Corso Ciriè'' will continue in ''Corso Gamba'' and ''Strada del Fortino'' in ''Corso Rosai''). As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named ''Corso Giulio Cesare'', a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to Turin-Trieste motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin. Other significant roads are ''Corso Palermo'', ''Via Bologna'' and ''Corso Regio Parco'', mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as ''Borgo Rossini'' ("Rossini Borough"). Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East. The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century. An example are the remains of
FIAT Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
''Officine Grandi Motori'' (''OGM'') in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin. Another disused facility is ''Astanteria Martini'' ("Martini Emergency Department") in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long. As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest
public housing Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is usually owned by a government authority, either central or local. Although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, terminology, de ...
block of the city, built by ''Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari'' (''IACP'') in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as ''Chiabotto delle Merle''. Despite its run-down look, the famous
Lavazza Luigi Lavazza S.p.A. (), shortened and stylized as LAVAZZA, is an Italian manufacturer of coffee products. Founded in Turin in 1895 by Luigi Lavazza, it was initially run from a small grocery store at Via San Tommaso 10. The business (Italian ...
coffee company, along with ''IAAD'' School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed ''Nuvola'' ("Cloud") right at the borders of ''Borgo Rossini''. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public. ''Borgo Rossini'' hosts a number of businesses, for instance, the '' Robe di Kappa'' flagship store (Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin) and the ''Cineporto'' ("Cineport") a.k.a. ''La Casa dei Produttori'' ("The Filmmakers' House", which hosts the ''Turin Piedmont Film Commission Foundation'').


Vanchiglia

''Vanchiglia'' is bordered by ''Corso San Maurizio'', ''Corso Regio Parco'' and the Po river, crossed also by the Dora Riparia river and by two big avenues, ''Corso Regina Margherita'' and ''Corso Tortona''. ''Borgo Vanchiglia'' is the historical district: a little triangle next to downtown, situated between ''Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regina Margherita'' and the Po river. The district is quite popular nowadays because being quite closer to the heart of Turin nightlife ''Piazza Vittorio Veneto'', many bars and restaurants opened recently in this area. However, Vanchiglia also includes the area called ''Vanchiglietta'', north of ''Borgo Vanchiglia''. Notable church in ''Borgo Vanchiglia'' is the French neo-Gothic ''Chiesa di Santa Giulia'' situated into ''Piazza Santa Giulia''. A notable and unusual building in the area is the so-called ''" Fetta di Polenta"'' (literally: "
polenta Polenta (, ) is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains. The dish comes from Italy. It may be served as a hot porridge, or it may be allowed to cool and solidify into a loaf that can be baked, fried, or grilled ...
slice"), formerly known as ''Casa Scaccabarozzi''. This building is where ''Corso San Maurizio'' meets ''Via Giulia di Barolo'', and it is one of the most peculiar examples of Turin architecture: a thin trapezoid 27 meters wide on ''Via Giulia Di Barolo'', 5 meters on ''Corso San Maurizio'' and just 0.70 meters wide on the opposite end. It was designed in 1840 by Alessandro Antonelli for his wife, Francesca Scaccabarozzi, probably because of a bet. The curious name comes from the shape of the palace, which resembles a "slice of polenta", and also because it is painted with an ocher colour. In the surroundings, in ''Via Vanchiglia 8'', (although in downtown and not really in ''Vanchiglia'' anymore) there is another trapezoid house, albeit with less extreme design: similarly, this building is nicknamed ''"Fetta di Formaggio"'' (cheese slice), built in 1832 for the rich ''Marchese Birago di Vische'' by the architect ''Antonio Talentino''. Other notable buildings are the town public baths, eclectic building built in 1905 (''Corso Regina Margherita'' crossing ''Via Vanchiglia''), and the''Teatro della Caduta'' theatre, opened in 2003 in ''Via Michele Buniva 23'', which with its 45 seats is the smallest theatre in Turin and among the smallest theatres in Europe. In Corso Regina Margherita, another notable building is the former ''Opera pia Reynero'', a charitable organization. The building was built in 1892. Being abandoned for a long time after it closed in 1996, it was then occupied by the Askatasuna Social Center, a non-profit anarchic organization, hosting since then various activities such as concerts, dinners, seminars and homeless solidarity initiatives. North of ''Corso Regina Margherita'', district is losing the flavour and architecture typical of Turin downtown, cause a significant portion of the district was formerly occupied by factories, nowadays partially abandoned or replaced by modern buildings. A significant example was the area occupied by gas companies between Corso Regina Margherita and the Dora river, which were partially demolished to make place to the new modern Faculty of Law building (Campus "Luigi Einaudi"), designed by the architect Norman Foster. This building was classified by the American television company CNN among the 10 most spectacular university buildings in the world. In the campus courtyard, a large wood statue representing a bull (symbol of Turin) has been erected by Mario Ceroli. The area hosts also a student campus. Next to the campus, a new cycling and pedestrian bridge on the Dora river was opened on 16 April 2010, linking the campus area to ''Corso Verona''. ''Parco Colletta'' is a big park area touched by the two rivers of the district, which also hosts some sport facilities, mainly football fields and a swimming pool. The district is completed by the ''
Cimitero Monumentale The Cimitero Monumentale (" Monumental Cemetery") is one of the two largest cemeteries in Milan, Italy, the other one being the Cimitero Maggiore. It is noted for the abundance of artistic tombs and monuments. Designed by the architect Carlo M ...
'' cemetery. This huge complex (formerly known as ''Cimitero Generale'') is the largest cemetery in Turin, and among the first in Italy for the number of buried people (over 400,000). It is close to the ''Colletta'' park. The ancient part of the cemetery rises from the main entrance of Corso Novara with his octagonal shape. It contains numerous historical tombs and 12  km of arcades, enriched by artistic sculptures (that's why it is called a "monumental cemetery"). Over the years there have been subsequent extensions of the central historical body in the direction of the Colletta park. In the cemetery, there is a crematory temple built in 1882, one of the largest in Italy.


