HOME

TheInfoList




) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital =
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
, coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = Tajik (state)
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
(interethnic) , languages_type =
Spoken language A spoken language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self an ...
s , languages = , languages2_type = , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2010 , religion = , demonym = Tajikistani
Tajik , government_type =
Unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
under a
dominant-party A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system is a political system in which opposition groups or parties are permitted, but a single party dominates election results. Any ruling party staying in power for more than one consecutive t ...
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...
, leader_title1 =
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, leader_name1 =
Emomali Rahmon Emomali Rahmon ( tg, Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, script=Latn, italic=no, Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon; ; born Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov on 5 October 1952) is the 3rd President of Tajikistan The president of Tajikistan is the head of sta ...
, leader_title2 =
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, leader_name2 =
Kokhir Rasulzoda Qohir Rasulzoda ( tg, Қоҳир Расулзода, ''Qohir Rasulzoda''; born Abduqohir Abdurasulovich Nazirov ( tg, Абдуқохир Абдурасулович Назиров; born 8 March 1959) is a Tajik politician who is serving as the Pri ...

Kokhir Rasulzoda
, leader_title3 = Chairman of the Majlisi Milli , leader_name3 =
Rustam Emomali Rustam Emomalievich Rahmonov ( tg, Рустам Эмомалӣ, script=Latn, italic=no, Rustam Emomalî/Rustam Emomalī; born 19 December 1987) is the current Chairman of the National Assembly of Tajikistan, Mayor of Dushanbe and the eldest so ...

Rustam Emomali
, legislature = Supreme Assembly , upper_house =
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
, lower_house = Assembly of Representatives , sovereignty_type =
Formation Formation may refer to: Linguistics * Back-formation, the process of creating a new lexeme by removing or affixes * Word formation, the creation of a new word by adding affixes Mathematics and science * Cave formation or speleothem, a secondary m ...
, established_event1 =
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
, established_date1 = 819 , established_event2 = Soviet autonomy , established_date2 = 27 October 1924 , established_event3 = , established_date3 = 5 December 1929 , established_event4 =
Independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...
from the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...
, established_date4 = 9 September 1991 , established_event5 = CIS membership , established_date5 = 21 December 1991 , established_event6 = Recognized , established_date6 = 26 December 1991 , established_event7 = Admitted to the
UN
UN
, established_date7 = 2 March 1992 , established_event8 = Current constitution , established_date8 = 6 November 1994 , area_footnote = , area_km2 = 143,100 , area_rank = 94th , area_sq_mi = 55,251 , percent_water = 1.8 , population_estimate = 9,537,645 , population_estimate_rank = 96th , population_estimate_year = 2020 , population_density_km2 = 48.6 , population_density_sq_mi = 125.8 , population_density_rank = 155th , GDP_PPP = $30.547 billion , GDP_PPP_year = 2018 , GDP_PPP_rank = 132nd , GDP_PPP_per_capita = $3,354 , GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 155th , GDP_nominal = $7.350 billion , GDP_nominal_year = 2018 , GDP_nominal_rank = 147th , GDP_nominal_per_capita = $807 , GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 164th , Gini = 34 , Gini_year = 2015 , Gini_change = , Gini_ref = , Gini_rank = , HDI = 0.668 , HDI_year = 2019 , HDI_change = increase , HDI_ref = , HDI_rank = 125th , currency = Somoni , currency_code = TJS , time_zone = TJT , utc_offset = +5 , utc_offset_DST = , time_zone_DST = , date_format = dd.mm.yyyy , drives_on = right , calling_code = +992 , cctld = .tj , country_code = , footnote_a = Russian has the status of an official language through its use as the official interethnic language as cited in the Constitution of Tajikistan. , today = Tajikistan (, ; tg, Тоҷикистон, russian: Таджикистан,
romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
: ), officially the Republic of Tajikistan ( tg, Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон,
romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
: ), is a
landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There are currently 44 landlocked countries and 5 list of states with limited recognition, partial ...
country in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
. It has an area of and an estimated population of 9,537,645 people. Its
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city is
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
. It is bordered by
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
to the
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
to the
west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
to the
north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
to the . The traditional homelands of the
Tajik people Tajiks ( fa, تاجيک, ''Tājīk''; tg, Тоҷик) are a Persian language, Persian-speaking Iranian people, Iranian ethnic group native to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Tajiks are the largest ethnicity in Tajikistan, and the secon ...

Tajik people
include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of
Sarazm Sarazm is an ancient town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origi ...

Sarazm
of the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
and the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus Valley Civilisation,
Andronovo Culture The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilizat ...

Andronovo Culture
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
,
Nestorian Christianity The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Ea ...
,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
,
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
,
Manichaeism Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to ...
and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
,
Sasanian Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, ''Ērānshahr The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its ...

Sasanian Empire
,
Hephthalite Empire The Hephthalites ( xbc, ηβοδαλο, translit= Ebodalo), sometimes called the White Huns (also known as the White Hunas, in Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Isla ...
,
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
and the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
. After being ruled by the
Timurid dynasty The Timurid dynasty ( fa, ), self-designated as Gurkani ( fa, , translit=Gūrkāniyān, chg, , translit=Küregen), was a Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes refer ...
and the
Khanate of Bukhara The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) ( fa, , Khānāt-e Bokhārā; uz, Buxoro Xonligi) was an Uzbek state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which st ...
, the
Timurid Renaissance The Timurid Renaissance was a historical period in Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cui ...
flourished. The region was later conquered by the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and subsequently by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...
as an
autonomous republic An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...
before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929. On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation as the Soviet Union disintegrated. A
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. The country has been led by
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Emomali Rahmon Emomali Rahmon ( tg, Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, script=Latn, italic=no, Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon; ; born Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov on 5 October 1952) is the 3rd President of Tajikistan The president of Tajikistan is the head of sta ...
since 1994 who rules an authoritarian regime, as there is extensive corruption and widespread
violations of human rights Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for c ...
, including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, worsening political repression, and a lack of
religious freedom Freedom of religion or religious liberty is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It also includes the freedom ...
and other civil liberties. Tajikistan is a
presidential republic A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, ...
consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the ethnic group, who speak the
Tajik language Tajik (Tajik: , , ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: , , ), Tajiki, and Tadzhiki, is the variety of Persian language, Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks, Tajik people. It is closely related to neighbouring Dari with which it ...
— the first official language — making it one of the three
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
speaking countries alongside Afghanistan and
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
.
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
is used as the official inter-ethnic language. While the state is constitutionally secular,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
is practiced by 98% of the population. In the
Gorno-Badakhshan , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Regions of Tajikistan, Region , image_skyline = Lac Karakul (754379539).jpg , image_alt = , image_caption = Lake Zorkul , flag_alt = , ...
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs ...
, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It is a
developing country A developing country is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perman ...
with a
transition economy A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods takes place accor ...
that is highly dependent on
remittances A remittance is a non-commercial Wire transfer, transfer of money by a Migrant worker, foreign worker, a member of a diaspora community, or a Citizenship, citizen with familial ties abroad, for household income in their home country or homeland. ...
,
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
and
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

cotton
production. Tajikistan is a member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
,
CIS Cis or cis- may refer to: Places * Cis, Trentino, in Italy * In Poland: ** Cis, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central ** Cis, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, north Math, science and biology * cis (mathematics) is a mathematical not ...