Main churches

The Santuario della Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the tenth-century Monastery of St. Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city are: the Basilica of Our Lady, Help of Christians built by St. John Bosco, the Gran Madre built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Santa Maria del Monte (1583) on Monte dei Cappuccini. In the hills overlooking the city, the Basilica of Superga provides a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga was built by Amadeus II of Savoy as an ex-voto for the liberation of Turin (1706), and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.


Villas, parks and gardens

The most popular park in the city is Parco del Valentino. In 1961, during the celebrations of ''Italia61'' (
Italian unification The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; ), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single ...
centenary), an important international exhibition (''FLOR61: Flowers of the world in Turin'') took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries. For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall. Other large parks are ''Parco della Pellerina'', ''Parco Colletta'', ''Parco Rignon'', ''Parco Colonnetti'' and the University botanical gardens. Around the city are several other parks such as La Mandria Regional Park and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those on the hills of Turin. Many parks are smaller, in the various districts: there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor Amedeo Peyron had the first garden in Italy with games for children inaugurated. According to a
Legambiente Legambiente is an Italian environmentalist association with roots in the anti-nuclear movement that developed in Italy and throughout the Western world in the second half of the '70s. Founded in 1980 as part of the ARCI, it later became a stand-a ...
report from 2007, Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned. One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is ''Parco della Tesoriera'', which is also home to ''Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library''; this facility is housed in Villa Tesoriera, built in 1715 and once the Royal Treasurer's residence. The park is in the Parella suburb (Turin's West Side) and hosts many concerts in summer. Rosa Vercellana, commonly known as ''Rosina'' and, in Piedmontese as ''La Bela Rosin'' ("the beautiful Rosin"), was the
mistress Mistress is the feminine form of the English word "master" (''master'' + ''-ess'') and may refer to: Romance and relationships * Mistress (lover), a term for a woman who is in a sexual and romantic relationship with a man who is married to a d ...
and later wife of King Victor Emmanuel II. She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon, her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori. The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888.‘Parco fluviale del Po tratto torinese: Punti di Interesse’
, Parks.it (Rome: Federazione Italiana Parchi e Riserve Natural).


Demographics

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia or ) also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (), is a macroregion of the Italian Republic consisting of its southern half. The term ''Mezzogiorno'' today refers to regions that are associated with the peop ...
and abroad. Approximately 13.5 per cent (122.946) of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania (51,017),
Morocco Morocco (),, ) officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the westernmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to ...
(22,511),
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or ), or , also or . officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the Mediterranean Sea and shares l ...
(9,165), China (5,483), and
Moldova Moldova ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The List of states ...
(3,417). Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65. The population of the Turin
urban area An urban area, built-up area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, ...
totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing Industry (economics), industries, commercial areas, Transport infrastructure, transport net ...
has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.