CIS
,
OSCE The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily o ...
,
OIC The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
, , SCO and CSTO as well as a
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
PfP partner.


Etymology

Tajikistan appeared as ''Tadjikistan'' or ''Tadzhikistan'' in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter "j" to represent the phoneme , and therefore , or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. "Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: . Even though the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan found it difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."A Country Study: Tajikistan, Ethnic Background
Library of Congress Call Number DK851. K34 (1997)
most scholars concluded that contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of ancient Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular, the
Sogdia Sogdia () ( sog, soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian civilization between between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Sogdiana was also a province of the Ac ...
ns and the
Bactria Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...
ns, and possibly other groups, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians and non-Iranian peoples. According to
Richard Nelson Frye Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian people, Iranian and Central Asia, Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University. His professional a ...
, a leading historian of Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, and ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks. In later works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose remnants are the Tajiks in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of Central Asia, whether
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subreg ...
or
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them." Regarding Tajiks, the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'' states:


History


Early history

Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th millennium BC, including the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilization,: "The Oxus Civilization, also named the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or Culture) (BMAC), developed in southern Central Asia during the ...
, the
Andronovo The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilizat ...

Andronovo
cultures and the , a UNESCO
World Heritage site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. The earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500 BC when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan, was part of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
. Some authors have also suggested that in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of the ancient
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
-practicing
Kambojas The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit and Pali literature. The tribe coalesced to become one of the ''shodhasha'' (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) of ancient India mentione ...
tribe before it became part of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
. After the region's conquest by
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
it became part of the
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom The Bactrian Kingdom, known to historians as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, was a Hellenistic-era Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic ...
, a successor state of Alexander's empire. Northern Tajikistan (the cities of
Khujand Khujand ( tg, Хуҷанд, Khujand; russian: Худжанд, Khudzhand; fa, خجند‌, Khojand), sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad (russian: Ленинабад, Leninabad; tg, Ленинобод, Leninobod; fa, لنین‌آ ...

Khujand
and
Panjakent tg, Панҷакент , image_skyline = Pajakent Bazaar1.jpg , imagesize = , image_caption = Panjakent Bazaar , image_flag = , image_seal = , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Tajikistan#West Asia , pushpin_relief = yes , pushpin_ ...
) was part of
Sogdia Sogdia () ( sog, soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian civilization between between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Sogdiana was also a province of the Ac ...
, a collection of city-states which was overrun by
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
and
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
nomadic tribes around 150 BC. The
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer
Zhang Qian Zhang Qian (; died c. 114) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the late 2nd century BC during the Han dynasty. He was one of the first official diplomats to bring back valuable inf ...

Zhang Qian
during the reign of (141BC–87 BC) commercial relations between
Han China The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), ...

Han China
and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade and also worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers, glassmakers, and woodcarvers. The
Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, kus, khasano, ; Brahmi script, Late Brahmi Sanskrit: , ', '; Devanagari sa, कुषाण राजवंश, ; Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, BHS: ; xpr, 𐭊 ...

Kushan Empire
, a collection of
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
tribes, took control of the region in the first century AD and ruled until the 4th century AD during which time
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
,
Nestorian Christianity The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Ea ...
,
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
, and
Manichaeism Manichaeism (; in New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to ...
were all practised in the region.Tajikistan
. loc.gov.
Later the
Hephthalite Empire The Hephthalites ( xbc, ηβοδαλο, translit= Ebodalo), sometimes called the White Huns (also known as the White Hunas, in Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Isla ...
, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the region and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
s brought
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
in the early eighth century. Central Asia continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, and the Islamic heartland. It was temporarily under the control of the
Tibetan empire The Tibetan Empire (, ; ) was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songsten Gampo in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th ...

Tibetan empire
and Chinese from 650 to 680 and then under the control of the Umayyads in 710.


Samanid Empire

The
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
, 819 to 999, restored
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...

Persian
control of the region and enlarged the cities of
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The Reg ...

Samarkand
and
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
(both cities are today part of
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
) which became the cultural centers of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and the region was known as Khorasan. The empire was centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana; at its greatest extent encompassing modern-day Afghanistan, large parts of Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, parts of Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. Four brothers Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas founded the Samanid state. Each of them ruled territory under Abbasid suzerainty. In 892, Ismail Samani (892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids. It was also under him that the Samanids became independent of Abbasid authority. The
Kara-Khanid Khanate The Kara-Khanid Khanate (), also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids (), was a Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to C ...

Kara-Khanid Khanate
conquered
Transoxania Transoxiana or Transoxania is an ancient name referring to a region and civilization located in lower Central Asia roughly corresponding to modern-day eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kazakhstan and southern Kyrgyzstan. Geographically, i ...
(which corresponds approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan) and ruled between 999 and 1211. Their arrival in Transoxania signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia, but gradually the Kara-khanids became assimilated into the Perso-Arab Muslim culture of the region.


Bukharan Rule

Modern Tajikistan fell under the rule of the
Khanate of Bukhara The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) ( fa, , Khānāt-e Bokhārā; uz, Buxoro Xonligi) was an Uzbek state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which st ...
during the 16th century and with the empire's collapse in the 18th century it came under the rule of both the
Emirate of Bukhara The Emirate of Bukhara ( uz, Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikas ...
and
Khanate of Kokand The Khanate of Kokand ( fa, ; ''Khānneshin-e Khoqand'', chg, ''Khoqand Khānligi'') was a Central Asia, Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyrg ...
. The
Emirate of Bukhara The Emirate of Bukhara ( uz, Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikas ...
remained intact until the 20th century but during the 19th century, for the second time in world history, a European power (the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
) began to conquer parts of the region.