Economy

Turin developed as a Fordist city in the early twentieth century, which meant a shift from a service-based economy to an industry-based one. In the vein of many Fordist economies Turin's economy relies heavily upon its automotive and aerospace industries.Carter, Donald K. (2016-03-02). ''Remaking Post-Industrial Cities: Lessons from North America and Europe''. Routledge. p. 222. . Despite the general decline of the automotive industry since the
oil crisis of 1973 The 1973 oil crisis or first oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), led by Saudi Arabia, proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations that had s ...
, the city still relies heavily upon its automotive industry. Since before the second world war, the automotive industry has been the largest employer in the city, and almost all exports from Turin are manufactured goods. The city serves as the headquarters to
Fiat Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (, , ; originally FIAT, it, Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino, lit=Italian Automobiles Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer, formerly part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, and since 2021 a subsidiary ...
(''Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino''; Turin Italian Automobiles Factory), which has since been absorbed by its parent company, the Fiat Chrysler Automobiles group (now
Stellantis Stellantis N.V. is a multinational automotive manufacturing corporation formed in 2021 on the basis of a 50–50 cross-border merger between the Italian-American conglomerate Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) and the French PSA Group. The com ...
) headquartered in Amsterdam, the eighth largest automotive company in the world. Turin is still home to a sizeable Fiat factory. From the 1980s Turin diversified its economy and is shifting back towards a service economy. Tech and innovation industries are booming in Turin, which was ranked third in number of innovative startups and firms in the information-tech sector, and has some of the most patent applications to the European Patent Office of any city. In 2008 the city generated a GDP of $68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and 16th in Europe, according to
PricewaterhouseCoopers PricewaterhouseCoopers is an international professional services brand of firms, operating as partnerships under the PwC brand. It is the second-largest professional services network in the world and is considered one of the Big Four accountin ...
. Turin accounts for 8 percent of Italy's GDP. The city has been ranked in 2010 by Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a Gamma-level city. Other companies operating in Turin are Maserati,
Lancia Lancia () is an Italian car manufacturer and a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is currently a Stellantis division. The present legal entity of Lancia was formed in January 2007 when its corporate parent reorganised its businesses, but its ...
, Alfa Romeo,
Iveco IVECO, an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian multinational transport vehicle manufacturing company. It designs and builds light, medium, and heavy commercial vehicles. The name IVECO first appeared in 1975 after a merger ...
,
Pininfarina Pininfarina S.p.A. (short for Carrozzeria Pininfarina) is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder, with headquarters in Cambiano, Turin, Italy. The company was founded by Battista "Pinin" Farina in 1930. On 14 December 2015, the Indian ...
, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign Giugiaro, New Holland,
Comau Comau (''COnsorzio MAcchine Utensili'') is an Italian multinational company in the automation field based in Turin, Italy, and part of the automaker Stellantis. The company is present in 13 countries and employs 4,000 people and provides services ...
, Magneti Marelli, Graziano Oerlikon, Ghia, Fioravanti (automotive), Rai (national broadcasting company), Banca Investis, FCA Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo, Reale Mutua (finance), Invicta,
Kappa Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ; el, κάππα, ''káppa'') is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the voiceless velar plosive sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, has a val ...
, Superga (fashion), Ferrero,
Lavazza Luigi Lavazza S.p.A. (), shortened and stylized as LAVAZZA, is an Italian manufacturer of coffee products. Founded in Turin in 1895 by Luigi Lavazza, it was initially run from a small grocery store at Via San Tommaso 10. The business (Italian ...
, Martini & Rossi (food & beverage), Alpitour (hospitality and tourism), TILab (ex- CSELT), and Aurora (pen manufacturer). The city is also well known for its
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astr ...
industry
Alenia Aeronautica Alenia Aeronautica was an Italian aerospace company. Its subsidiaries included Alenia Aermacchi and Alenia Aeronavali. Alenia Aeronautica was also the part-owner of ATR, a joint venture with European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EAD ...
,
Thales Alenia Space Thales Alenia Space () is a Franco-Italian aerospace manufacturer. A joint venture between the French technology corporation Thales Group (67%) and Italian defense conglomerate Leonardo (33%), the company is the largest satellite manufact ...
and
Avio Avio S.p.A. is an Italian company operating in the aerospace sector with its head office in Colleferro near Rome, Italy. Founded in 1908, it is present in Italy and abroad with different commercial offices and 10 production sites. Avio operate ...
. The
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA ( ...
modules
Harmony In music, harmony is the process by which individual sounds are joined together or composed into whole units or compositions. Often, the term harmony refers to simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches ( tones, notes), or chords. Howeve ...
,
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo''". It most commonly refers to: * Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), the Italian explorer * Columbus, Ohio, capital of the U.S. state of Ohio Columbus may also refer to: Places ...
,
Tranquility Tranquillity (also spelled tranquility) is the quality or state of being tranquil; that is, calm, serene, and worry-free. The word tranquillity appears in numerous texts ranging from the religious writings of Buddhism, where the term ''passaddhi'' ...
, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond
Ariane 5 Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift space launch vehicle developed and operated by Arianespace for the European Space Agency (ESA). It is launched from the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) in French Guiana. It has been used to deliver payloads in ...
will also be managed from Turin by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of
EADS Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational aerospace corporation. Airbus designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures aircraft throughout the world. The company has three divisions: '' ...
(70%) and Aircraft Division of Leonardo (30%).


Culture


Visual art and museums

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and ...
, is home of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy, Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace of Turin, Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury of Turin, Royal Armoury, the Royal Library of Turin, Royal Library, Palazzo Madama, Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Castello del Valentino, Valentino Castle. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli, Piedmont, Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agliè, Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollentia, Pollenzo and Govone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997. In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and tenth in Italy in 2008, with about 240,000 tourist arrivals. The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of ancient Egypt, Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors. The Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy. Other museums include the National Museum of Cinema, the Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile, the J-Museum, the Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando, the Museo delle Marionette (puppet museum) and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna (National Museum of the Mountains). Art museums include the Sabauda Gallery, the Museo Civico d'Arte Antica, Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli, the Accademia Albertina, and the Turin Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art, Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art. After it had been little more than a town for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy made Turin the capital of his domains. The Duke had the ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital, and in the following centuries numerous artists were to work at the Savoy court, especially architects and planners like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo Castellamonte, Amedeo, Guarino Guarini and, in the 18th century, Filippo Juvarra and Benedetto Alfieri. As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century. In the 1920s, the painter Felice Casorati (painter), Felice Casorati inspired a number of students called The group of six of Turin and these included Carlo Levi, Henry Paolucci, Gigi Chessa, Francis Menzio, Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell. Artists born in Turin include the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni and the architect Carlo Mollino. Between the 1960s and the 1970s, the international centre of Turin (Arte Povera), the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto. In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer Armando Testa. Artists currently operating in the city include Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama.


Music

The city's main opera house is
Teatro Regio di Torino The Teatro Regio (Royal Theatre) is a prominent opera house and opera company in Turin, Piedmont, Italy. Its season runs from October to June with the presentation of eight or nine operas given from five to twelve performances of each. Several b ...
, where Puccini premiered his ''La Bohème'' in 1896. It was burned down in 1936 and was rebuilt after World War II. On 8 October 2021, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and RAI announced that the city would host the
Eurovision Song Contest 2022 The Eurovision Song Contest 2022 was the 66th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Turin, Italy, following the country's victory at the with the song "" by Måneskin. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and ...
, following Italy's victory at the contest in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Netherlands with the song “Zitti e buoni”, performed by Måneskin. The contest took place at the Pala Alpitour, with both semi-finals of the contest took place on 10 and 12 May, and the grand final on 14 May. It was the first time that Turin has hosted the contest and the third time that Italy has hosted the contest overall, with the last being in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus ( legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption ...
in .