Tajikistan under Imperial Russia

Russian
Imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

Imperialism
led to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
's conquest of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
during the late 19th century's Imperial Era. Between 1864 and 1885, Russia gradually took control of the entire territory of
Russian Turkestan Russian Turkestan (russian: Русский Туркестан, Russkiy Turkestan) was the western part of Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central As ...
, the Tajikistan portion of which had been controlled by the
Emirate of Bukhara The Emirate of Bukhara ( uz, Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikas ...
and
Khanate of Kokand The Khanate of Kokand ( fa, ; ''Khānneshin-e Khoqand'', chg, ''Khoqand Khānligi'') was a Central Asia, Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyrg ...
. Russia was interested in gaining access to a supply of
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

cotton
and in the 1870s attempted to switch cultivation in the region from grain to cotton (a strategy later copied and expanded by the Soviets). By 1885 Tajikistan's territory was either ruled by the Russian Empire or its
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
, the Emirate of Bukhara, nevertheless Tajiks felt little Russian influence. During the late 19th century the
Jadid The Jadids were modernist reformers within the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia foll ...
ists established themselves as an Islamic social movement throughout the region. Although the Jadidists were pro-modernization and not necessarily anti-Russian, the Russians viewed the movement as a threat because the Russian Empire was predominately Christian. Russian troops were required to restore order during uprisings against the Khanate of Kokand between 1910 and 1913. Further violence occurred in July 1916 when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers in
Khujand Khujand ( tg, Хуҷанд, Khujand; russian: Худжанд, Khudzhand; fa, خجند‌, Khojand), sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad (russian: Ленинабад, Leninabad; tg, Ленинобод, Leninobod; fa, لنین‌آ ...

Khujand
over the threat of forced
conscription Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service Mili ...

conscription
during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Despite Russian troops quickly bringing Khujand back under control, clashes continued throughout the year in various locations in Tajikistan.


Tajikistan under the Soviet Union

After the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
of 1917 guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as '' basmachi'', waged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularisation. Practising
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, Judaism, and Christianity was discouraged and repressed, and many mosques, church (building), churches, and synagogues were closed. As a consequence of the conflict and Soviet agriculture policies,
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
, Tajikistan included, suffered a famine that claimed many lives. In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a part of
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic; however, the predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The Reg ...

Samarkand
and
Bukhara Bukhara (; Uzbek language, Uzbek: /; Tajik language, Tajik: Бухоро, ) is the List of cities in Uzbekistan, fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 , and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region ...

Bukhara
remained in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbek SSR. Between 1927 and 1934, collectivisation of agriculture and a rapid expansion of cotton production took place, especially in the southern region. Soviet collectivisation policy brought violence against peasants and forced resettlement occurred throughout Tajikistan. Consequently, some peasants fought collectivization and revived the Basmachi movement. Some small scale industrial development also occurred during this time along with the expansion of irrigation infrastructure. Two rounds of Stalin's purges (1927–1934 and Great Purge, 1937–1938) resulted in the expulsion of nearly 10,000 people, from all levels of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. Ethnic Russians were sent in to replace those expelled and subsequently Russians dominated party positions at all levels, including the top position of first secretary. Between 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians among Tajikistan's population grew from less than 1% to 13%. Bobojon Ghafurov, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan from 1946 to 1956, was the only Tajik politician of significance outside of the country during the Soviet Era. He was followed in office by Tursun Uljabayev (1956–61), Jabbor Rasulov (1961–1982), and Rahmon Nabiyev (1982–1985, 1991–1992). Tajiks began to be conscripted into the Soviet Army in 1939 and during World War II around 260,000 Tajik citizens fought against Germany, Finland and Japan. Between 60,000 (4%) and 120,000 (8%) of Tajikistan's 1,530,000 citizens were killed during World War II. Following the war and Stalin's reign, attempts were made to further expand the agriculture and industry of Tajikistan. During 1957–58 Nikita Khrushchev's Virgin Lands Campaign focused attention on Tajikistan, where living conditions, education and industry lagged behind the other Republics of the Soviet Union, Soviet Republics. In the 1980s, Tajikistan had the lowest household saving rate in the USSR, the lowest percentage of households in the two top per capita income groups, and the lowest rate of university graduates per 1000 people. By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The following year, the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence on 9 September 1991, a day which is now celebrated as the country's Independence Day (Tajikistan), Independence Day.


Gaining independence

In Soviet times, supporters of Tajikistan independence were harshly persecuted by the KGB, and most were either shot dead or jailed for many years. After the beginning of the ''Perestroika'' era, declared by Mikhail Gorbachev throughout the USSR, supporters of the independence of the republics began to speak openly and freely. In Tajikistan SSR, the independence movement has been active since 1987. Supporters of independence were the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, the Democratic Party (Tajikistan), Democratic Party of Tajikistan and the national democratic Rastokhez, ''Rastokhez'' (Revival) Movement. On the eve of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, collapse of the USSR, the population of Tajikistan SSR was divided into two camps. The first wanted independence for Tajikistan, the restoration of Tajik culture and language, the restoration of political and cultural relations with
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
and other countries, and the second part of the population opposed independence, considering it the best option to remain part of the USSR. During the 1991 Soviet Union referendum, 1991 Soviet Union Referendum (the first internationally observed referendum in the country's history) on continuing the Soviet system and the Soviet Union itself, nearly 97% of voters in Tajikistan approved of Question 1: "Do you consider it necessary to preserve the USSR as a renewed federation of equal sovereign republics, which will be fully ensured of human rights and freedoms of any nationality?", though by Dissolution of the Soviet Union, dissolution in December of the same year, a significant proportion of Tajikistan's population supported what was by then the fait accompli of independence for the union-level republics of the Soviet Union. In February 1990, 1990 Dushanbe riots, riots and strikes in
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
and other cities of began due to the difficult socio-economic situation, lack of housing, and youth unemployment. The nationalist and democratic opposition and supporters of independence joined the strikes and began to demand the independence of the republic and democratic reforms. Islamism, Islamists also began to hold strikes to demand respect for their rights and independence of the republic. The Soviet leadership introduced Internal Troops in Dushanbe to eliminate the unrest.


Independence

Almost immediately following independence, the nation fell into Tajikistani Civil War, civil war among various factions; often distinguished by clan loyalties. More than 500,000 residents fled during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics.
Emomali Rahmon Emomali Rahmon ( tg, Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, script=Latn, italic=no, Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon; ; born Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov on 5 October 1952) is the 3rd President of Tajikistan The president of Tajikistan is the head of sta ...
came to power in 1992, defeating former prime minister Abdumalik Abdullajanov in a November presidential election with 58% of the vote. The elections took place shortly after the end of the war, and Tajikistan was in a state of complete devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country. In 1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmon and opposition parties under the guidance of Gerd D. Merrem, Special Representative to the Secretary General, a result widely praised as a successful United Nations peacekeeping initiative. The ceasefire guaranteed 30% of ministerial positions would go to the United Tajik Opposition, opposition. Tajikistani presidential election, 1999, Elections were held in 1999, though they were criticised by opposition parties and foreign observers as unfair and Rahmon was re-elected with 98% of the vote. Tajik presidential election, 2006, Elections in 2006 were again won by Rahmon (with 79% of the vote) and he began his third term in office. Several opposition parties boycotted the 2006 election and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) criticised it, although observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States claimed the elections were legal and transparent. Rahmon's administration came under further criticism from the OSCE in October 2010 for its censorship and repression of the media. The OSCE claimed that the Tajik Government censored Tajik and foreign websites and instituted tax inspections on independent printing houses that led to the cessation of printing activities for a number of independent newspapers. Russian border troops were stationed along the Tajik–Afghan border until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, France, French troops have been stationed at Dushanbe Airport in support of air operations of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
's International Security Assistance Force in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. United States Army and United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps personnel periodically visit Tajikistan to conduct joint training missions of up to several weeks duration. The Government of India rebuilt the Ayni Air Base, a military airport located 15 km southwest of Dushanbe, at a cost of $70 million, completing the repairs in September 2010. It is now the main base of the Tajikistan air force. There have been talks with Russia concerning use of the Ayni facility, and Russia continues to maintain a large base on the outskirts of Dushanbe. In 2010, there were concerns among Tajik officials that Islamic militarism in the east of the country was on the rise following the escape of 25 militants from a Tajik prison in August, an ambush that killed 28 Tajik soldiers in the Rasht Valley in September, and another ambush in the valley in October that killed 30 soldiers, followed by fighting outside Gharm that left 3 militants dead. To date the country's Interior Ministry asserts that the central government maintains full control over the country's east, and the military operation in the Rasht Valley was concluded in November 2010. However, 2012 Gorno-Badakhshan clashes, fighting erupted again in July 2012. In 2015, Russia sent more troops to Tajikistan. In May 2015, Tajikistan's national security suffered a serious setback when Colonel Gulmurod Khalimov, commander of the special-purpose police unit (OMON) of the Interior Ministry, defected to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State. In 2021, following the Fall of Kabul (2021), Fall of Kabul, Tajikistan allegedly got involved in the Panjshir conflict against the Taliban on the side of the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.


Politics

Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan was plunged into a civil war that saw various factions fighting one another. These factions were supported by foreign countries including
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, Pakistan,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
and Russia. Russia and Iran focused on keeping peace in the warring nation to decrease the chances of United States, U.S. or Turkey, Turkish involvement. Most notably, Russia backed the pro-government faction and deployed troops from the Commonwealth of Independent States to guard the Tajikistan-Afghan border. All but 25,000 of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly employed in industry, fled to Russia. By 1997, the war had ended after a Tajikistani Civil War, peace agreement between the government and the Islamist-led opposition, a central government began to take form, with peaceful elections in 1999. "Longtime observers of Tajikistan often characterize the country as profoundly averse to risk and skeptical of promises of reform, a political passivity they trace to the country's ruinous civil war," Ilan Greenberg wrote in a news article in ''The New York Times'' just before the country's November 2006 presidential election.Greenberg, Ilan, "Media Muzzled and Opponents Jailed, Tajikistan Readies for Vote", ''The New York Times'', 4 November 2006 (article dateline 3 November 2006), page A7, New York edition Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds Elections in Tajikistan, elections for the List of Presidents of Tajikistan, presidency and parliament, operating under a presidential system. It is, however, a dominant-party system, where the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan routinely has a vast majority in Parliament.
Emomali Rahmon Emomali Rahmon ( tg, Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, script=Latn, italic=no, Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon; ; born Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov on 5 October 1952) is the 3rd President of Tajikistan The president of Tajikistan is the head of sta ...
has held the office of President of Tajikistan continuously since November 1994. The Prime Minister is
Kokhir Rasulzoda Qohir Rasulzoda ( tg, Қоҳир Расулзода, ''Qohir Rasulzoda''; born Abduqohir Abdurasulovich Nazirov ( tg, Абдуқохир Абдурасулович Назиров; born 8 March 1959) is a Tajik politician who is serving as the Pri ...

Kokhir Rasulzoda
, the First Deputy Prime Minister is Matlubkhon Davlatov and the two Deputy Prime Ministers are Murodali Alimardon and Ruqiya Qurbanova. The parliamentary elections of 2005 aroused many accusations from opposition parties and international observers that President
Emomali Rahmon Emomali Rahmon ( tg, Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, script=Latn, italic=no, Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon; ; born Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov on 5 October 1952) is the 3rd President of Tajikistan The president of Tajikistan is the head of sta ...
corruptly manipulates the election process and unemployment. The most recent elections, in February 2010, saw the ruling PDPT lose four seats in Parliament, yet still maintain a comfortable majority. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe election observers said the 2010 polling "failed to meet many key OSCE commitments" and that "these elections failed on many basic democratic standards." The government insisted that only minor violations had occurred, which would not affect the will of the Tajik people. The Tajik government has reportedly clamped down on facial hair as part of a crackdown on Islamic influence and due to its perceived associations with Islamic extremism, which is prevalent in bordering
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. The presidential election held on 6 November 2006 was boycotted by "mainline" opposition parties, including the 23,000-member Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, Islamic Renaissance Party. Four remaining opponents "all but endorsed the incumbent", Rahmon. Freedom of the press is ostensibly officially guaranteed by the government, but independent press outlets remain restricted, as does a substantial amount of web content. According to the Institute for War & Peace Reporting, access is blocked to local and foreign websites including avesta.tj, Tjknews.com, ferghana.ru, centrasia.org and journalists are often obstructed from reporting on controversial events. In practice, no public criticism of the regime is tolerated and all direct protest is severely suppressed and does not receive coverage in the local media. In the Economist's democracy index report of 2020, Tajikistan is placed 160th, just after Saudi Arabia, as an "authoritarian regime". In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Tajikistan, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's Xinjiang re-education camps, treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. In October 2020, Tajikistan's authoritarian President Emomali Rahmon was 2020 Tajik presidential election, re-elected for next seven-year period with 90 per cent of the votes, following a tightly controlled and largely ceremonial election. In late April 2021, a Water conflict, conflict over water escalated into one of the most serious 2021 Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan conflict, border clashes between Tajikistan and
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
since independence. In July 2021, Tajikistan appealed to members of a Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) of ex-Soviet states for help in dealing with security challenges emerging from neighboring
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. The safety concerns emerged as foreign troops such as the US and British army exited the country, causing over 1,000 Afghan civilians and servicemen to flee to neighboring Tajikistan after Taliban insurgents 2021 Taliban offensive, took control of many parts of Afghanistan.