Literature

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the House of Savoy, Dukes of Savoy. One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was Giambattista Marino, which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel I. Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspare Murtola, and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke. Perhaps, because of this, in 1615 Marino left Turin and moved to France. The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were Emanuele Tesauro and Alessandro Tassoni. In the next century Torino hosted the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows (author), John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olimpia Savio. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Turin was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano, Edmondo De Amicis, Emilio Salgari and Dino Segre, the latter known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli. Turin had a very important role in Italian literature after World War II. A major publishing house, Giulio Einaudi, published works by authors such as Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Vitaliano Brancati,
Primo Levi Primo Michele Levi (; 31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian chemist, partisan, writer, and Jewish Holocaust survivor. He was the author of several books, collections of short stories, essays, poems and one novel. His best-known works ...
, Natalia Ginzburg, Fernanda Pivano, Beppe Fenoglio, Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini. In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino, Nico Orengo, Giuseppe Culicchia, Margherita Oggero, Laura Mancinelli, Alessandra Montrucchio, Alessandro Perissinotto, Guido Quartz, Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco. Baricco was also among the founders of the Scuola Holden, dedicated to writing techniques teaching. In the local
Piedmontese language Piedmontese (; autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 2,000,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. Although considered by most linguists a separate language, in Italy it is often mistakenly regard ...
has a literary tradition, with names such as Nicoletto da Torino, Ignas Isler, author of epic poems, and Eduard Calv.


Religion

The city is home to the well-known Shroud of Turin: a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The shroud is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions, it is a symbol of Catholic devotion, religious devotion.


Science and Technology

Turin had an Astronomical observatory where was active Giovanni Plana. The scientist Amedeo Avogadro worked as a professor in Turin. The professor of Turin University Galileo Ferraris discovered the principle under electric motor during the 19 century. In modern times, Turin hosted the CSELT telco laboratory.


Media

After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp and Montreal, Turin was chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The Turin International Book Fair, International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, ''La Stampa'', and the sports daily newspaper ''Tuttosport''. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of ''La Repubblica'', ''il Giornale'', ''Leggo'', ''City (newspaper), City'', ''Metro (Italy), Metro'' and ''E Polis Torino, E Polis''. RAI has had a production centre in Turin since 1954.


Sports

The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant Association football, football teams: Juventus F.C. (founded in 1897) and Torino F.C. (founded in 1906). Juventus has the larger fan base, especially all over Italy and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a greater support in the city itself. The two clubs contest the oldest local derby, derby in Italy, the '' Derby della Mole'' or the Turin derby. Juventus is Football in Italy, Italy's Football records in Italy#Overall, most successful football club and one of the most winning in the world. It ranks joint twelfth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (sixth between European clubs).Sixth most successful European club for confederation and FIFA competitions won with 11 titles. Sixth most successful club in Europe for List of UEFA club competition winners, confederation club competition titles won (11), cf. and was Timeline of football (soccer)#1980s, the first in association football history — remaining the only one in the world (, after the first 2022 UEFA Europa Conference League Final, UEFA Europa Conference League Final) — to have won all possible official European football, continental competitions and the List of world champion football clubs, world title.In addition, Juventus F.C. were the first club in association football history to have won all possible confederation competitions (e.g. the international tournaments List of UEFA club competition winners, organised by UEFA) and remain the only in the world to achieve this, cf.
Juventus' owned ground, the
Juventus Stadium Juventus Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as the Allianz Stadium since July 2017, sometimes simply known in Italy as the Stadium ( it, Lo Stadium), is an all-seater football stadium in the Vallette borough of Turin, Italy, and the home ...
, was inaugurated in 2011. The
Juventus Stadium Juventus Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as the Allianz Stadium since July 2017, sometimes simply known in Italy as the Stadium ( it, Lo Stadium), is an all-seater football stadium in the Vallette borough of Turin, Italy, and the home ...
hosted the 2014 UEFA Europa League Final. This was the first time the city hosted a seasonal UEFA club competition's single-match final. Torino F.C. was founded by the union of one of the oldest football teams in Turin, Football Club Torinese (founded in 1894), with breakaways from Juventus and was the most successful team, called "Grande Torino", in the Serie A during the 1940s. In 1949, in the Superga air disaster, a plane carrying almost the whole team crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills. Torino currently plays its home games at the Stadio Olimpico di Torino, Stadio Olimpico "Grande Torino", named after the team of the 1940s, which was the host stadiums for the 1934 FIFA World Cup and the venue of the 2006 Winter Olympics, XX Winter Olympics; moreover the team recently rebuilt the historic Stadio Filadelfia, used for games of the youth teams and trainings of the first squad, and seat of the team museum. The city hosted the final stages of the EuroBasket 1979. The most important basketball club team is the Auxilium Pallacanestro Torino, Auxilium Torino, refounded in 2009, playing in the Italian Lega Basket Serie A, LBA. In 2018 Auxilium Torino went to win its first Italian Basketball Cup ever. Turin hosted the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and also known as Torino 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Italy. This marked the second ...
in February 2006. Turin is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics, and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time.The 2002 Salt Lake City games also claims this title because at the time of the Olympics its Combined Statistical Area population was 1,516,227 and some events were held in the Provo metropolitan area of 400,209
tables from the Census
). . Retrieved 6 March 2009

16 May 2009.
The city was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport 2015. The candidature sees the city strongly committed to increasing sports activities. The city hosts the ATP Finals tennis event, from 2021 to 2025.