Geography

Tajikistan is landlocked country, landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It lies mostly between latitudes 36th parallel north, 36° and 41st parallel north, 41° N, and longitudes 67th meridian east, 67° and 75th meridian east, 75° E. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir Mountains, Pamir range, and most of the country is over above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north (part of the Fergana Valley), and in the southern Kofarnihon River, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh River, Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya.
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon valley. The Amu Darya and Panj River, Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff (water), runoff for the Aral Sea. There are over 900 rivers in Tajikistan longer than 10 kilometres.


Administrative divisions

Tajikistan consists of 4 administrative divisions. These are the provinces (viloyat) of Sughd and Khatlon, the autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, Gorno-Badakhshan (abbreviated as GBAO), and the Region of Republican Subordination (RRP – Raiony Respublikanskogo Podchineniya in Romanization of Russian, transliteration from Russian or NTJ – Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ in Tajik; formerly known as Karotegin Province). Each region is divided into several Districts of Tajikistan, districts ( tg, Ноҳия, ''nohiya'' or ''raion''), which in turn are subdivided into ''Jamoats of Tajikistan, jamoats'' (village-level self-governing units) and then villages (''Qyshloqs of Tajikistan, qyshloqs''). , there were 58 districts and 367 jamoats in Tajikistan.


Lakes

About 2% of the country's area is covered by lakes, the best known of which are the following: *Kayrakkum Reservoir, Kayrakum (Qairoqqum) Reservoir (Sughd) *Iskanderkul (Fann Mountains) *Kulikalon Lakes, Kulikalon (Kul-i Kalon) (Fann Mountains) *Nurek Dam, Nurek Reservoir (Khatlon) *Karakul (Tajikistan), Karakul (Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyz: ''Кара-Көл''; eastern Pamir Mountains, Pamir) *Sarez Lake, Sarez (Pamir Mountains, Pamir) *Shadau Lake (Pamir Mountains, Pamir) *Zorkul (Pamir Mountains, Pamir)


Biodiversity

Tajikistan contains five terrestrial ecoregions: Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe, Gissaro-Alai open woodlands, Pamir alpine desert and tundra, Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert, and Paropamisus xeric woodlands.


Economy

In 2019, nearly 29% of Tajikistan's GDP came from immigrant
remittances A remittance is a non-commercial Wire transfer, transfer of money by a Migrant worker, foreign worker, a member of a diaspora community, or a Citizenship, citizen with familial ties abroad, for household income in their home country or homeland. ...
(mostly from Tajiks working in Russia), one of the highest rates in the world. The current economic situation remains fragile, largely owing to corruption, uneven economic reforms, and economic mismanagement. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon remittances from migrant workers overseas and exports of aluminium and cotton, the economy is highly vulnerable to external shocks. In FY 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, which helped keep the peace. International assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. On 21 August 2001, the Red Cross announced that a famine was striking Tajikistan, and called for international aid for Tajikistan and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
; however, access to food remains a problem today. In January 2012, 680,152 of the people living in Tajikistan were living with food insecurity. Out of those, 676,852 were at risk of Phase 3 (Acute Food and Livelihoods Crisis) food insecurity, and 3,300 were at risk of Phase 4 (Humanitarian Emergency). Those with the highest risk of food insecurity were living in the remote Murghob District of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, GBAO. Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The GDP of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of 2000–2007 according to the World Bank data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), which seem to have degraded economically ever since. The primary sources of income in Tajikistan are
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers. Cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output, supporting 75% of the rural population, and using 45% of irrigated arable land. The aluminium industry is represented by the state-owned Tajik Aluminum Company – the biggest aluminium plant in Central Asia and one of the biggest in the world. Tajikistan's rivers, such as the Vakhsh River, Vakhsh and the Panj River, Panj, have great hydropower potential, and the government has focused on attracting investment for projects for internal use and electricity exports. Tajikistan is home to the Nurek Dam, the second highest dam in the world. Lately, Russia's RAO UES energy giant has been working on the Sangtuda-1 hydroelectric power station (670 MW capacity) commenced operations on 18 January 2008. Other projects at the development stage include Sangtuda-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by the Chinese company SinoHydro, and the Rogun Dam, Rogun power plant that, at a projected height of , would supersede the Nurek Dam as highest in the world if it is brought to completion. A planned project, CASA-1000, will transmit 1000 MW of surplus electricity from Tajikistan to Pakistan with power transit through Afghanistan. The total length of transmission line is 750 km while the project is planned to be on Public-Private Partnership basis with the support of WB, IFC, ADB and IDB. The project cost is estimated to be around US$865 million. Other energy resources include sizeable coal deposits and smaller, relatively unexplored reserves of natural gas and petroleum. In 2014 Tajikistan was the world's most remittance-dependent economy with remittances accounting for 49% of GDP and expected to fall by 40% in 2015 due to the economic crisis in the Russian Federation. Tajik migrant workers abroad, mainly in the Russian Federation, have become by far the main source of income for millions of Tajikistan's people and with the 2014–2015 downturn in the Russian economy the World Bank has predicted large numbers of young Tajik men will return home and face few economic prospects. According to some estimates about 20% of the population lives on less than US$1.25 per day. Migration from Tajikistan and the consequent remittances have been unprecedented in their magnitude and economic impact. In 2010, remittances from Tajik labour migrants totalled an estimated $2.1 billion US dollars, an increase from 2009. Tajikistan has achieved transition from a planned to a market economy without substantial and protracted recourse to aid (of which it by now receives only negligible amounts), and by purely market-based means, simply by exporting its main commodity of comparative advantage — cheap labour. The World Bank Tajikistan Policy Note 2006 concludes that remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's economic growth during the past several years, have increased incomes, and as a result helped significantly reduce poverty. Drug trafficking is the major illegal source of income in Tajikistan as it is an important transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; some opium poppy is also raised locally for the domestic market. However, with the increasing assistance from international organisations, such as UNODC, and co-operation with the US, Russian, EU and Afghan authorities a level of progress on the fight against illegal drug-trafficking is being achieved. Tajikistan holds third place in the world for heroin and raw opium confiscations (1216.3 kg of heroin and 267.8 kg of raw opium in the first half of 2006). Drug money corrupts the country's government; according to some experts the well-known personalities that fought on both sides of the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
and have held the positions in the government after the armistice was signed are now involved in the drug trade. UNODC is working with Tajikistan to strengthen border crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams. It also helped to establish Tajikistani Drug Control Agency. Tajikistan is also an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Besides Russia, China is one of the major economic and trade partners of Dushanbe. Tajikistan belongs to the group of countries with a high debt trap risk associated with Chinese investment within the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) meaning that excessive reliance on Chinese loans may weaken country's ability to manage its external debt in a sustainable way.