Cinema

Turin is the Italian city where film History of chromatography, chromatography was first established. As such, it forms the birthplace of Italian cinema. Because of its historic, geographical and cultural proximity to France, Italian filmmakers were naturally influenced by Cinema of France, French cinema and the Auguste and Louis Lumière, Lumière brothers. The first Italian cinema screening occurred in Turin in March 1896. In November 1896, Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee-paying audience. By the start of the 20th century (especially after 1907), a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone ''Cabiria'', in 1914, one of the first blockbuster (entertainment), blockbusters in history. The Turin-based company Ambrosio Film, established in 1906 by Arturo Ambrosio, was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination. The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in 1924. During the 1920s and 30s, Turin hosted a number of film productions and major film studios (''film houses''), such as the Itala film, Aquila (studio), Aquila and Fert Studios. Today their heritage is in the modern Lumiq Studios and Virtual Reality Multi Media Spa. Turin's prominence in Italian film continued until 1937, the year Cinecittà was inaugurated in Rome. After World War II, the cinematic scene in Turin continued to thrive. 1956 saw the opening of the National Museum of Cinema, first housed in the Palazzo Chiablese and then, from 2000, in the imposing headquarters of the
Mole Antonelliana The Mole Antonelliana () is a major landmark building in Turin, Italy, named after its architect, Alessandro Antonelli. A ''mole'' in Italian is a building of monumental proportions. Construction began in 1863, soon after Italian unification, ...
. In 1982 the film critic Gianni Rondolino created Festival Internazionale Cinema Giovani, which later became the Torino Film Festival. Today Turin is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials. Turin streets were the locations where Audrey Hepburn played ''War and Peace (1956 film), War and Peace'', Michael Caine drove a Mini Cooper in ''The Italian Job'', Claudio Bisio becomes the president of the Italian Republic, Carlo Verdone set his version of ''Cinderella (2013 film), Cinderella'', Marco Tullio Giordana shot ''Piazza Fontana: The Italian Conspiracy'', Woody Allen shot ''Hannah and Her Sisters'', Cate Blanchett played ''Heaven (2002 film), Heaven'', Giovanna Mezzogiorno ''Vincere'', Marcello Mastroianni and Jacqueline Bisset ''The Sunday Woman (film), The Sunday Woman'', and Harvey Keitel ''The Stone Merchant''. Turin also became the capital of the tsar for ''The Demons of St. Petersberg''.


Cuisine

Turin is well known for its chocolate production, especially for its traditional, ingot-shaped chocolate called ''gianduiotto'', named after Gianduja (commedia dell'arte), Gianduja, a local commedia dell'arte mask. Moreover, the city is also known for the so-called ''bicerin'', a traditional hot drink made of espresso, drinking chocolate and whole milk served layered in a small rounded glass. Every year Turin organizes ''CioccolaTÒ'', a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Pierre Paul Caffarel, Caffarel, Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt & Sprüngli. As for snack food, the now popular Tramezzino, tramezzini were first served in a historic café of downtown Turin, namely ''Caffè Mulassano'', where they were devised in 1925 as an alternative to Cuisine of England, English tea sandwiches. In recent years, another trademark drink of the city is ''MoleCola'', an Italian Coca-Cola that entered production in 2012 and quickly spread both in Italy and outside its native country. Local cuisine also features a particular type of pizza, so-called ''Pizza#Italy, pizza al padellino'' or ''Pizza#Italy, pizza al tegamino'', which is basically a small-sized, thick-crust and deep-dish pizza typically served in several Turin pizza places. Since the mid-1980s, Piedmont has also benefited from the start of the Slow Food movement and Terra Madre, events that have highlighted the rich agricultural and vinicultural value of the Po Valley and
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. It consists of eight administrative regions ...
.


Education

Turin is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the University of Turin, including its affiliated Collegio Carlo Alberto, which ranks among the best universities in the country. Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin, ranking among Top 50 universities in the world and #1 in Italy in the fields of engineering, technology and computer science ("Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University). Turin also hosts the United Nations System Staff College, the European Training Foundation, and a campus of the ESCP Europe, ESCP business school, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe. Moreover, the city hosts three small English language post-secondary institutions: St. John International University, International University College of Turin, and the Turin School of Development.


Transport

The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and also known as Torino 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Italy. This marked the second ...
, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city. One is the ''Spina Centrale'' ("Central Spine") project which includes the doubling of a major railway crossing the city, the Turin-Milan railway locally known as ''Passante Ferroviario di Torino'' ("Turin Railway Bypass"). The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city. Torino Porta Susa railway station, Porta Susa, on this section, will become Turin's main station to substitute the terminus of Torino Porta Nuova railway station, Porta Nuova with a through station. Other important stations are Torino Stura railway station, Stura, Torino Rebaudengo Fossata railway station, Rebaudengo, Torino Lingotto railway station, Lingotto and Madonna di Campagna railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale. The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the Véhicule Automatique Léger, VAL system, known as Turin Metro, Metrotorino. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the 2006 Winter Olympics, 2006 Olympic Games, inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after. The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa in Turin's city centre. On 4 October 2007, the line was extended to Porta Nuova and then, in March 2011, to Lingotto. A new extension of the so-called ''Linea 1'' ("Line 1") is expected in the near future, reaching both Rivoli, Piedmont, Rivoli (up to Cascine Vica hamlet) in the Western belt of Turin and ''Piazza Bengasi'' in the Southeast side of the city. Furthermore, a ''Linea 2'' is in the pipeline that will connect the south-western district of Mirafiori with Barriera di Milano in the north end. In June 2018, the project entered the public consultation phase with the proposed list of 23 stations published on the city's website. The main street in the city centre, ''Via Roma'', runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when ''Via Roma'' itself was totally refurbished and took on its present-day aspect). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the 1970s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its metropolitan city ...
and Rome. Whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin's local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary. The city has an international airport known as Turin Caselle Airport, Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini (airport code: TRN), in Caselle Torinese, about from Turin's centre – connected to the city by rail (from Dora Station) and bus (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations). a bicycle sharing system, the ToBike, is operational. The metropolitan area is served by Turin metropolitan railway service. Central districts are served by Trams in Turin, tram, lines 3,4,9 are light-rail.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Turin (for example, to and from work) on a weekday is 65 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 19% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 9% travel more than in a single direction.


Notable people


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Turin is Sister city, twinned with: * Chambéry, France * Cologne, Germany * Córdoba, Argentina, Córdoba, Argentina *
Detroit Detroit ( , ; , ) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is also the largest U.S. city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of government of Wayne County. The City of Detroit had a population of 639,111 at ...
, United States * Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg * Gaza City, Palestine * Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom * Liège, Belgium * Lille, France * Nagoya, Japan * Quetzaltenango, Guatemala * Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosario, Argentina * Rotterdam, Netherlands * Salt Lake City, United States * Shenyang, China The sixth district of Turin is twinned with: * Bagneux, Hauts-de-Seine, Bagneux, France


Cooperation agreements

Turin also cooperates with: * Bacău, Romania * Barcelona, Spain * Bethlehem, Palestine * Campo Grande, Brazil * Cannes, France * Fortaleza, Brazil * Haifa, Israel * Harbin, China * Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam * Kharkhorin, Mongolia * Lyon, France * Marseille, France * Nantes, France * Nice, France * Praia, Cape Verde (municipality), Praia, Cape Verde * Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosario, Argentina * Saint Petersburg, Russia * Salvador, Bahia, Salvador, Brazil * Skopje, North Macedonia * Shenzhen, China * Yangon, Myanmar * Yekaterinburg, Russia * Zlín, Czech Republic


See also

* Outline of Turin * 512 Taurinensis


References


Bibliography


External links


''City of Turin'' Official websitetourist informations

Weather Turin

How to reach Turin?


* * {{Authority control Turin, Cities and towns in Piedmont Municipalities of the Metropolitan City of Turin Metropolitan City of Turin Former national capitals Capitals of former nations Former capitals of Italy Coloniae (Roman) Roman towns and cities in Italy