Transportation

In 2013 Tajikistan, like many of the other Central Asian countries, was experiencing major development in its transportation sector. As a landlocked country, Tajikistan has no ports and the majority of transportation is via roads, air, and rail. In recent years Tajikistan has pursued agreements with
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and Pakistan to gain port access in those countries via
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. In 2009, an agreement was made between Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to improve and build a 1,300 km (810 mi) highway and rail system connecting the three countries to Pakistan's ports. The proposed route would go through the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the eastern part of the country. And in 2012, the presidents of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran signed an agreement to construct roads and railways as well as oil, gas, and water pipelines to connect the three countries.


Rail

The railroad system totals only of track, all of it Russian gauge, broad gauge. The principal segments are in the southern region and connect the capital with the industrial areas of the Hisor and Vakhsh, Tajikistan, Vakhsh valleys and with
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. Most international freight traffic is carried by train. The recently constructed Bokhtar–Kulab, Tajikistan, Kulob railway connected the Kulob District with the central area of the country.


Air

In 2009 Tajikistan had 26 airports, 18 of which had paved runways, of which two had runways longer than 3,000 meters.CIA World Factbook
Tajikistan
/ref> The country's main airport is Dushanbe International Airport, which as of April 2015 had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, Tehran, and Ürümqi, amongst others. There are also international flights, mainly to Russia, from Khujand Airport in the northern part of the country as well as limited international services from Kulob Airport, and Bokhtar International Airport. Khorog Airport is a domestic airport and also the only airport in the sparsely populated eastern half of the country. Tajikistan has one major airline (Somon Air) and is also serviced by over a dozen foreign airlines.


Roads

The total length of roads in the country is 27,800 kilometres. Automobiles account for more than 90% of the total volume of passenger transportation and more than 80% of domestic freight transportation. Opel passenger cars are most popular. In 2004 the Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge between Afghanistan and Tajikistan was built, improving the country's access to South Asia. The bridge was built by the United States. many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe – Kulma (Chinese border), and Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways, and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob Tunnel, Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar and Chormazak. These were supported by international donor countries.


Demographics

Tajikistan has a population of 9,275,832 people, of which 70% are under the age of 30 and 35% are between the ages of 14 and 30.Tajikistan: Building a Democracy (video)
, United Nations, March 2014
Tajiks who speak Tajik (a dialect of
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
) are the main ethnic group, although there are sizeable minorities of Uzbeks and Russians, whose numbers are declining due to emigration. The Pamiris of Badakhshan, a small population of Yaghnobis, Yaghnobi people, and a sizeable minority of Isma'ilism, Ismailis are all considered to belong to the larger group of Tajiks. All citizens of Tajikistan are called Tajikistanis. In 1989, ethnic Russians in Tajikistan made up 7.6% of the population; by 1998 the proportion had reduced to approximately 0.5% following the Tajikistani Civil War which had displaced the majority of ethnic Russians. Following the end of the war, Russian emigration continued. The History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, ethnic German population of Tajikistan has also declined due to emigration: having topped at 38,853 in 1979, it has almost vanished since the collapse of the Soviet Union.


Languages

The two official languages of Tajikistan are Tajik as the state language and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
as the interethnic language, as understood in Article 2 of the Constitution: "The state language of Tajikistan shall be Tajik. Russian shall be the language of international communication." The state (national) language ( tg, забони давлатӣ, russian: государственный язык) of the Republic of Tajikistan is Tajik, which is written in the Tajik alphabet, Tajik Cyrillic alphabet. Several linguists recognise the fact that the Tajik language is a variant of the Persian language, Persian language (or Farsi). Therefore, Tajik speakers have no problems communicating with Persian speakers from
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and Dari speakers from
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. Several million native Tajik speakers also live in neighboring
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
and in Russia. According to article 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, Russian is recognized as the second official language of Tajikistan; the official language of inter-ethnic communication (russian: язык межнационального общения; tg, забони муоширати байни миллатҳо) in the country. Russian had previously lost its official status after Tajikistan's independence in late 1991, which was then restored with the Constitution. Approximately 90% of the population of Tajikistan speaks Russian at various levels. The varieties of Russian spoken in Tajikistan are referred to by scholars as ''Russian_dialects#Tajikistani_Russian, Tajik(istani) Russian'' and it shares some similarities with ''Uzbek(istani) Russian'', such as morphological differences and the lexical differences like the use of words ''урюк'' for a wild apricot or ''кислушка'' for rhubarb. Previously, from the creation of the Tajikistan SSR until Tajik became the official language of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, Tajikistan Soviet Socialist Republic on July 22, 1989, the only official language of the republic was the Russian language, and the Tajik language had only the status of the “national language”. Both Russian and Tajik speakers in the country use the following words in common in address to unfamiliar people and acquaintances. The highly educated part of the population of Tajikistan, as well as the intelligentsia, prefer to speak Russian and Persian, the pronunciation of which in Tajikistan is called the “Iranian style”. Apart from Russian, Uzbek language, Uzbek is actually the second most widely spoken language in Tajikistan after Tajik. Native Uzbek speakers live in the north and west of Tajikistan. In fourth place (after Tajik, Russian and Uzbek) by number of native speakers are various Pamir languages, whose native speakers live in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Kuhistani Badakshshan Autonomus Region. The majority of Zoroastrians in Tajikistan speak one of the Pamir languages. Native speakers of the Kyrgyz language live in the north of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Kuhistani Badakshshan Autonomus Region. Yagnobi language speakers live in the west of the country. The Parya language of local Romani people (:ru:Среднеазиатские цыгане, Central Asian Gypsies) is also widely spoken in Tajikistan. Tajikistan also has small communities of native speakers of
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, Arabic, Pashto, Eastern Armenian, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijani, Tatar language, Tatar, Turkmen language, Turkmen, Kazakh language, Kazakh, Chinese language, Chinese, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian. Among foreign languages, the most popular is English language, English, which is taught in schools in Tajikistan as one of the foreign languages. Some young people, as well as those working in the tourism sector of Tajikistan, speak English at different levels. Of the European languages, there are also a number of native speakers of German language, German and French language, French. Many among the Uzbek population learn Turkish language, Turkish in addition to
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
.


Employment

In 2009 nearly one million Tajiks worked abroad (mainly in Russia). More than 70% of the female population lives in traditional villages.


Culture

The
Tajik language Tajik (Tajik: , , ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: , , ), Tajiki, and Tadzhiki, is the variety of Persian language, Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks, Tajik people. It is closely related to neighbouring Dari with which it ...
is the mother tongue of around 80% of the citizens of Tajikistan. The main urban centres in today's Tajikistan include
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
(the capital),
Khujand Khujand ( tg, Хуҷанд, Khujand; russian: Худжанд, Khudzhand; fa, خجند‌, Khojand), sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad (russian: Ленинабад, Leninabad; tg, Ленинобод, Leninobod; fa, لنین‌آ ...

Khujand
, Kulab, Tajikistan, Kulob,
Panjakent tg, Панҷакент , image_skyline = Pajakent Bazaar1.jpg , imagesize = , image_caption = Panjakent Bazaar , image_flag = , image_seal = , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Tajikistan#West Asia , pushpin_relief = yes , pushpin_ ...
, Bokhtar, Khorugh and Istaravshan. There are also Uzbeks, Uzbek, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz and Russians, Russian minorities. The Pamiri people of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the southeast, bordering Afghanistan and China, though considered part of the Tajik people, Tajik ethnicity, nevertheless are distinct linguistically and culturally from most Tajiks. In contrast to the mostly Sunni Muslim residents of the rest of Tajikistan, the Pamiris overwhelmingly follow the Ismaili branch of Shia Islam, and speak a number of Eastern Iranian languages, including Shughni, Rushani language, Rushani, Khufi language, Khufi and Wakhi. Isolated in the highest parts of the Pamir Mountains, they have preserved many ancient cultural traditions and folk arts that have been largely lost elsewhere in the country. The Yaghnobi people live in mountainous areas of northern Tajikistan. The estimated number of Yaghnobis is now about 25,000. Forced migrations in the 20th century decimated their numbers. They speak the Yaghnobi language, which is the only direct modern descendant of the ancient Sogdian language. Tajikistan artisans created the Dushanbe Tea House, which was presented in 1988 as a gift to the sister city of Boulder, Colorado.


Religion

Tajikistan considers itself a secular state with a constitution providing for freedom of religion. Sunni Islam of the Hanafi school has been officially recognised by the government since 2009. The government has declared two Islamic holidays, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, as state holidays. According to a US State Department release and Pew research group, the population of Tajikistan is 98% Muslim. Approximately 87%–95% of them are Sunni Islam, Sunni and roughly 3% are Shia and roughly 7% are non-denominational Muslims. The remaining 2% of the population are followers of Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodoxy, Protestantism,
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
. Many Muslims fast during Ramadan, although only about one third in the countryside and 10% in the cities observe daily prayer and dietary restrictions. Bukharan Jews had lived in Tajikistan since the 2nd century BC, but today almost none are left. In the 1940s, the Jewish community of Tajikistan numbered nearly 30,000 people. Most were Persian-speaking Bukharan Jews who had lived in the region for millennia along with Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe who resettled there in the Soviet era. The Jewish population is now estimated at less than 500, about half of whom live in Dushanbe. Relationships between religious groups are generally amicable, although there is some concern among mainstream Muslim leaders that minority religious groups undermine national unity. There is a concern for religious institutions becoming active in the political sphere. The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP), a major combatant in the Tajikistan Civil War, 1992–1997 Civil War and then-proponent of the creation of an State religion#Islamic states, Islamic state in Tajikistan, constitutes no more than 30% of the government by statute. Membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir, a militant Islamic party which today aims for an overthrow of secular governments and the unification of Tajiks under one Islamic state, is illegal and members are subject to arrest and imprisonment. Numbers of large mosques appropriate for Friday prayers are limited and some feel this is discriminatory. By law, religious communities must register by the State Committee on Religious Affairs (SCRA) and with local authorities. Registration with the SCRA requires a charter, a list of 10 or more members, and evidence of local government approval prayer site location. Religious groups that do not have a physical structure are not allowed to gather publicly for prayer. Failure to register can result in large fines and closure of a place of worship. There are reports that registration on the local level is sometimes difficult to obtain. People under the age of 18 are also barred from public religious practice. As of January 2016, as part of an "anti-radicalisation campaign", police in the Khatlon region reportedly shaved the beards of 13,000 men and shut down 160 shops selling the hijab. Shaving beards and discouraging women from wearing hijab is part of a government campaign targeting trends that are deemed "alien and inconsistent with Tajik culture", and "to preserve secular traditions". Today, approximately 1.6% of the population in Tajikistan is Christianity, Christian, mostly Russian Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christians. The territory of Tajikistan is part of the :ru:Душанбинская епархия, Dushanbe and Tajikistan Diocese of the :ru:Среднеазиатский митрополичий округ, Central Asian Metropolitan District of the Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Moscow Patriarchate. The country is also home to communities of Catholic Church, Catholics, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Christians, Protestantism, Protestants, Lutheranism, Lutherans, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptists, Mormons, and Adventists.


Health

Despite repeated efforts by the Tajik government to improve and expand health care, the system remains among the most underdeveloped and poor, with severe shortages of medical supplies. The state's Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare reported that 104,272 disabled people are registered in Tajikistan (2000). This group of people suffers most from poverty in Tajikistan. The government of Tajikistan and the World Bank considered activities to support this part of the population described in the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Public expenditure on health was at 1% of the GDP in 2004. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 69 years in 2020. The infant mortality rate was approximately 30.42 deaths per 1,000 children in 2018. In 2014, there were 2.1 physicians per 1,000 people, higher than any other low-income country after North Korea. Tajikistan has experienced a sharp decrease in number of per capita hospital beds following the dissolution of the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...
(since 1992), even though the number still remains relatively at 4.8 beds per 1,000 people, well above the world average of 2.7 and one of the highest among other low-income countries. According to World Bank, 96% of births are attended by skilled health staff, a figure which has risen from 66.6% in 1999. In 2010 the country experienced an outbreak of polio that caused more than 457 cases of polio in both children and adults and resulted in 29 deaths before being brought under control. In the summer of 2021 coronavirus ravaged the country, and the President of Tajikistan, Tajik president's sister reportedly died in a hospital of COVID-19. According to local media, the president's sisters sons physically assaulted the health minister and a senior doctor.


Education

Despite its poverty, Tajikistan has a list of countries by literacy rate, high rate of literacy due to the old Soviet system of free education, with an estimated 99.8% of the population having the ability to read and write. Public education in Tajikistan consists of 11 years of primary and secondary education but the government planned to implement a 12-year system in 2016. There is a relatively large number of List of universities in Tajikistan, tertiary education institutions including Khujand State University which has 76 departments in 15 faculties, Tajikistan State University of Law, Business, & Politics, Khorugh State University, Agricultural University of Tajikistan, Tajik National University, and several other institutions. Most, but not all, universities were established during the Soviet Era. tertiary education enrollment was 17%, significantly below the sub-regional average of 37%,Education in Tajikistan
. unicef.org
although higher than any other low-income country after Syria. Many Tajiks left the education system due to low demand in the labour market for people with extensive educational training or professional skills. Public spending on education was relatively constant between 2005–2012 and fluctuated from 3.5% to 4.1% of GDP significantly below the OECD average of 6%. The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
reported that the level of spending was "severely inadequate to meet the requirements of the country's high-needs education system." According to a UNICEF-supported survey, about 25 percent of girls in Tajikistan fail to complete compulsory primary education because of poverty and gender bias, although literacy is generally high in Tajikistan. Estimates of out of school children range from 4.6% to 19.4% with the vast majority being girls. In September 2017, the University of Central Asia launched its second campus in Khorog, Tajikistan, offering majors in Earth & Environmental Sciences and Economics. Tajikistan was ranked 109th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 100th in 2019.


Sport

The national sport of Tajikistan is gushtigiri, a form of traditional wrestling. Another popular sport is buzkashi, a game played on horseback, like polo. Buzkashi may be played as an individual sport and as a team sport. The aim of the game is to grab a 50 kg dead goat, ride clear of the other players, get back to the starting point and drop it in a designated circle. It is also practised in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. It is often played at Nowruz celebrations. Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports, such as hill-climbing, mountain biking, rock climbing, skiing, snowboarding, hiking, and mountain climbing. The facilities are limited, however. Mountain climbing and hiking tours to the Fann and Pamir Mountains, including the 7,000 m peaks in the region, are seasonally organised by local and international alpine agencies. Association football, Football is the most popular sport in Tajikistan. It is governed by the Tajikistan Football Federation. The Tajikistan national football team competes in FIFA and Asian Football Confederation, AFC competitions. The top clubs in Tajikistan compete in the Tajik League. The Tajikistan Cricket Federation was formed in 2012 as the governing body for the sport of cricket in Tajikistan. It was granted affiliate membership of the Asian Cricket Council in the same year. Rugby union in Tajikistan is a minor but growing sport. In 2008, the sport was officially registered with the Ministry of Justice (Tajikistan), Ministry of Justice, and there are currently 3 men's clubs. Four Tajikistani athletes have won Olympic medals for their country since independence. They are: wrestler Yusup Abdusalomov (Wrestling at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 84 kg, silver in Beijing 2008), judoka Rasul Boqiev (Judo at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 73 kg, bronze in Beijing 2008), boxer Mavzuna Chorieva (Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Women's lightweight, bronze in London 2012) and hammer thrower Dilshod Nazarov (Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's hammer throw, gold in Rio de Janeiro 2016). Khorugh, capital of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, is the location of highest altitude where bandy has been played. Tajikistan has also one ski resort, called Safed Dara (formerly ''Takob''), near the town of Varzob.


See also

*2006 Tajikistan earthquake *Central Asian Union *
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
*Foreign relations of Tajikistan *Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province *Index of Tajikistan-related articles *Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston *Kingdom of Balhara *List of cities in Tajikistan *LGBT rights in Tajikistan *Mount Imeon *Outline of Tajikistan *Russian Turkistan *Telecommunications in Tajikistan *Yaghnob Valley


References



Further reading

* Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzadeh,
Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan
', 3rd. ed., Rowman & Littlefield, 2018. * Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Frederic Grare, eds., ''Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence'', Routledge, 1998. * Richard Foltz, ''A History of the Tajiks: Iranians of the East'', London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019. * Robert Middleton, Huw Thomas and Markus Hauser, ''Tajikistan and the High Pamirs'', Hong Kong: Odyssey Books, 2008 (). * Nahaylo, Bohdan and Victor Swoboda. ''Soviet Disunion: A History of the Nationalities problem in the USSR'' (1990
excerpt
* Kirill Nourdhzanov and Christian Blauer, ''Tajikistan: A Political and Social History'', Canberra: ANU E-Press, 2013. * Rashid, Ahmed. ''The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism?'' (2017) * Smith, Graham, ed. ''The Nationalities Question in the Soviet Union'' (2nd ed. 1995) * Monica Whitlock, ''Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia'', New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003. * Poopak NikTalab. Sarve Samarghand (Cedar of Samarkand), continuous interpretation of Rudaki's poems, Tehran 2020, Faradid Publications * Sharma, Raj Kumar, "Food Security and Political Stability in Tajikistan", New Delhi, Vij Books, 2018.


External links


Tajikistan
at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
Tajikistan
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
Tajikistan profile
from the BBC News *
Key Development Forecasts for Tajikistan
from International Futures {{Authority control Tajikistan, Central Asian countries Iranian countries and territories Landlocked countries Member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the United Nations Persian-speaking countries and territories Russian-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1991 1991 establishments in Asia Countries in Asia Member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation